Classification - Home - Social Circle City Schools

Classification - Home - Social Circle City Schools

Classification Shoe activity Take one shoe off and place in big

group in the room Now group the shoes Classification

The grouping of organisms based on similarities. Allows us to study relationships between species. Helps us assign names to organisms.

7 Levels of Classification (Largest to Smallest)

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus

Species History of Classification and Taxonomy

Taxonomy: the science of naming and classifying organisms. Aristotle: classified organisms into two groups Plants and Animals The 6 Kingdoms Today we have a 6 Kingdom System:

Archaebacteria Prokaryotes, unicellular, most ancient Eubacteria Prokaryotes, unicellular, most modern

bacteria Protista Eukaryotes, most unicellular some multicellular, autotrophs and heterotrophs Fungi Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotrophs, Plantae Eukaryotes, multicellular, autotrophs Animalia Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotrophs Autotroph

Heterotroph Heterotroph & Autotroph Heterotroph

Carlous Linnaeus Swedish botanist who developed the naming system for classifying organisms. Used physical and structural

characteristics to classify organisms. Binomial Nomenclature System used universally for naming organisms.

Each name consists of two words (Genus and Species) First word capitalized Second word lower-case Both word written in italics Ex: Ursus arctos- Scientific Name

(Genus) (species) Common name is Grizzly Bear. Another Example of Naming

Acer rubrum (Red maple) Acer = genus including all maple trees rubrum = red How are taxonomic relationships determined?

Structural similarities Potential to mate Geographical distribution Chromosomes - # and structure Biochemistry DNA base sequence Evolutionary relationship in the fossil record (phylogeny)

Dichotomous Key Chart of paired statements used to identify an organism

EXAMPLE: 1. A. Body kitelike in shape (if viewed from above).......... Go to statement 12 B. Body not kitelike in shape (if viewed from above).........Go to statement 2 2. A. Pelvic fin absent and nose sawlike ........................Family Pristophoridae B. Pelvic fin present ....................................................Go to

statement 3 3. A. Six gill slits present ...............................................Family Hexanchidae B. Five gill slits present .................................................Go to statement 4 4. A. Only one dorsal fin present .......................................Family Scyliorhinidae

Practice Dichotomous Key Practice worksheet Kingdoms Specifics

Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Animalia Animals are Multicellular Eukaryotic

Heterotrophs Cells lack cell walls. Vertebrate vs. Invertebrate Invertebratesanimals with no

backbone or vertebral column Vertebrates- animals with a backbone or vertebral column Vertebrate vs.

Invertebrate Invertebratesanimals with no backbone or vertebral column

Vertebrates- animals with a backbone or vertebral column Body Symmetry Body Terms to Know

Anterior: front end Posterior: back end Dorsal: upper side Ventral: lower side

Cephalization: concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at anterior (front) end of body Quick Quiz If an animal cell were viewed under

a microscope, what organelles would not be present in the cell? TheSPONGES!! Sponges THE PHYLA: Porifera

Phylum: Porifera Phylum Porifera (the Sponges) Porifera means pore-bearing

Main features: simplest of all animals only two cell layers (no tissues, organs, or systems) Sometimes considered a colony of cells Phylum Porifera continued

Main features: filter feeders (capture food as water flows through) sessile (attached to surface) can reproduce sexually or asexually by budding

Red Beard Sponge Quick Quiz Why are sponges classified into the Animal Kingdom?

The Cnidarians!!! Phylum Cnidaria Examples: jellyfish, anemones, corals,

hydra, man-o-wars Main features: stinging cells called nematocysts found on tentacles two cell layers plus jelly-like layer mesoglea two forms: medusa (tentacles hang down) and polyp (tentacles project

upward) Phylum Cnidaria continued Main features: radial symmetry hollow gut (digestion extracellular

and intracellular) one opening (mouth and anus yummy!) How a Cnidarian catches a meal Polyp and Medusa

Quick Quiz What is the name of the stinging cells on all cnidarians? Australias Box Jelly

The most dangerous jellyfish there is!! Phylum Platyhelminthes (Common Name: Flat Worms)

Examples: tapeworms and planaria Main features: three cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm no body cavity (acoelomate) a gastrovascular cavity (only one opening)

longitudinal muscles bilateral symmetry Planaria Tapeworm and Scolex (its head) Phylum Nematoda

(Common Name: Roundworms) Examples: hookworms, guinea worms Main features: Have 3 cell layers (same as flatworm) Have a pseudocoelom or false body cavity

Have a complete digestive tract with two openingsa mouth and an anus Longitudinal muscles run the length of their bodies Bilateral Symmetry Numerous in soil and terrible human parasites Typical Nematode

(means thread-like) Eye Worms- worm infestation of the eye, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The photo below shows the surgical removal of one example.

Ascaris Worm- mainly infects children who swallow eggs when they put dirty hands into their mouths or eat vegetables that have not been washed. Pinworms- most common parasite in children. Eggs are ingested via mouth when you eat something that has come in contact with contaminated soil. Female

pinworms lay eggs near anus, children scratch the anus and then eggs are ingested again. Hookworms- commonly infect humans in warm climates who walk barefoot on contaminated soil. Can cause you to feel tired due to loss of blood.

Guinea Worm Disease Guinea worm disease is a parasitic worm infection that occurs mainly in Africa.

People get infected when they drink standing water containing a tiny water flea that is infected with the even tinier larvae of the Guinea worm. Inside the human body, the larvae mature, growing as long as 3 feet. After a year, the worm emerges through a painful blister in the skin, causing long-term suffering and

sometimes crippling after-effects. Guinea Worms Trichinella spiralis- enter body in undercooked pork.

Phylum Annelida (Common Name:Segmented Worms) Examples: earthworms, leeches, tubeworms Main characteristics: 3 cell layers

True coelom (body cavity) 2 openings: complete digestive tract Longitudinal muscles and circular muscles Bilateral symmetry Additional Facts:

Small brain (at least it is a beginning ) Closed circulatory system. Marine Polychaetes, Tubeworms, and Leeches Leeches

Earthworms (matingssshhh!) Phylum Mollusca Examples: clams and oysters, snails and slugs, octopus and squid. Characteristics: Have soft bodies with internal or external skeleton

3 Groups of Mollusks

Gastropods: shell-less or single shelled (snails and slugs) Bivalves: 2 shells held together by a muscle (clams, oysters, mussels, scallops). Cephalopods: soft bodied in which the head is attached to the foot. Foot is divided into tentacles (squid, octopus, nautilus)

Snail Slug A Giant Clam Squid

Octopus Phylum Arthropoda

Examples: crabs and lobsters, spiders and scorpions, centipedes/millipedes, insects Main features: body segments jointed appendages (named for this!) hard exoskeletons (made of chitin) Most have specialized appendages (claws, antennae, legs, wings, swimmerets, etc).

Growth of Arthropods Molting: loss of exoskeleton to allow the organism to grow.

Metamorphosis: means change. Cycle that many arthropods go through as they change from egg to adult. Quick Quiz

What 3 characteristics do all arthropods share? Groups of Arthropods

Crustaceans: crabs, shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, barnacles Arachnids (spiders): spiders, ticks, scorpions Insects: insects, centipedes, millipedes.

Complete Metamorphosisegg, larva, pupa, adult Botfly maggot Venomous Spiders (yes, found in

Georgia) Brown Recluse (from above) (closer-up) bite

after 48 hours after 2 years Wood

Tick Phylum Echinodermataspiny skinned Examples: starfish, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars Characteristics: have radial symmetry have a water vascular system for

movement and feeding Hold onto rocks and structure with tube feet Common Starfish Sea Urchin

(Echinoderm means spiny skin) Brittle Star Sea cucumber Quick Quiz

How do echinoderms move and obtain food? Phylum Chordata

All chordates have the following traits at some point in their life: Dorsal hollow nerve cord Notochord Pharyngeal pouches (often called gill slits in fishes but not the same for mammals) Tail that extends beyond the anus

Chordates Includes Non-vertebrate chordates

Tunicates and lancelets Vertebrate chordates Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds

Mammals Tunicates- filter feeder commonly known as a sea squirt Lancelets- small, fish-like, lives on bottom of ocean in sand.

Quick Quiz Name the kingdom and phylum to which all vertebrates belong. Class Agnatha- Jawless Fish

No appendages, no jaws (duh!) Most ancient fish

Examples: Lamprey and Hagfish Are parasites Heart with 2 chambers (fish in general) Jawless Fish Feeding on Bony Fish Class Chondrichthyes- Cartliaginous


Stream-lined bodies for fast swimming Flat bodies for bottom dwelling Small tooth-like scales Body made of cartliage Examples: sharks, skates, rays Mostly carnivores, some filter feeders Hammerhead Shark

Stingray Class Osteichthyes- Bony Fish

Bony scales Fins Swim bladder that helps them float up and down.

Bony skeleton (surprise!) Examples: bass, trout, catfish, seahorse Heterotrophs: carnivores and herbivores This will make you think twice about peeing in the water!

Candiru, are parasitic freshwater catfish found in Amazon River. The most feared fish in its waters, even over piranha. They are eel-shaped and translucent, hard to see in the water. Candiru grow to a size of 6 inches and have barbels around the head, together with short, backward pointing spines on the gill covers. The Candir waits at the river's murky bottom, searching for its next host by sampling the water for expelled chemicals, such as urea and ammonia from the gills of other fish. Once having detected a fish in the vicinity, with a burst of speed the Candir darts towards the gill cavity and lodges itself in place with its

spines. Then, with usually fatal consequences for its victim, the Candir begins to gnaw a hole towards a major blood vessel and feeds off the host for no more than a few minutes. It will then dislodge itself and sink back to the river bed in order to digest its food and wait for its next meal. This fish is also known to attack humans and animals and swim into an opening (the vagina, anus, or even the penisand deep into the urethra). Because of spines protruding from the fish, it is

almost impossible to remove except through surgery. It locates its human targets when people urinate near the fish. Candiru Fish- parasitic freshwater fish Catfish

Class Amphibia Amphibia means double life.

Moist skin Weak lungs (evolved from swim bladder) Must have water to reproduce External Fertilization (egg and sperm unite outside the body) Amphibians continued

Metamorphosis Adapted to water (webbed feet, flat tails, no claws, some even have gills)

Cold-blooded (body temperature varies with the environment) 3 chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle) Examples: Frog, Toad, Salamander, Newt

Class Amphibia Green Tree Frog Salamander Newt Mudpuppy

Quick Quiz What is the difference between internal and external fertilization?

What characteristics do fish and amphibians share? Class Reptilia

Examples: Snakes, turtles, lizards, and crocodiles and alligators First group fully adapted to life on land

Dry scaly skin (water-proof) 3 chambered heart (2 atria, 1 ventricle) Lay amniotic egg- shelled egg, wont dry out, own water supply. Internal Fertillization. Need little water to survive. Cold-blooded

Baby Komodo Dragon entering from its egg. American Alligator Copperhead Common Box Turtle

Quick Quiz Name one similarity and one difference between amphibians and reptiles.

Class Aves- Birds

Evolved from reptiles (note the scaly feet) Scales became feathers. Feathers allow birds to be warm blooded (constant body temperature) Lay amniotic eggs Adapted for flight (beaks, feathers, wings, hollow

bones, air sacs, strong flight muscles.) 4 chambered heart (2 atria, 2 ventricle) Great Horned Owl Pileated Woodpecker Class Mammalia- bats, dogs, whales, etc.

Characteristics of ALL mammals: have hair or fur Nurse their young with milk from mammary glands ( thus mammals)

Most bear young live but some lay eggs Are warm-blooded Most complex of all animals.

4 chambered heart Three Major Groups of Mammals 1. Monotremes (lays eggs) Lays soft shelled eggs that are incubated outside of the body Egg hatches into young in about 10 days.

Young is nourished by milk from mother. Examples: duck-billed playtypus and 2 different species of spiny anteaters or echidnas. Duck-Bill Playtypus

Echninda or spiny anteater 2. Marsupials- kangaroos, koalas, wombats

Bear live young that completes development in a pouch. Egg is nourished by small yolk sac in mothers reproductive tract. When food in yolk sac is used up, embryo leaves mothers inside and crawls to the

marsupium and spends several months there getting milk. Opossum (the only N. American marsupial) Kangaroo Koala



Wombat 3. Placental Mammals

Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother through the placenta. Placenta allows young to develop for a longer time inside the mother. Examples: rodents, primates, elephants, etc.

Kingdom Plantae Plant Characteristics

Multicellular Eukaryotes Autotrophs- carry out photosynthesis using chlorophyll Cell wall made of cellulose

Alteration of Generations Gametophytehaploid, produces gametes (close to ground)

Sporophytediploid, produces spores (dominant stage for all plants except moss- top of plant). Capsule Sporophyte- top of plant

Gametophytebottom of plant Sporophyte Stalk Stemlike structure

Leaflike structure Rhizoid Gametophyte Non-Vascular Plants

Plants that DO NOT have tubes to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant. Vascular Plants

Plants that have tubes to carry water and nutrients from roots to leaves. Xylem: carries water from root to leaf Phloem: carries food from leaf to root Bryophytes

Capsule Need water to reproduce Lack vascular tissue Stalk

Sporophyte Stemlike structure Leaflike structure Rhizoid

Gametophyte Mosses

Usually 1-2 cm in height Leaves one cell thick No roots: Rhizoids anchor to ground Carpetgametophyte stage (dominant stage)

Thin, brown stalk and capsulesporophyte stage (sexual rep). Hornworts Sporophytes look like tiny green horns

Liverworts Can reproduce asexually Seedless Vascular Plants

Whish Ferns, Club Mosses, Horsetails, Ferns Seedless Vascular

The 1st vascular plants Have roots, stems, leaves, veins Examples: Whisk Ferns, Club Mosses, Horsetails, Ferns Whisk ferns Horsetails

About 1 meter tall Leaves arranged in whorl along stem joints

Also called scouring rush (contain silica used to scour pots and pans during Colonial times) Vascular Seed Plants Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Seed PlantsGymnosperms Do not require water for reproduction so can live almost anywhere Seed is an embryo surrounding by a seed coat. Bears seeds directly on cones- Naked Seeds

Ferns- reproduce by

spores Large leavesfronds, divided into leaflets Underground stemsrhizomes Found in shade and moist environments

Cycads- Large Cones Ginkgoes

Only one living species Ginkgo biloba Fan-like leaves turn

gold in autumn Cultivated in China Pollution Conifers General Sherman (left)CA Mtnstrunk circumference is 26m!

Redwoodstip of northern CAcan grow to 110m+ tall! (right) Conifers Examples: pine, firs, spruces,

junipers, cedars Most evergreen, leaves needle-like Methuselah bristlecone pine 4600+ yrs. old! Angiosperms

Flowering plants 2 classes:

Monocots- one cotyledon (seed leaf) Dicots- two cotyledons Annuals: complete life cycle in one year

Biennials: complete life cycle in 2 years Perennials: complete life cycle in many years. Monocots Vs. Dicots SEEDS Monocot: single cotyledon Dicot: two cotyledons

Monocot Vs. Dicot LEAVES Monocot: parallel veins Dicot: branched veins Monocot Leaf

Dicot Leaf Monocot Vs. Dicot FLOWERS Monocot: petals often in multiples of 3 Dicot: petals often in multiples of 4 or 5

Monocot Flower Flower Dicot Monocot Vs. Dicot EXAMPLES

Monocot: lilies, orchids, grasses, grain crops Dicot: roses, peas, sunflowers, oaks, maples Monocots Dicots

Three Principle Organs of Seed Plants

Roots: absorb water, dissolve nutrients, anchor plant Stems: supports plant, transports nutrients and water Leaves: carry out photosynthesis Fibrous Root

Taproot Leaves

Absorb light and carry out photosynthesis Blades: thin flattened part of leaf Petiole: stalk that attaches to the stem Mesophyll: specialized ground tissue

packed with chloroplasts. Leaves continued

Stomata: pore-like openings in leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse in and out of leaf. Guard Cells: open and close the stomata Transpiration: loss of water through the leaves of a plant.

Cuticle- waxy covering around the outside of a leaf. Stomata Stomata and Guard Cells

Reproduction in Seed Plants Unlike ferns and mosses, seed plants dont need water to reproduce.

Seed plants rely on wind and animals to disperse their seeds for reproduction. Reproduction in Angiosperms

Flower: reproductive organ in angiosperms. Perfect Flower: contains both male and female parts.

Imperfect Flower: contains only male or female parts. Parts of the Flower

Petal: often brightly colored to attract pollinators (birds and bees) Sepal: outermost part, green leaf like structure at bottom of flower. Peta l Sepal

Male Parts of a Flower Stamen: male reproductive organ which contains: Filament: thin stalk that supports the anther

Anther: sac where pollen grains are produced. Pollen: sperm STAMEN- MALE Pollen

Anther Filament Pollination

Most Gymnosperms are pollinated by wind. Most angiosperms are pollinated by animals (birds and bees). Germination

Early growth stage of plant embryo: seed absorbs water and seed coat cracks. Seed Germination Seed and Fruit Development

As angiosperm seeds mature, the ovary wall thickens and join with other parts of the flower to form a

fruit that encloses the developing seeds. Fruit: an enlarged ovary Fruits have seeds (unless they have been genetically engineered).

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