Colonial Government A Need for Reform List of Grievances The Situation in Lower Canada Rebellion and Reform Representative Government A government made up of people who are elected by voters to make laws on their
behalf We vote in who we want to represent our needs in government* Provincial Example Vancouver Island Elizabeth May Federal Example Justin Responsible Government Governments can be voted out if elected
representatives fail to please a majority of the people who elected them Governments are responsible for fulfilling our needs , so if they fail we vote them out! Why are they Important? They form the cornerstones of Democracy
- a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. Democracy on paper! Who was really in control? Early Colonial Government Colonial governments were indirectly run form Britain. Britain appointed a Governor
but he ruled according to what the Oligarchy demanded - This policy put power in the hands of the Oligarchy who ran the government - Family Compact / Chateau Clique No Representative or Responsible Government See page 66 What is an Oligarchy?
A small group of ruling elite Family Compact or Chateau Clique - Upper class officials in Upper/Lower Canada who made up the Executive Council - Controlled the government, government jobs, and spending of tax money Family Compact Small closed group of upper class English men who exercised most of
the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada - Who got government jobs - How to spend tax money - How government was run Made up the Executive council in Upper Canada Chteau Clique Small closed group of upper class English
men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Lower Canada Invested in shipping and canals to have total control mover Lower Canada - Control of shipping = control of the colonies Oligarchies Exist Today!
The illusion of democracy as control of politics and economics in the hands of the wealthy 1% of the population controls 99% of the wealth and Upper Canada 1791
1791 The Constitution Act established the government of Upper Canada Divided Upper and Lower Canada Created an elected law making Legislative Assembly, a governor, and 2 councils made up the government Elected Legislative Assembly gave the illusion of democracy Every property owning male could vote BUT The Governor and 2
councils (executive) he appointed had all the power - Family Compact / Chateau Clique Any law the Elected Legislative Assembly tried to pass could be vetoed by the other branches of government
William Lyon Mackenzie: Led the reform movement in Upper Canada Despised the ruling oligarchy/ Family Compact Published articles in the Colonial Advocate criticizing the government Wanted American Style democracy
1812 Elected to the Legislative Assembly List of Grievances in Upper Canada Land- overpriced, good land gone, Family Compact dominated land ownership, crown and clergy reserve land blocked road construction Roads- wanted more roads and better quality roads
Government- oligarchy controls the government, Governor and 2 councils have all control, Legislative Assembly powerless Controlling Opposition through Violence and Intimidation Robert Gourley drew up the list of grievances and petitioned the government to change
- he was arrested and deported out of the colony William Lyon Mackenzies newspaper - Burned office and printing press Problems seem worse in Lower Canada The French population felt culturally attacked
Why: the ruling class was English BUT the majority of people were French French population feared the loss of their - Language - Religion - culture Power In Lower Canada English Speaking Minority held all the power in Lower Canada - Those who control the
money control the politics and policies - of the population in control Just like today 1% of the population controls the world Fearing Your Authority French thought the British were going to phase out the
French Problem Britain encouraged English settlement Encouraged assimilation to British culture Reform Movement In Lower Canada Main Grievances 1. Discrimination: French discriminated against by English Majority 2. Government: Lack of French
Representation in Government 3. Taxes: Opposed taxation without representation 4. Schools: No French schools in Lower Canada 5. Farmers in debt: Land overworked from too many immigrants Louis Joseph Papineau: Leader of Radical Reformers in Lower Canada Initially optimistic about
British rule but disagreed about British controlling all power Became the leader of the Parti Canadien - Lobbied for Reform After 30 years of legal attempts to reform, Papineau and his patriots rebelled against the government
Controlling Opposition through Violence and Intimidation The Governor of Lower Canada arrested anyone who criticized the government and closed papers that promoted reform 1822 British soldiers shot protestors in Montreal
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Then read through and do triage, rather than going straight through over and over. Last, do one more read and then you can fine-tune (micro) TRIAGE. Objectivity. Read like a reader. Make brief notes. Address big issues—macroediting. Objectivity. Read for...