Cognitive Development - Sonoma State University

Cognitive Development - Sonoma State University

Cognitive Developmen t Jean Piaget Constructivism Theory Kinds of Knowledge physical knowledge

logico-mathematical knowledge social knowledge Constructivism children are active learners, not passive observers organize their knowledge into schemes schemes change through

assimilation accommodation Stages of Cognitive Development childrens schemes change over time cognition develops in stages, not gradually

each stage builds on accomplishments of prior stage Sensori-motor Stage ages birth 2 years old infant uses senses and motor abilities to explore first explorations are

innate reflexes goal-directed behaviors object permanence Substages of Sensori-motor Stage 1st: (birth - 1 mo) innate reflexes, circular reactions

2nd: (1-4 mo) primary circular reactions 3rd: (4-8 mo) secondary circular Substages of Sensori-motor Stage 4th: (8-12 mo) goal directed behavior

object permanence 5th: (12-18 mo) tertiary circular 6th: (18-24 mo) Symbolic representation Preoperational Stage

ages 2-7 child uses mental representations of objects play moves from using real objects to more complex play childs thinking is perception-bound, egocentric, irreversible, centrated, intuitive, animistic

Concrete operations ages 7-11 child uses logical operations ability to conserve think flexibly

seriate classify with more than 1 attribute and with hierarchical thinking Conservation Tasks Formal operations ages 12 and up child uses logical operations in a systematic

fashion can think abstractly hypothetico-deductive thinking propositional thinking Contributions of Piaget's Theories to Current Practice

focus on active, hands-on learning play is important sensitivity to a child's current level of understanding acceptance of individual differences Criticisms of Piaget's Ideas

research methods underestimated/ overestimated the abilities of children didn't adequately consider the role of culture and experience in childrens undertaking of his tasks stage theory

Lev Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory Importance of culture and society on a childs learning knowledge is socially constructed culturally determined Importance of interactions with

more-abled members of the society zone of proximal development scaffolding Language is the foundation of all higher cognitive processes private speech inner speech

Development is continuous, not occurring in stages Contributions of Vygotsky's Theories to Current Practice opportunities for discovery and play opportunities social interactions for learning

use of language to enhance conceptual development

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