Characteristics of Living Things and Classification, Taxonomy, Cladograms Unit 10 1. Living things are Made of cells. Cell: living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its surroundings.

The smallest unit of life. 2. Living things are based on a universal genetic code. Organisms inherit their genetic traits from DNA. 3. Living things Grow & Development

All living things grow & develop Some remain unicellular ( single-celled) Others differentiate and become multicellular (many-celled)

Cell specialization: cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks Levels of Organization Multicellular organism Individual

cells Tissues: groups of similar cells that perform a particular function Organs: groups of tissues that work together Organ systems: group of organs that work together to perform a specific function (digestive system)

4. Living things Reproduce. Two Kinds: Sexual: Offspring Asexual:

Sperm + egg= offspring differ from parents in some traits 2 ways Parent cell divides and becomes two identical offspring (Cell division / mitosis). Offspring & parents have same traits part of the parent breaks off to form new organism (Budding)

5. Living things Obtain & Use Energy Organisms need energy to grow and develop (Food Chain) Metabolism: Combination of chemical reactions where an organism builds up or breaks down materials

6. Living things respond and adapt to their environment. Living organisms have the ability to adapt and respond to stimuli, increasing its chance of survival. 7. Living things maintain a stable internal environment.

Homeostasis is the means by which the internal bodies conditions are kept constant. WATER GLUCOSE TEMPERATURE

What would happen if? You sit outside in the hot sun all day Original stimulus: Body temperat ure increases

Homeostasis- the internal bodies conditions are kept constant = Positive Feedback Result: response action stops when brain

detects normal conditions = Negative feedback Response: Skin and sweat receptors are activated =

body temperature falls Message: sent via nerves If something does not have all of the characteristics listed above, then it is NOT considered a living

thing! Classification Classification Brain Pop Classification Taxonomy- the field of Biology that identifies and classifies organisms.

Carolus Linnaeus- Developed the classification system in mid 1700s. He used a grouping format classifying the very broad groups (least related or the least amount of similarities) to very specific (more precise) members. Each level is called a taxon, or taxonomic category.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus

Species Domain Did Kingdom King Phylum

Phillip Class Come Order Over Family

For Genus Good Species Soup The Three-Domain System The domain is a more inclusive category than

any otherlarger than a kingdom. The 3 domains are 1 Bacteria 2 Archaea 3 Eukarya The kingdom is the largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories (not including domain). Six Kingdoms

The six-kingdom system of classification include: Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

Brain Pop Kingdoms Several different classes make up a phylum. **Phyla is the plural form of the word. The next larger category, the class, is composed of similar orders. An order is a broad category composed of similar families.

Genera that share many characteristics are grouped in a larger category, the family. Genus and Species are the two smallest categories *Genera is the plural form of genus. Binomial Nomenclature: two-word naming system used to identify organisms. All organisms have 2 names: 1. Scientific

Name - consists of a genus name and a species name. Genus is always written 1st and IS CAPITALIZED. species is always written 2nd and is NOT capitalized. *Both names are printed and underlined or in Italics Ex: Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens Ex: H. sapiens or H. sapiens 2. Common name- name that is used more regularly.

Ex: Mountain lion, puma, cougar, panther all common names for the same animal depending on the region. Modern Evolutionary Classification Phylogeny- study of evolutionary relationships among organisms Biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical similarities.

Organisms that share the same genus are more closely related than organisms that only share the same class. They also use DNA to observe how closely related organisms are Derived Characters Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members can be used to construct a

Cladogram. A cladogram is a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms. Dichotomous Keys A tool used for identifying organisms by using specific observable traits of the

organism. Ex. Dichotomous Key for Common Classroom Supplies Bird Dichotomous Key Always start at number 1!!!!! A visual representation of the evolution of chocolate bars What is a Cladogram?

A cladogram shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. By looking at it, you can tell how closely related two organisms are. You can determine their evolutionary path and timeline. A cladogram will start with the oldest common ancestor. This is usually the simplest organism since other organisms will evolve as more complex versions or altered forms of this original species. So, were

going to start our chocolate cladogram with the ORIGINAL chocolate bar- the plain chocolate bar. Now evolution leads to speciation and a

new species of chocolate bars form. This species is unique from the previous species of chocolate bars because it contains nougat. So we will put it further up on a line from the original chocolate bar and label on the line what

makes this bar If there are two species expressing nougat we put both of the nougat bars next to each other on the cladogram to show how closely related they are and to show that they evolved at the same

time. As speciation continues we are sure to add the NEW adaptations on the cladogram so that we can make the distinction between candy bars more clearly. CARAMEL is the newest adaptation. Finally, the milky way bars develops the adaptation of nuts! And again, we have two different bars evolve at

this point- the bar with peanuts and the bar with almonds! So we can look at the cladogram and see that snickers peanut is most closely related to snickers almond. It is also more closely related to milky way than it is to 3

musketeers! Cladograms can also be called phylogenies or trees or phylogenetic trees. Remember, the definition of phylogeny is: the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms.

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