Classical Mythology

Classical Mythology

Classical Mythology PowerPoint Outlines Part One The Myths of Creation The Gods Chapter 1: Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mytholog Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology The Problem of Defining Myth The Meaning of myth Mythos: tale or story True myth or myth proper Saga or legend Folktale Myth, Sage or Legend, and folktale Myth: primarily concerned with the gods and the relations with mortals Saga or Legend: containing a kernel of historical truth and focusing upon the adventures of a hero Folktale: including elements of elements of the fantastic and magical Myth and Truth Myth and Religion

Mircea Eliade Myth and Etiology Aitia: cause or reason for a fact, ritual practice, institution Rationalism, Metaphor, and Allegory Euhemerism: rationalization of myth attributed to Euhemerus (ca. 300 B. C.) Allegory: a sustained metaphor Allegorical nature Myths: explanations of meteorological and cosmological phenomena; Max Mller Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology Myth and Psychology Freud Oedipus Complex Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannos Electra Complex Dreams and dream-work Jung Collective Unconscious Archetypes Myth and Society Myth an d Ritual J. G. Frazer The Golden Bough

Jane Harrison Robert Graves Myth as Social Charters Bronislav Malinowski Anthropologist Tobriand islanders Myths as charters of social customs and beliefs Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology The Structuralists Claude Lvi-Strauss Binary structure Negotiation and resolution of opposites Vladamir Propp Russian folklorist Analysis of recurrent pattern 31 motifemes : functions or units of action Walter Burkert Patterns of motifemes broken down to five: 1. The girl leaves home. 2. The girl is secluded. 3. She becomes pregnant by god. 4. She suffers. 5. She is rescued and gives birth to a son.

Synthesis of structuralist and historical viewpoints Historical dimension of myth Four theses 1. Myth belongs to the more general class of tradition tales. 2. The identity of a traditional tale is to be found in a structure of sense within the tale itself. 3. Tale structures, as a sequence of motifemes, are founded on basic biological or cultural progams of actions. 4. Myth is a traditional tale with secondary, partial reference to something of collective importance. Comparative Study and Classical Mythology Oral and Literary Myth Joseph Campbell Interpretation and Definition of Classical Mythology Feminism, Homosexuality, and Mythology Feminism Women in Greek society 1.Women were citizens of their communities, unlike non-citizens and slaves-a very meaningful distinction. They did not have the right to vote. No woman

anywhere won this democratic right until 1920. 2. The role of women in religious rituals was fundamental; and they participated in many festivals of their own, from which men were excluded. 3. Womens education was dependent on her future role in society, her status or class, and her individual needs (as was that of a man). 4. The cloistered, illiterate, and oppressed creatures often adduced as representative of the status of women in antiquity are at variance with the testimony of all the sources, literary, artistic, and archaeological. The Theme of Rape Homosexuality Some Conclusions and a Definition of Classical Myth A classic myth is a story that, through its classical form, has attained a kind of immortality because its inherent archetypal beauty, profundity, and power have inspired rewarding renewal and transformation by successive generations. Chapter 2: Historical Background of Greek Mythology Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890), founder of modern archaeology Excavations at Troy, Tiryns, and Mycenae Sir Arthur Evans

Cnossus in Crete (1899) Minoan Sketch Of Early Greece and The Aegean Stone Age Paleolithic Period (before 70,000 B. C.) Neolithic Period (ca. 6000-3000 B. C.) Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 B. C.) Early Minoan Early Cycladic Early Helladic Middle Bronze Age (2000-1600 B. C.) Middle Minoan Middle Cycladic Middle Helladic Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 B. C.) Late Minoan Late Cycladic Late Helladic (Mycenaean) Paleolithic Age: inhabited, but knowledge is scanty Neolithic Age Migration for east and north of Greece Agricultural communities Female fetishes Historical Background of Greek Mythology

Minoan Civilization King Minos Zenith during Late Bronze Age (1600-1100 B. C.) Palace complexes Cnossus and Phaestus Historical/mythological traditions Minos Theseus Minotaur Labyrinth (Labrys) Bull motif End of Cretan dominance (1400 B. C.) Eruption of Thera (modern Santorini) Myth of Atlantis (Platos Critias and Timaeus) The Mycenaean Age Invasion from north and possibly east First Greek speakers Mycenae, rich in gold Cyclopean walls Lion Gate Shaft graves Tholos tombs Carl Blegen (1887-1971) Nestors Pylos

Megaron Sky-god (Zeus) Linear B Rich horde of tablets at Pylos Michael Ventris and John Chadwick (1952) Linear A Paean Potnia Historical Background of Greek Mythology Troy and the Trojan War Schliemann and Wilhelm Drpfeld: campaigns at Troy (1871-1894) Blegens work at Troy (1932-1938) Since 1988: under direction of Manfred Korfmann 9 Settlements on hill of Hisarlik Troy I (ca. 2920-2450) Troy II (ca. 2600-2450 B. C.: Schliemanns Treasure of Priam Troy VIII (ca. 700-85 B. C.) Troy IX (85-ca. A. D. 500) Troy VI and Troy VIIa Continuity of culture Evidence of human settlements linked to the Trojan War Different stages of conflict Signs of devastation

hasty burials long-weapons, piles of stones Date of destruction of VIIa (1250-1150 B. C.) Tradition date for Trojan War (1184 B. C.) Upper citadel and lower Area of habitation Commercial ties between Mycenaean Greece and Troy Troys position on the Hellespont Economic causes of conflict plausible Hittite texts Wilusa and Ilios Appaliunas and Apollo Confirmation of Homeric Geography Mycenaean cemetery on site of original coastline Historical Background of Greek Mythology End of Mycenaean Age and Homer Unsettled Conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean Destruction of Mycenaean Centers The Dorians The Sea Peoples The Dark Age Decline in population Loss of literacy Impoverished material culture

The Emergence of the Iliad and the Odyssey (eighth century B. C.) Oral tradition Homer Asia Minor (or one of the coastal islands) Epic dialect Traces of every period from Bronze Age to eighth century B. C. Invention of a True Alphabet Phoenician script Writing and its relationship to the production of Homers epics Chapter 3: Myths of Creation Parallels between Greco-Roman and Near Eastern Myths Homer Incomplete account of genesis Hesiod (ca. 700) First literary account of genesis among the Greeks (Theogony andWorks and Days) Invocation to the Muses Chaos (yawning void) Gaia/Gaea/Ge or Earth Tartarus (place beneath the earth) Eros (the procreative urge; love) Erebus (gloom of Tartarus) Night Aether (the upper atmosphere) Day

Creation Account in Ovids Metamorphoses Chaos as crude, unformed mass of elements Empedocles Four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) Hieros Gamos (sacred marriage) Gaia and Uranus Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnomosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, and Cronus Cyclopes Hecatonchires Myths of Creation Oceanus and the Oceanids Hyperion and Helius, Gods of the Sun Phathon, son of Helius Clymene Selene, Goddess of the Moon Endymion Mt. Latomus in Caria The Endymion sarcophagus Apollo, Sun-god and Artemis, Moon-Goddess Eos (Aurora), Goddess of the Dawn Tithonus

Castration of Uranus Birth of Aphrodite (foam or aphros) Cytherea Cyprogenes Cyprian Philommedes A Second Hieros Gamos: Cronus and Rhea Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus Myths of Creation The Birth of Zeus Mt. Dicte Cybele Rhea-Cybele Curetes Amalthea Amalgamation of Mycenaean and Minoan Elements Mythological Interpretations MaxMller Feminist criticism Lvi-Strauss Freudian interpretations Jungian archetypes Additional Reading

Hesiods Theogony 1-115 Chapter 4: Zeus Rise to Power: The Creation of Mortals The Titanomachy: Zeus Defeats his Father, Cronus Zeus grows to maturity Cronus disgorges Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon Zeus allies: his brothers and sisters, the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes Zeus opponents: the Titans (especially Atlas) with the exception of Themis and her son Prometheus Zeus on Mt. Olympus against Cronus on Mt. Othrys Titans imprisoned in Tartarus and Atlas condemned to hold up the sky. The Gigantomachy Gaia produces the Gegeneis (earthborn) Giants imprisoned in volcanic regions, e. g. Enceladus under Mt. Aetna in Sicily Typhoeus (or Typhaon or Typhon) Otus and Ephialtes pile up Oympus, Ossa, and Pelion. Confusion of Traditions about the Titanomachy and Gigantomachy Historical Underpinnings of Myths Process of conquest and amalgamation, when Greeks invade Greece (2000 B. C.) Creation of Mortals Traditions involving Zeus Prometheus, creator of man Ovids account The Four or Five Ages Gold, silver, bronze, iron

Hesiods inclusion of an Age of Heroes between bronze and iron The characteristics of the ages Aidos and Nemesis Zeuss Rise to Power Prometheus Against Zeus Iapetus and Clymene Epimetheus The trick of the sacrifice The theft of fire in a hollow fennel stalk The punishment of Prometheus Heracles ends Prometheus suffering Creation of Pandora Hephaestus creation Athenas role Pandora (all gifts) Pandoras jar Hermes role Epimetheus Hope alone remained within. Interpretation of the Myths of Prometheus and Pandora Ritual of sacrifice Origin of fire Culture god or culture hero

Divine trickster The nature of gods and men The nature of evil The position of woman The role of hope Zeus Rise to Power Aeschylus Prometheus Bound Strength (Kratos) and Force (Bia) Characterization of Hephaestus Zeus as tyrant Prometheus gifts to mankind Chorus of Oceanids The Story of Io Heras jealousy Argus Panoptes (all-seeing) Hermes Argeiphontes (slayer of Argus) Peacock Egypt and the birth of Epaphus The role of Io in Prometheus Bound Promise of Heracles release Prometheus secret about Thetis Zeus and Lycaon and the Wickedness of Mortals The tyrant Lycaon

Transformation into a wolf The Flood Deucalion, son of Prometheus Pyrrha, daughter or Epimetheus The bones of the mother Hellen, eponymous ancestor of the Greeks Zeuss Rise to Power Succession Myths and Other Motifs Near Eastern Parallels to Hesiods Account The Succession Myth as Archetype Enuma Elish (When on High); Babylonian Marduk Tiamat Kingship in Heaven Kumarbi Anu Persistence and Diffusion of the Flood Motif Character and Career of Zeus Circumstances of birth Infancy in seclusion Divine Child Close to nature and world of animals Obstacles and adversaries

Ultimately victorious Parallels In Myths of Greece and the Ancient Near East Five basic myths Creation Succession Flood Descent to Underworld Hero-king Gilgamesh Two periods of contact with Greece: 13th and 14th centuries; 8th and 7th centuries B. C. Sumer and Akkad Ur Cuneiform Ziggurats Zeus Rise to Power Babylon and King Hammurabi (1800 B. C.) Establishment of the Assyrian Empire Capital at Nineveh Hurrians Hittites in Anatolia Capital at Hattusas (Boghaz-Ky) Babylonian Enuma Elish Apsu and Tiamat Anu and Ea or Enki (earth-god)

Birth of Marduk Enlil Comparison of Typhoeus with Tiamat Babylonian Atrahasis Atrahasis (extra wise) Tyranny of Enlil Atrahasis survives flood Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh, ruler of Sumerian city of Uruk (ca. 2700 B. C.) Ut-napishtim Similarities with Odysseus, Heracles, and the Iliad Enkidu Ishtar The Bull of Heaven Akkadian Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld Inanna/Ishtar Dumuzi (Tammuz) Chapter 5: The Twelve Olympians: Zeus, Hera, and Their Children Zeus Establishment As Supreme God Zeus--sky Poseidon--sea Hades--underworld Pantheon of Gods

Zeus (Jupiter) Hera (Juno) Poseidon (Neptune) Hades (Pluto) Hestia (Vesta) Hephaestus (Vulcan) Ares (Mars) Apollo Artemis (Diana) Demeter (Ceres) Aphrodite (Venus) Athena (Minerva) Hermes (Mercury) Dionysus (Bacchus) Canonical twelve (with removal of Hades and Hestia) Hestia, Goddess of the Hearth and Its Fire A goddess of chastity Hearth/sacred fire Hestia (hearth) Familytribe city state Transmission of fire First-born of Cronus and Rhea The Twelve Olympians

Zeus Amorous nature Image of father, husband, and lover Justice and virtue Moral order of the universe The cloud-gatherer Bright Thunder/lightening Aegis/eagle/oak Tales of Zeus subordination Zeus and Hera Hieros Gamos Hera:consort and queen Stern, vengeful Women/marriage/childbirth Peacock Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia Elis Olympic Games, 776 B. C. Connection with Heracles Pelops and Hippodamia Temple of Zeus West pediment: Lapiths and Centaurs East pediment: race of Pelops and Oenomas Metopes: Twelve Labors of Heracles

Cult Image of Zeus carved by Pheidias Oracles at Olympia and Dodona Whispering oaks of Dodona The Twelve Olympians Children of Zeus and Hera Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth Hebe: cupbearer of gods Ganymede Hephaestus, divine artisan God of fire and forge Lame Return of Hephaestus Consort of Aphrodite Adultery with Ares Ares, God of War Cult partner: Aphrodite Thrace Eros Brutality of war Other Children of Zeus The Nine Muses Mnemosyne (memory) Patrons of literature and the arts

Pieria/Mt. Helicon Reminders Calliope (epic) Clio (history or lyre playing) Euterpe (lyric or tragedy and flute playing) Melpomene (tragedy or lyre playing) Terpsichore (choral dancing or flute playing) Erato (love poetry or hymns to gods and lyre playing) Polyhymnia (sacred music or dancing) Urania (astronomy) Thalia (comedy) The Twelve Olympians The Three Fates Zeus and Themis Moirai (Greek) or Parcae (Latin) Clotho (Spinner) Lachesis (Apportioner) Atropos (Inflexible) Luck or Fortune (Tyche) Necessity (Ananke) Chapter 6: The Nature of the Gods Anthropomorphism

Human form and character Idealization Mt. Olympus Olympian/chthonian Ambrosia/nectar/ichor Divine Hierarchy Zeus Olympian gods (and important chthonian gods) Wondrous, terrifying beings Nymphs Demigods Heroes Zeus and Monotheism Sovereignty of Zeus Moral order of universe Suppliants, hospitality, oaths Monotheistic cast View of Zeus in Religious poets and Philosophers Stern Zeus of Hesiod Xenophanes Aeschylus Agamemnon Polytheistic cast in Judeo-Christian religion The Nature of the Gods

Greek Humanism Protagoras: Man is the measure of all things. Sophocles Antigone Achilles in the Underworld (Homers Odyssey) Idealistic optimism/realistic pessimism Myth Religion and Philosophy Greeks were not a people of a religious book. Place of Homer Priests and Priestesses Legendary History of Herodotus History of the Persian Wars Story of Solon, Croesus, and Cyrus Herodotus as Mythhistorian Influence of Homer and Tragedy Atys (Ate [ruin or destruction]); links with Attis and Adonis Adrastus (the one who cannot escape); links with Nemesis or Adrasteia (Necessity) Chapter 7: Poseidon, Sea Deities, Group Divinities, and Monsters Pontus (Sea) Oceanus and TethysOceanids Pontus and GeNereus (an old man of the sea) Nereus and Doris (an Oceanid)Nereids Three Important Nereids Thetis Prophecy of Thetis son

Marriage of Peleus and Thetis Achilles Galatea Polyphemus (a cyclops) Acis, son of Faunus and Symaethis Amphitrite Consort of Poseidon Triton Conch shell Proteus Attendent of Poseidon (sometimes his son) Seer Ability to change shape Old man of the sea Appearance and character of Poseidon Stern, rough, unkempt Trident Earthshaker Male fertility of the earth; stallion and bull Poseidon Scylla and Charybdis Scylla, daughter of Phorcys and Hecate Relationship with Poseidon or Glaucus

Transformation at the hands of Amphitrite or Circe Straits of Messina Charybdis, daughter of Poseidon and Ge Whirlpool Progeny of Pontus and Ge Iris (rainbow) and Harpies (snatchers) Graeae (aged ones) Gorgons (Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa) Perseus Pegasus and Chrysaor (he of the golden sword) Ladon, guardian of the tree in the garden of the Hesperides (daughters of evening) Children of Chrysaor and Callirho Geryon and Echidna, Children of Echidna and Typhon Orthus, Cerberus, the Lernaean Hydra, and the Chimaera Children of Echidna and Orthus The Theban Sphinx and the Nemean Lion, Chapter 8: Athena Birth of Athena Zeus and Metis (wisdom) In full battle array Prowess in battle, strategy and tactics of war, goddess of the citadel, masculine virginity Sculpture of the Parthenon

Athena Parthenos (virgin) Athenian Acropolis (447 B. C.-438 B. C.) Victory over Persians East pediment Birth of Athena West pediment Contest with Poseidon over the control of Athens Doric frieze (metopes) Lapiths and Centaurs Sack of Troy Gigantomachy Greeks and Amazons Ionic frieze Panathenaea; ceremonial robe (peplos) Statue of Athena Parthenos by Pheidias Pallas Athena Tritogeneia Tritogeneia: lake Triton or Tritonis; association with Triton Pallas, daughter of Triton Palladium Pallas (maiden) Parthenos (virgin) Kore (girl) Athena and Arachne Patron of spinning and weaving

Athena Character and Appearance of Athena Weaving as symbol of cunning and human resourcefulness Fates as weavers Arete (excellence) of a women Military, political, domestic arts Wisdom/counsel Horses, ships, chariots The double flute and Marsyas In Athens worshipped with Hephaestus Warrior, aegis, Nike (victory) Glaukopis meaning gray-eyed, bright-eyed, or keen eyed? Owl, snake, olive tree Unapproachable virginity Relationships with heroes Chapter 9: Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite and castration of Uranus Aphros (foam) Cytherea, Cypris Zeus and Dione Aphrodite Urania (Celestial) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Common) The Nature and Appearance of Aphrodite Beauty, love, marriage

Importance of Praxiteles work Attendants of Aphrodite Charites (graces) Horae (hours or seasons) Phallic Priapus Aphrodite and Hermes, Dionysus, Pan, or Zeus Fertility Pygmalion Offense of Cyprian women, who became the first prostitutes Galatea Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite and Adonis Phoenician Astarte Paphos, son of Pygmalion and Galatea Cinyras and Myrrha Birth of Adonis Death of Adonis Great Mother Death and resurrection of male consort Variant: Persephone and the chest Cybele and Attis Phrygian Great Mother Bisexual

Castrationalmond tree NanaAttis Galli/Corybantes Aphrodite and Anchises Fear of emasculation Aeneas Eros Aphrodite and Eros The Symposium of Plato House of Agathon Speeches on Eros Aristophanes comic and profound myth Love as a search for completeness Socrates Speech Diotima, a woman from Mantinea Eros as intermediary Poros (resourcefulness) Penia (poverty) Pursuit of the beautiful and the good Interpretations Cupid and Psyche Apuleius (second century A. D.) Metamorphoses (orThe Golden Ass)

Elements of folktale, fairytale, and romance Platonic interpretation Sapphos Aphrodite Lesbos Devotion to Aphrodite Chapter 10: Artemis Character and Appearance of Artemis Beautiful, virginal, huntress The Birth of Artemis and Apollo Zeus and Leto Delos Goddess of childbirth Death of young girls Niobe and Her Children Hybris Transformation to stone Actaeon Callisto an d Arcas Great Bear (Arctus, or Ursa Major, or the Wain [hamaxa]) Bear Warden (Arctophylax, or Arcturus, or Botes) Little Bear (Ursa Minor) Orion Merope, daughter of Oenopion Pleiades, daughters of Atlas and Pleione, an Oceanid

Sirius (Dog Star) Origins of Artemis Fertility connections Diana or Artemis of Ephesus Artemis Artemis, Selene, and Hecate Moon-Goddess Chthonian characteristics Trivia, goddess of the crossroads Nocturnal, occult forces Artemis versus Aphrodite: Euripides Hippolytus Hippolytus, devotee of Artemis Phaedra Phaedras nurse Theseus Goddesses as psychological forces The misogyny of Hippolytus Sophronein (to be temperate) Misandry, Artemis, and the Amazons Lesbian themes Other Dramatic Versions Euripides two versions; (Hippolytus Stephanephoros) Senecas (d. A. D. 65) Phaedra

Jean Racines Phdra (1677) Eugene ONeills Desire Under the Elms (1924) Robinson Jeffers The Cretan Women (1954) Mary Renaults The Bull from the Sea Additional Reading Scenes from Euripides Hippolytus Chapter 11: Apollo The Birth of Apollo Zeus and Leto The Homeric Hymn to Apollo To Delian Apollo Apollo and Delph Pythian Apollo, god of Delphi Crisa under Mt. Parnassus Slaying of Pytho Pytho (I rot.) Ge-Themis Omphalos (navel) Cretan sailors and the connection with the dolphin Apollo Delphinius Panhellenic Sanctuary Pythian games The Oracle and the Pythia at Delphi The Pythia, priestess of Apollo

Tripod Oracular utterancesEpic meter (dactylic hexameter) Castalian Spring Apollo Loxias Socrates and the Delphic Oracle Apollo The Cumaean Sibyl Sibyl and Sibylla Aeneas in the Underworld, Vergils Aeneid, Book 6 Sibylline Books Apollo and Cassandra Apollo and Marpessa Idas Apollo and Cyrene Aristaeus Apollo and Daphne Daphne (laurel) Apollo and Hyacinthus Apollo, Coronis, and Ascelpius God of medicine Raven, Apollos bird Asclepius trained by Chiron Machaon and Hygeia or Hygieia (health), children of Asclepius

Asclepius and Hippolytus Euripides Alcestis Apollo and the Cyclopes Servitude to Admetus, king of Pherae Thanatos (death) Heracles Apollo Apollos Musical Contest with Marsyas Apollos Musical Contest with Pan King Midas of Phrygia Mt. Tmolus The Nature of Apollo Violence and restraint Good shepherd/sun-god Apollonian/Dionysian Chapter 12: Hermes The Birth and Childhood of Hermes Zeus and Maia, one of the Pleiades Argephontes (slayer of Argus) Mt. Cyllene/Arcadia Invention of lyre Theft of cattle

Confrontation between Apollo and Hermes Reconciliation mediated by Zeusgift of lyre to Apollo The Nature of Hermes and His Worship Cleverness God of thieves, merchants, youths Divine trickster Pastoral/musical Divine messenger Travelers hat (petasus) Sandals (ttalaria) Heralds staff (caduceus) Guide of souls (psychopompos) God of boundaries or the transgression of boundaries Herms: boundary markers/fertility Mutilation of the Herms (415 B. C) Hermes Trismegistus and the Hermetica Hermaphroditus and Salmacis Chapter 13: Dionysus, Pan, Echo, and Narcissus The Birth, Childhood, and Origins of Dionysus Dionysus (Bacchus) Semele, daughter of Cadmus Nymphs of Nysa Ino, sister of Semele Origins in Thrace/Phrygia

The Bacchae of Euripides God of vegetationthe vine/grape/wine Agave, sister of Semele Pentheus, son of Agave Cadmus, grandfather of Pentheus and retired king Tiresias, priest of traditional religion Pentheus as adversary of god Pentheus as sacrificial victim Cadmus and Harmoniaserpents Harry Partchs Revelation in the Courthouse Park, an American Bacchae Other Opponents of Dionysus Daughters of Proetus, king of Tiryns Melampus, a famous seer Daughters of MinyasBats Hippasus Lycurgus of Thrace Dionysus The Nature of Dionysus, His Retinue, and His Religion Ecstatic spiritual release through music and dance Entheos: Possession by god Sparagmos: rending of animal Omophagia: eating of raw flesh Ritual communion

Thiasus : sacred band of the god Bacchae or Maenads Satyrs Thyrsus: wand wreathed with ivy and topped with pine cone Sileni; Papposileni (older sileni); Silenus and King Midas Connection with Great Mother; Rhea and Cybele Union with Ariadne Variant of Dionysus birth Zeus and Persephone Zagreus Role of the Titans Creation of human beings Dionysus Dionysus and Icarius and Erigone Dionysus Gift to Midas of the Golden Touch Pactolus Dionysus and the Pirates The Dionysiaca of Nonnus Pan Syrinx (panpipe) Echo Panic Son of Hermes and Dryope

Echo and Narcissus Narcissism Freud Chapter 14: Demeter and the Eleusinian Mysteries The Myth of Demeter and Persephone Abduction by Hades Hecate and Helius Demeters grief, anger and retaliation Demeter comes to Eleusis and the palace of Celeus. The Maiden Well Queen Metaneira Iambe Demeter breaks her fast. Demeter Nurses Demphon. Hades and Persephone and her eating of the pomegranate Demeters ecstatic reunion with Persephone Demeter restores fertility and establishes the Mysteries. The Interpretation of the Hymn Death and rebirth of vegetation Spiritual metaphor or allegory Kore (girl) Hades (Pluto or Dis among the Romans) Triptolemus

Demeter Eleusinian Mysteries Special position of Athens Initiates Secrecy of rites Mystery religions Connection with Orpheus Rituals Nine day interval Fasting Torches Jests Kykeon: drink of barley and water Resting at the Maiden Well Revelation of divinity Stages of initiaion Lesser Mysteries: preliminary to initiation Greater Mysteries: full initiation Participation in the highest mysteries Hierophant (one who shows the sacred thing) Hiera (sacred things) Procession Iacchus and Dionysus Stages of Greater Mysteries

Dramatic enactment of myth Revelation of sacred objects Utterance of certain words The Final revelation: the hiera The role of Dionysus The role of Orpheus Mystery religions and state cult Archon Basileus: Athenian religious official Triumph of Matriarchy Chapter 15: Views of the Afterlife: The Realm of Hades Homers Book of the Dead (the Odyssey, Book 11) Tiresias Anticlea Heroes Agamemnon Achilles Ajax Heroines Tormented sinners Heracles Difficulties of interpretation Position of heroes Elpenor Place for extraordinary sinners

Platos Myth of Er The Republic Vision of Er Ardiaeus Cycle of one thousand years Chain of being Necessity (Ananke) Harmony of the spheres The Fates or Moirai Lachesis, Clotho, and Atropos Choice of souls River of Forgetfulness (Lethe) Pythagorean/Orphic elements Platos Phaedo Views of the Afterlife Vergils Book of the Dead (the Aeneid, Book 6) Aeneas Cumaean Sibyl Golden Bough Burial of Misenus Tree of empty dreams Fabulous creatures Charon

Cerberus Untimely Dead Mourning Fields Dido, queen of Carthage Field of renowned heroes Dephobus Tartarus Tityus Sisyphus Titans Otis and Ephialtes Salmoneus Theseus and Perithos Phlegyas Ixion Elysian Fields/Elysium Anchises Vision of illustrious Romans Gates of Ivory and Horn Views of the Afterlife Traditional Elements of Hades Realm Tartarus or Erebus Elysium or Elysian Fields

Islands of the Blessed Three Judges: Minos, Rhadamanthys (or Rhadamanthus), and Aeacus Rivers: Styx (River of Hate), Acheron (River of Woe), Lethe (River of Forgetfulness), Cocytus (River of Wailing), Pyriphlegethon or Phlegethon (River of Fire) Charon and his fare Hermes Psychopompus Cerberus Hades, king of Underworld (Pluto or Dis) Orcus (the place that confines) Chthonian Tityus Ixion Danads Sisyphus Tantalus Hecate Furies (Erinyes): Allecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone; avengers of blood guilt, especially within the family Orestes The Eumenides (kindly ones) The Universality of Greek and Roman Concepts The Italian poet Dante (1265-1321) The Inferno

Vergil as guide Chapter 16: Orpheus and Orphism: Mystery Religions in Roman T Orpheus and Eurydice Variant tradition Vergils Georgics, Book 4 Aristaeus Life of Orpheus, Religious Poet and Musician Origins in Thrace His mother was one of the Muses, usually Calliope. His father is either Oeagrus, a river-god, or Apollo. Orpheus falls in love with Eurydice, a Dryad. Orpheus as an Argonaut Musaeus, Orpheus son or pupil Death of Orpheus Women of Thrace/Maenads Survival of head and lyre in Lesbos Apollonian and Dionysian elements Orphic Hymns Orpheus The Orphic Bible Chronus (Time) as first principleAether, Chaos, and Erebus

Adrasteia (Necessity) The Cosmic EggPhanes, known by many names, including ErosNight Phanes and NightGaea (Earth) and Uranus (Heaven)TitansCronusZeus Zeus swallows Phanes and all creation. Zeus becomes the One, the beginning and end. Zeus and PersephoneDionysus (Zagreus) Tenets of Belief Purity of soul Corruption o f body Original sin Transmigration of soul Purification Apotheosis Union with divine spirit Connections with mystery religions Orpheus Mystery Religions in Roman Times Syncretism : harmonizing of different cults and myths into some sort of unity Mysteries of Demeter at Eleusis Mysteries of Cybele and Attis Taurobolium: shedding of the blood of the bull Mysteries of the Cabiri of Samothrace Theoi Megaloi (great gods)

Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux Mysteries of Mithras (Mithra) Persian god of light and truth Mithraea or underground chapels Tauroctony (slaying of the bull) Officers, soldiers, and sailors Initiation o f men Communal meal Mysteries of Atargatis or Dea Syria, the Syrian Goddess Consort Tammuz or Dushara Marriage to Hadad, thunder-god Association with Syrian Baal, Greek Zeus, and Roman Jupiter Mysteries of Isis Goddess of rertility Osiris dismembered by Seth Horus The Sistrum or rattle The Situla or breast-shaped container for milk Jug of Nile water Associated with Serapis Apuleius Metamorphoses (or The Golden Ass) Lucius initiated into the Mysteries of Isis Isis connected with Cybele, Athena, Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter, Persephone, and Hera

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    Word-for-Word Notes. Our Lost Constitution. The Const. guides the country—needs to be followed by gov. & people. No following, no Const. Federalism & separation of powers— fundamental to the system.
  • Resucitación Cerebral Avanzada

    Resucitación Cerebral Avanzada

    Arial Times New Roman Arial Narrow Albertus Medium 굴림 Tahoma Monotype Sorts Verdana Wingdings Medslides Diseño predeterminado 1_Diseño predeterminado 2_Diseño predeterminado 3_Diseño predeterminado 4_Diseño predeterminado 5_Diseño predeterminado 6_Diseño predeterminado 7_Diseño predeterminado 8_Diseño predeterminado 9_Diseño ...


    Breakfast includes entrée plus one serving of juice, one serving of fruit and milk. We offer a variety of whole grain cereal daily. FOR . SUPER FAST. FREE & REDUCED MEALS APPLICATION PROCESSING, APPLY ON-LINE! IT'S EASY! Go to:
  • Harvard Bibliography -

    Harvard Bibliography -

    Harvard bibliography does . NOT . use footnotes/endnotes. Referencing Is Important!! It allows the reader (examiner) to judge the quality of your arguments and the evidence (your sources) on which they are based. You show these sources to the reader/examiner...
  • First Year: Exam Talk

    First Year: Exam Talk

    Preparing You should go to the exam knowing the subject AND knowing what you will be expected to do What is expected The lecturer sets the questions The lecturer posts the exam rubric on the module's Blackboard site The lecturer...