Civil Rights

Chapter 29 Civil Rights Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African Americans. But disagreements among civil rights groups lead to a violent period for the civil rights movement. Civil Rights Section 1

Taking on Segregation Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Section 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement Section 1

Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. Use your analyzing skills! Taking on Segregation The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson Civil Rights Act of 1875 act outlawed segregation

In 1883, all-white Supreme Court declares Act unconstitutional 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal constitutional Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites Taking on Segregation The Segregation System Segregation Continues into the 20th Century

After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape racism North: housing in all-black areas, whites resent job competition A Developing Civil Rights Movement WW II creates job opportunities for African Americans Need for fighting men makes armed forces end discriminatory policies FDR ends government, war industries discrimination Returning black veterans fight for civil rights at home Taking on Segregation Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy

Professor Houston leads NAACP legal campaign Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall - win 29 out of 32 cases argued before Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education Marshalls greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation Taking on Segregation Reaction to the Brown

Decision Resistance to School Desegregation Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist Court hands Brown II, orders desegregation at all deliberate speed Eisenhower initially refuses to have the govt. intervene with troops; considers it impossible to change how people think with force Eisenhower Finally decides to FEDERALIZE The Arkansas National Guard and send in US Paratoopers to protect the nine students all year long. Taking on Segregation The Montgomery Bus Boycott

Boycotting Segregation 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus Montgomery Improvement Association formed, organizes bus boycott Elect 26-year-old Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. leader Walking for Justice African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk Get support from black community, outside groups, sympathetic whites 1956, Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation Taking on Segregation

Martin Luther King and the SCLC Changing the World with Soul Force King calls his brand of nonviolent resistance soul force - civil disobedience, massive demonstrations King remains nonviolent in face of violence after Brown decision From the Grassroots Up King, others found Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow

Students Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Taking on Segregation The Movement Spreads Demonstrating for Freedom SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy Influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to use sit-ins: - refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served

First sit-in at Greensboro, NC Woolworths shown nationwide on TV In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states Think about this for a second DO mass protests help change things? Would you take part in one? What issue MIGHT get you to march? Section 2

The Triumphs of a Crusade Civil rights activists break through racial barriers. Their activism prompts landmark legislation. Civil Rights Photo Analysis The Triumphs of a Crusade Riding for Freedom COREs Freedom Rides 1961, CORE tests Court decision banning interstate

bus segregation in waiting rooms Freedom ridersblacks, whites sit, use station facilities together Riders brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus fire bombed New Volunteers Bus companies refuse to continue carrying CORE freedom riders SNCC volunteers replace CORE riders; are violently stopped

Robert Kennedy pressures bus company to continue transporting riders The Triumphs of a Crusade Riding for Freedom Arrival of Federal Marshals Alabama officials dont give promised protection; mob attacks riders Newspapers throughout nation denounce beatings JFK sends 400 U.S. marshals to protect riders Attorney general, Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) act:

- bans segregation in all interstate travel facilities The Triumphs of a Crusade Standing Firm Integrating Ole Miss 1962, federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at U of MS Governor Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith register JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrars office Barnett makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot

Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parents The Triumphs of a Crusade Standing Firm Heading into Birmingham April 1963, SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham King arrested, writes Letter from Birmingham Jail TV news show police attacking child marchersfire hoses, dogs, clubs Continued protests, economic boycott, bad press end

segregation in Birmingham Kennedy Takes a Stand June, JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate U of AL NAACPs Medgar Evers murdered; hung juries lead to killers release Marching on Washington The Dream of Equality August 1963, over 250,000 people converge on Washington DC Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill

King gives I Have a Dream speech More Violence September, 4 Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into church LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, gender - Fighting for Voting Rights Freedom Summer Freedom Summer CORE, SNCC hold project to

register blacks to vote in MS Volunteers beaten, 3 are killed; businesses, homes, churches burned A New Political Party Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party formed to get seat in MS party Fannie Lou Hamervoice of MFDP at National Conventionwins support speaking of her experiences trying to vote LBJ fears losing Southern white vote, pressures leaders

to compromise MFDP and SNCC supporters feel betrayed Fighting for Voting Rights The Selma Campaign 1965, voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, AL King leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25,000 people Voting Rights Act of 1965 Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of 1965

Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enroll voters Increases black voter enrollment Section 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement Disagreements among civil rights groups and the rise of black nationalism create a violent period in the fight for civil rights. African Americans seek Greater Equality Northern Segregation

De facto segregation exists by practice, custom; problem in North (racist jokes, cartoons etc.) De jure segregation is segregation required by law WW II black migration to Northern cities results in white flight 1960s, most urban blacks live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances Black unemployment twice as high as white

Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officers African Americans seek Greater Equality Urban Violence Erupts Mid-1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians - many result in riots Many whites baffled by African-American rage Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, education Money for War on Poverty, Great Society redirected to Vietnam War

New Leaders Voice Discontent African-American Solidarity Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocate blacks separate from whites - believe whites source of black problems Malcolm Xcontroversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black Muslims Ballots or Bullets? Pilgrimage to Mecca changes Malcolm Xs attitude

toward whites Splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving speech New Leaders Voice Discontent Black Power CORE, SNCC become more militant; SCLC pursues traditional tactics

Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power: - African Americans control own lives, communities, without whites Black Panthers Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self-sufficiency Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; have violent confrontations with police

Provide social services in ghettos, win popular support 1968- A Turning Point in Civil Rights Kings Death King objects to Black Power movement, preaching of violence Seems to sense own death in Memphis speech to striking workers James Earl Ray shoots him on April 4, 1968 Reactions to Kings Death Kings death leads to worst urban rioting in U.S. history - over 100 cities affected

Robert Kennedy assassinated two months later Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement Causes of Violence Kerner Commission names racism as main cause of urban violence Civil Rights Gains Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing

More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs Greater pride in racial identity leads to Black Studies programs More African-American participation in movies, television Increased voter registration results in more black elected officials Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement Unfinished Work Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support

White flight reverses much progress toward school integration Unemployment, poverty higher than for whites Affirmative action extra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups (have a quota of African Americans on staff or in colleges) 1960s, colleges, companies doing government business adopt policy Late 1970s, some criticize policy as reverse discrimination Comparison!

Use your notes (and if needed outside resources) create a Venn Diagram. Compare and Contrast the 2 Civil Rights leaders we have discussed (Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X) Provide at least 4 details for each

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