Classification

Classification

Animalia Vertebrates Animals Animals are spilt into two major groups: Vertebrates Invertebrates Vertebrates These are animals with a backbone.

There are six groups of vertebrates: Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Tetrapoda Amphibians Reptiles Aves Mammalia

Agnatha Jaws are absent. Paired fins are generally absent. In most cases the skeleton is cartilaginous. The digestive system lacks a stomach. Includes: Lampreys Hagfishes

Chondrichthyes Lack true bone Have a skeleton made of cartilage May have calcified teeth and bone but these are structurally different to true bone Have jaws with teeth Lays eggs (oviparous) or give birth to live young (viviparous) Have paired fins Live in water

Mostly marine, 5% live in freshwater Includes: Sharks Skates rays Rays vs skates Rays

One lobed pelvic fin Usually have dorsal fins Stinging spine Skates Two lobed pelvic fin No dorsal fins No stinging spine Osteichthyes Bony fishes

Have true ossified bone Usually have some form of skull Wet scales Most have swim bladders Two major groups: Ray finned & lobe finned Wet vs dry scales Wet scales

Aquatic organisms: fish Are derived from skin May contain bone and enamel May grow in concentric layers Are designed to reduce drag through water

Dry scales On reptiles, arthropods and birds Are generally ridged Can be derived from hair Are usually keratinous

Are to prevent wear from friction Tetrapoda Includes amphibia and reptilia Are four legged vertebrates have evolved into mammals Pentadactyl limb Commonality in Tetrapods Amphibia

Have moist skin Lay jelly coated eggs in water Lives on land and water

Evolution of lungs Two circuit circulatory system Undergo metamorphosis Includes: Frogs & toads Salamanders newts Frogs vs Toads Frogs

Toads Order Anura Longer jumping legs Eggs in clusters Moist, smooth skin Prefer moist environments Have vomerine teeth in upper jaw Eyes bulge

Order Anura Shorter walking or hopping legs Eggs in chains Some give birth to live young Dry bumpy skin Dryer environments No teeth Eyes dont bulge Mexican Walking fish (axolotl)

Is not a fish but an amphibian Undergoes a condition called Neoteny Is a reduced rate of development to the point where the juvenile doesnt develop into an adult The adult stage retains the form of the juvenile. The axolotl is a large tadpole. In some cases the axolotl will metamorphose into an adult version

similar to a tiger salamander Reptilia Have dry scales Lay leathery shelled eggs (some species give birth to live young) Some have a form of placenta All have lungs Cold blooded Includes:

Turtles & tortoises Crocodilians Lizards Tuatara (NZ) Evolution of Bipedalism

Graviportal Mediportal Cursorial Aves Have feathers and hollow bones Skeleton approximately 5% of total weight (humans approx. 15%)

Feathers weigh approximately 6% of total weight Lay hard shelled eggs Warm blooded

No teeth* Highly advanced respiratory system Includes: Mammalia Hair Mammary glands teeth Auditory ossicles Neocortex Four chambered heart

Sweat glands Most give birth to live offspring (vivparous) Warm blooded Kangaroos vs Wallabies Are both macropods (f. macropodidae) Primarily size-based Kangaroos longer legs for speed Wallabies shorter legs for manoeuvrability

Different dentition and head shape Kangaroos tend to have dull coats Summary of Vertebrates (Chordata)

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