Motivation to estimate power dissipation Sources of power dissipation Dynamic power dissipation Static power dissipation Metrics Conclusion Need to estimate power dissipation Power dissipation affects Performance Reliability Packaging
Cost Portability Where Does Power Go in CMOS? Dynamic Power Consumption Charging and Discharging Capacitors Short Circuit Currents Short Circuit Path between Supply Rails during Switching Leakage Leaking diodes and transistors
Node Transition Activity and Power Due to charging and discharging of capacitance Consider switching a CMOS gate for N clock cycles E N = CL V dd2 n N EN : the energy consumed for N clock cycles n(N): the number of 0->1 transition in N clock cycles P a vg = EN
2 n N lim -------- fclk = lim ------------ C Vdd f clk N N N N L N = lim n -----------0 1 N N
P av g = 0 1 C V dd 2 f clk L Activity factors of basic gates AND OR XOR (1 p A p B ) p A p B (1 p A )(1 p B )[1 (1 p A )(1 p B )] [1 ( p A p B 2 p A p B )]( p A p B 2 p A p B )
Dynamic Power dissipation Power reduced by reducing Vdd, f, C and also activity A signal transition can be classified into two categories a functional transition and a glitch Glitch Power Dissipation Glitches are temporary changes in the value of the
output unnecessary transitions They are caused due to the skew in the input signals to a gate Glitch power dissipation accounts for 15% 20 % of the global power Basic contributes of hazards to power dissipation are Hazard generation Hazard propagation Glitch Power Dissipation
P = 1/2 .CL.Vdd . (Vdd Vmin) ; Vmin : min voltage swing at the output Glitch power dissipation is dependent on Output load Input pattern Input slope Glitch Power Dissipation
Hazard generation can be reduced by gate sizing and path balancing techniques Hazard propagation can be reduced by using less number of inverters which tend to amplify and propagate glitches Short Circuit Power Dissipation Short circuit current occurs during signal transitions when both the NMOS and PMOS are ON and there is a direct path between Vdd and GND Also called crowbar current
Accounts for more than 20% of total power dissipation As clock frequency increases transitions increase consequently short circuit power dissipation increases Can be reduced : faster input and slower output Vdd <= Vtn + |Vtp| So both NMOS and PMOS are not on at the same time Static Power Consumption Vdd Istat
Vin=5V Vout CL Pstat = P(In=1).Vdd . Istat Dominates over dynamic consumption Wasted energy Not a function of switching frequency
Should be avoided in almost all cases Static Power Dissipation Power dissipation occurring when device is in standby mode As technology scales this becomes significant Leakage power dissipation Components: Reverse biased p-n junction Sub threshold leakage DIBL leakage Channel punch through
GIDL Leakage Narrow width effect Oxide leakage Hot carrier tunneling effect Principles for Power Reduction Prime choice: Reduce voltage! Recent years have seen an acceleration in supply voltage reduction Design at very low voltages still open question (0.6 0.9 V by 2010!)
Reduce switching activity Reduce physical capacitance Device Sizing Factors affecting leakage power Temperature Sub-threshold current increases exponentially Reduction in Vt Increase in thermal voltage BTBT increases due to band gap narrowing Gate leakage is insensitive to temperature change
Factors affecting leakage power Gate oxide thickness Sub-threshold current decreases in long channel transistors and increases in short channel BTBT is insensitive Gate leakage increases as thickness reduces Solutions
MTCMOS Dual Vt Dual Vt domino logic Adaptive Body Bias Transistor stacking Metrics Power Delay product
Energy Delay Product Average energy per instruction x average inter instruction delay Cunit_area Capacitance per unit area Conclusion Power dissipation is unavoidable especially as technology scales down Techniques must be devised to reduce power dissipation Techniques must be devised to accurately estimate the power dissipation
Estimation and modeling of the sources of power dissipation for simulation purposes
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