CMOS Power Dissipation - Washington State

CMOS Power Dissipation - Washington State

EE466: VLSI Design Power Dissipation Outline

Motivation to estimate power dissipation Sources of power dissipation Dynamic power dissipation Static power dissipation Metrics Conclusion Need to estimate power dissipation Power dissipation affects Performance Reliability Packaging

Cost Portability Where Does Power Go in CMOS? Dynamic Power Consumption Charging and Discharging Capacitors Short Circuit Currents Short Circuit Path between Supply Rails during Switching Leakage Leaking diodes and transistors

Node Transition Activity and Power Due to charging and discharging of capacitance Consider switching a CMOS gate for N clock cycles E N = CL V dd2 n N EN : the energy consumed for N clock cycles n(N): the number of 0->1 transition in N clock cycles P a vg = EN

2 n N lim -------- fclk = lim ------------ C Vdd f clk N N N N L N = lim n -----------0 1 N N

P av g = 0 1 C V dd 2 f clk L Activity factors of basic gates AND OR XOR (1 p A p B ) p A p B (1 p A )(1 p B )[1 (1 p A )(1 p B )] [1 ( p A p B 2 p A p B )]( p A p B 2 p A p B )

Dynamic Power dissipation Power reduced by reducing Vdd, f, C and also activity A signal transition can be classified into two categories a functional transition and a glitch Glitch Power Dissipation Glitches are temporary changes in the value of the

output unnecessary transitions They are caused due to the skew in the input signals to a gate Glitch power dissipation accounts for 15% 20 % of the global power Basic contributes of hazards to power dissipation are Hazard generation Hazard propagation Glitch Power Dissipation

P = 1/2 .CL.Vdd . (Vdd Vmin) ; Vmin : min voltage swing at the output Glitch power dissipation is dependent on Output load Input pattern Input slope Glitch Power Dissipation

Hazard generation can be reduced by gate sizing and path balancing techniques Hazard propagation can be reduced by using less number of inverters which tend to amplify and propagate glitches Short Circuit Power Dissipation Short circuit current occurs during signal transitions when both the NMOS and PMOS are ON and there is a direct path between Vdd and GND Also called crowbar current

Accounts for more than 20% of total power dissipation As clock frequency increases transitions increase consequently short circuit power dissipation increases Can be reduced : faster input and slower output Vdd <= Vtn + |Vtp| So both NMOS and PMOS are not on at the same time Static Power Consumption Vdd Istat

Vin=5V Vout CL Pstat = P(In=1).Vdd . Istat Dominates over dynamic consumption Wasted energy Not a function of switching frequency

Should be avoided in almost all cases Static Power Dissipation Power dissipation occurring when device is in standby mode As technology scales this becomes significant Leakage power dissipation Components: Reverse biased p-n junction Sub threshold leakage DIBL leakage Channel punch through

GIDL Leakage Narrow width effect Oxide leakage Hot carrier tunneling effect Principles for Power Reduction Prime choice: Reduce voltage! Recent years have seen an acceleration in supply voltage reduction Design at very low voltages still open question (0.6 0.9 V by 2010!)

Reduce switching activity Reduce physical capacitance Device Sizing Factors affecting leakage power Temperature Sub-threshold current increases exponentially Reduction in Vt Increase in thermal voltage BTBT increases due to band gap narrowing Gate leakage is insensitive to temperature change

Factors affecting leakage power Gate oxide thickness Sub-threshold current decreases in long channel transistors and increases in short channel BTBT is insensitive Gate leakage increases as thickness reduces Solutions

MTCMOS Dual Vt Dual Vt domino logic Adaptive Body Bias Transistor stacking Metrics Power Delay product

Energy Delay Product Average energy per instruction x average inter instruction delay Cunit_area Capacitance per unit area Conclusion Power dissipation is unavoidable especially as technology scales down Techniques must be devised to reduce power dissipation Techniques must be devised to accurately estimate the power dissipation

Estimation and modeling of the sources of power dissipation for simulation purposes

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Energy and Utilities Industry Overview - UCAIug

    Energy and Utilities Industry Overview - UCAIug

    Energy and Utilities Industry IBM provides leadership in key industry standards organizations Chair, GridWise Alliance (US) Chair, Global Smart Grid Federation Chair, GridWise Architecture Council (US) Chair Intellect Smart Grids and Smart Metering Group (UK) Chair-Elect, Architecture Committee for NIST...
  • Exploring Marketing Research 10e

    Exploring Marketing Research 10e

    Contrived observation—observation in which the investigator creates an artificial environment in order to test a hypothesis. ... Is the behavior performed in a setting in which the anonymity of the person being observed is assured?
  • DVD Lets watch a DVD 2-2 Review Lets

    DVD Lets watch a DVD 2-2 Review Lets

    What two FAT TOM conditions will you be able to control in your operation? Time. Temperature. DVD Review. 2-6. What is the temperature range of the temperature danger zone? DVD Review. 41°F to 135°F (5°C to 57°C) 2-7. What are...
  • Transformative Learning Through Loop Learning

    Transformative Learning Through Loop Learning

    Transformational Learning Through Loop Learning CSUN ELPS 715 Single Loop Learning Single vs. Double Loop Learning Discussion: Single & Double Loop Learning In single-loop learning, an individual does not question the appropriateness or "rightness" of an action or the assumptions...
  • Give Thanks Give thanks with a grateful heart.

    Give Thanks Give thanks with a grateful heart.

    Let the poor say, "I am rich, Because of what the Lord has done for us." Give Thanks 3/4 Give thanks with a grateful heart. Give thanks to the Holy One. Give thanks because He's given Jesus Christ, His Son....
  • Influences on Canadian Law - WordPress.com

    Influences on Canadian Law - WordPress.com

    Current English system . Came in during the reign of Henry II (1154-1189) He set up a system of travelling judges known as circuit judges to hear cases in courts known as Assizes. At first it was the King making...
  • Chapter #, Title

    Chapter #, Title

    For example, the string "Great" comes before the string "fantastic" because all of the uppercase letters come before all of the lowercase letters in Unicode
  • Trng tiu hc Hunh Ngc Hu Mi cu

    Trng tiu hc Hunh Ngc Hu Mi cu

    Trường tiểu học Huỳnh Ngọc Huệ