Consolidation of Summary of Findings and Recommendations of ...

Consolidation of Summary of Findings and Recommendations of ...

Consolidation of Summary of Findings and Recommendations of the Four Components of BIIPAC THE BROADBAND INFRASTRUCTURE INVENTORY AND PUBLIC AWARENESS IN THE CARIBBEAN (BIIPAC) B .C L AIRE D O W N E S -H AY N E S A UGUS T 20 16 Introduction The following slides present in summary some key findings and recommendations from the BIIPAC Project The information cannot fully represent the fulsome detail in the Consultants reports and these are commended for further detailed understanding of the specific country status. The information contained herein reflects that determined during the phases of the project and

no further review has been undertaken to prepare this presentation. BIIPAC: THE PROJECT Potential of Broadband Broadband Is seen as a general purpose technology (GPT) that supports the entire economy Has a multiplier effect on economic components - GDP, productivity and employment Importance of broadband to economies and society has been highlighted by a ramping up of work in recent years by agencies such as IDB, UN, World Bank Much of the research and projects related to broadband had been focused on the developed countries IDB did an econometric study of 26 countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC), 2003-09 which showed:

that a 10% increase in broadband would provide a corresponding 3.2% and 2.6% increase in GDP and productivity respectively and generate some 67,016 jobs a favourable relationship between broadband penetration and the multiplier in that the higher the penetration rate the greater the multiplier for GDP, employment and productivity. (Garca Zaballos & LpezRivas, 2012) Potential of Broadband IDB and World Bank along with national governments have given greater attention to the LAC Broadband is transformative in its effect on social and economic sector It is a tool for civil society and political ranks to foster inclusion Education. finance and health rely heavily on broadband A country with better infrastructure availability, quality and pricing in broadband may find it easier to attract foreign investment, and to develop and exploit offshore business opportunities Barriers to Broadband Expansion Existing barriers to expansion of broadband lack of awareness and understanding among some public officials, business people and the public at large about how

ICTs can contribute to generate economic growth and stimulate innovation in sectors such as health, education and trade; Insufficient institutional capacity to design, implement and monitor specific policies that may foster the use and adoption of ICT at all levels of society; Inadequate regulatory frameworks that have not kept pace with major trends in the industry, particularly the convergence of services, network platforms and applications that have come to characterize the consumption pattern of consumers regionally and worldwide; lack of understanding of the implications that variances in socio-demographic and economic conditions between urban and rural areas have in broadband availability and usage, as well as an under-appreciation of how current gaps suppress economic and social development in under-served areas; Scarcity of data to allow governments to track and measure the economic and social impact of ICTs in each country; and Absence of geographic information on broadband penetration and services in the region. BIIPAC Project The identified barriers gave rise to the conception of the BIIPAC Project in 2011

Funded by IADB with CANTO as executing agency, contracting independent consultants Examined 8 beneficiary countries Barbados, Belize, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Suriname Project carried out over 2014 2015 culminating with presentation of final component report in February 2016 at CANTO Annual Meeting in Haiti. The overall aim of BIIPAC to identify an inventory of the existing broadband infrastructure in the participating countries, and practical guidelines for the ubiquitous implementation of broadband access technologies in an efficient manner that is consistent with globally adopted standards and international best practices. 1 1. CANTO/ITU. Broadband Infrastructure Inventory and Public Awareness in the Caribbean (BIIPAC) Project : RG-T2212, Contract for Individual Consulting Services, Annex A, Tranche A, Consultant Terms of Reference, July 2015 BIIPAC Project Component 1 Assessed the broadband infrastructure inventory, providing quantitative analysis. Set out general

situation in terms of Broadband, digital initiatives and socio-economics, ICT market, pricing. Comparative Maps (Broadband & Socio Infrastructure- economic factor) Used IADBs digiLAC platform to arrive at quantitative measures of broadband. It is a tool for decision makers and policymakers to detect, on a country basis, strengths and areas for improvement in developing specific, concrete and actionable plans. identifies the magnitude of the gap in two different geographic approaches, first when we compare the state of the art of one country versus the cluster region the country belongs to, and second, when we compare the country with respect to the OECD Uses an approach based on four pillars: infrastructure, applications and capacity, strategic regulations, and public policy and strategic vision. https://mydata.iadb.org/Science-and-Technology/digiLAC-Broadband-Development-Index/yj92-utmk/data BIIPAC Project Component 2 Reviewed existing regulatory and institutional frameworks and current sector trends. Review and recommendations also took account of HIPCAR project

Component 3 Assessed and determined approaches to ICT awareness and capacity building, classifying recommendations according to various sectors, namely, citizens, public sector and business sector. Component 4 The capstone, with reference to results of Component 1-3, and other assessment made recommendations: For the construction of a framework to be incorporated into National Broadband Plans (NBP) For Governance models that would facilitate implementation of NBPs Considerations to work towards a regional broadband strategy highlighting synergies BARBADOS Metrics Barbados Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas)1

2nd (5.44) UN e-Government Development Index (EGDI) (overall)2 59th IDI Rank3 29th Percentage of households with internet4 70.5 Percentage of individuals using internet4

76.7 Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 27 Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 106.8 Average broadband penetration- digiLAC Component 1 [1] 47 http://kp.iadb.org/DigiLAC/es/Paginas/Indice-de-Desarrollo-de-Banda-Ancha.aspx IDB Broadband Development Index (IDBA) ranking in the Americas reported for 2014 https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2014-Survey/E-Gov_Complete_Survey-2014.pdf United Nations E-Government Survey 2014, E-Government Development Index (EGDI) [3]

http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2015/MISR2015-w5.pdf Measuring The Information Society Report 2015, ICT Development Index (IDI) [4] ITU World Telecommunications/ICT Indicator Database - 2014 [2] Performance Barbados: performs well in ICT metrics relative to the region, indicating the most developed ICT sector has moved into the top 30 countries on the ICT Development Index (IDI) ranking at number 29, representing an improvement of 9 points from 2010 In the Americas region, ranked at number 3 behind United States and Canada (Telecommunications Development Bureau of the International Telecommunications Union, 2015) 47% average broadband penetration identified through digiLAC, accounts for a 25% gap in persons using the internet and 53% not online Under the UNs e-Government Development Index (EGDI) Barbados is the highest ranked

Caribbean country in 2014 at number 59 out of 193 countries Under EGDI low showing for Barbados e-participation, ranking at 164, a possible correlation with the penetration and usage gaps. Infrastructure & Access 5 The metrics show Barbados as strong on the supply side of broadband Component 2 Consultant put forward that Barbados is positioned to be an ICT hub in the region due to its strong metrics There is competitive provision of broadband, although in 2015 2 providers, Flow and Cable & Wireless, t/a LIME, merged, reducing the level of competition in this market. Both LIME and Digicel provide mobile broadband wireless broadband penetration went up from less than 1% in 2011 to 42% in 2013 (Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation. Country Page: Barbados)

Penetration gap still exists and there is unequal coverage over different geographic areas these need to be closed BIIPAC Component 1(Marin, J. 2015) the difference in gap that exists between parishes it was not significant - average broadband penetration island wide was 46.57%; penetration in St. James, considered a high-income parish, was 57.97% and the rural lower income parish of St, Andrew was 34.96% 5. THIS SECTION IS BASED ON FINDINGS OF BIIPAC COMPONENT 1 REPORTS Broadband Distribution per Parish Source: IDB Barbados Internet and Broadband Connectivity Report, J. Marin, 2015 Infrastructure & Access In 2013 with new market entrants:

Prices decreased approx. 57% Speeds increased with minimum moving from 1Mbps to 6Mbps and going up to 20Mbps With the adjustment in prices down the percentage of monthly income spent on 2Mbps decreased to 2.5% To increase e-participation not only is infrastructure critical but devices need to be accessible The percentage of households with a computer has averaged above 69% since 2012(Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database) may be attributed in part to removal of duties on computers some years before. Infrastructure & Access Infrastructure & Access challenges include In order to advance to an e-society or ICT hub Barbados needs to reduce the digital gaps that exist for broadband Need to increase penetration Need to increase use and e-participation

Maintain a downward trend in pricing of both fixed and mobile broadband The Carriers have been largely implementing their network deployment plans absent a structured plan from Government stating its broadband objectives vis vis national objectives, in a quantitative time bound manner The Consultants understand that there is consideration being given to implementing number portability with a view to increasing competition 6 Enabling Environment Barbados has a partially complete ICT enabling legislative framework headed by the Telecommunications Act 2001, the sector enabling legislation There is also The Electronic Transactions Act. 2001 and The Computer Misuse Act, 2004 There is no legislation addressing data protection and cyber security/cybercrimes

Barbados was part of the HIPCAR project that reviewed the legislative framework with a view to assisting Caribbean countries to increase competitiveness BIIPAC used the HIPCAR results as part of the review A HIPCAR finding was that the licensing process was generally good but was complicated by applicant having to go to several different government departments and ministries centralization would be a benefit The environment was found to be fragmented with not having a converged regulator in a converged sector. 6. THIS SECTION IS BASED ON BIIPAC REPORTS OF COMPONENTS 2, 3, AND 4 Enabling Environment multiple actors MINISTRY RESPONSIBLE FOR TELECOMMUNICATION

MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, EMPOWERMENT, INNOVATION, TRADE, INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE Telecommunications Unit (TU) Fair Trading Commission (FTC) responsible for policy and infrastructure; licensing; and management of spectrum and numbering Does not oversee broadcast or TV multisector regulator also responsible for economy wide competition laws & consumer protection

FTC does not regulate broadband as they do fixed line Ministry responsible for ICTs generally demand Does not oversee broadcast or TV Enabling Environment A converged regulator seen as more efficient and effective, particularly in a converged sector Barbados does not have a broadband plan or strategy There is the National Information and Communications Technologies Strategic Plan of Barbados 2010-2015, prepared by Ministry of Economic Affairs, Empowerment, Innovation, Trade, Industry and Commerce. This Strategic Plan was reportedly developed without the inclusion of other policy and regulatory players in the sector It sets out strategic objectives, but not detailed action plans. Results against these strategic

plans and sectoral initiatives in the document could not be ascertained at time of reporting Some reforms are needed in the framework but we understand that funding is a roadblock The TU does not have direct access to the license fees collected by it Enabling Environment One way of addressing the funding issue would be through a USF The Telecommunications Act provides for USO but the obligation is POTS, notwithstanding that otherwise the Act is technology neutral A USF has not been operationalized, the TU has indicated that doing so is a priority area A challenge experienced by the TU is difficulty or inability to properly oversee the spectrum it is responsible for managing due to lack of adequate software. The TU indicated that it is working with the Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation (CTO) on development of a Broadband Plan Enabling Environment Demand must be stimulated to give citizens reason to use broadband to reduce the gap

Government applications are a good foundation to build this demand as all citizens are touched by its services A definitive step was taken Electronic Tax Administration where individuals are required to file annual income tax returns online and some corporate tax functions such as related to value added tax can also be done online For successful stimulation citizens e-interactions with Government applications must be efficient, effective and reliable A challenge exists in that there are different platforms or networks across departments and ministries and they cannot share information There are plans to address this by first developing a single Government wide area network Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance.

A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified need Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Training / Capacity to develop and implement a NBP Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Barbados Exists

Yes Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, egovernment) Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Technical assistance to develop joint projects (as using USF for regional project either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side such as: disaster planning and recovery; cyber security and incident response coordination) No Yes

No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations Establish a converged body, incorporating broadcast & TV, responsible for ICTs with appropriate expertise to regulate industry and providers - enhance the human resource skills to fill void

found in ICT expertise in areas such as the management of spectrum, data security and communication in emergencies for public safety Establish an incorporated entity with skilled resources and an innovative mindset, to provide services to all Government ministries, departments, and offices, and implement the necessary applications, technologies and hardware to achieve e-government objectives. Models for this can be found in Jamaica and Trinidad Reforms to complete sector enabling legislation : Enact legislation for Data Protection and Cyber Security, utilizing the HIPCAR model legislation; Review and Amend Telecommunications Act to facilitate the revised USP and draft attendant Regulations to give effect to Policy and USF, using HIPCAR draft model legislation as a guide Key BIIPAC Recommendations Revise USP to remove POTS obligations and address filling the gap in broadband coverage, through incentives to providers Operationalize USF provide funds to institute sector reforms;

provide funds to subsidize cost of broadband to low income consumers; target getting devices to some of the populations and support development of content and applications that deliver social and economic benefit Continue the work with CTO to develop the National Broadband Plan (NBP). The NBP should set out: A Vision for broadband strategy reflective of the development of Barbados into an e-society and an ICT regional hub; Clear measurable objectives of the NBP that should state the measurable reduction of the 25 percent gap in those offline and the improvement of level of broadband infrastructure. Key BIIPAC Recommendations The components of Governance necessary for effective NBP Ownership and championship for the NBP to be driven by a senior policy maker such as Minister of Government Management and execution of must be vested in an agency with power, preferably enshrined in

legislation, the converged body, representing a reconstituted TU would be appropriate having responsibility for telecommunications and ICT strategy, policy, and planning, and broadcast BELIZE Metrics Belize Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas)1 25th (3.15) UN e-Government Development Index (EGDI) (overall)2 120th IDI Rank3

116th Percentage of households with internet4 21 Percentage of individuals using internet4 38.7 Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 2.9 Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 10.2

Average broadband penetration- digiLAC Component 1 [1] 3.1 http://kp.iadb.org/DigiLAC/es/Paginas/Indice-de-Desarrollo-de-Banda-Ancha.aspx IDB Broadband Development Index (IDBA) ranking in the Americas reported for 2014 https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2014-Survey/E-Gov_Complete_Survey-2014.pdf United Nations E-Government Survey 2014, E-Government Development Index (EGDI) [3] http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2015/MISR2015-w5.pdf Measuring The Information Society Report 2015, ICT Development Index (IDI) [4] ITU World Telecommunications/ICT Indicator Database - 2014 [2] Performance Belize suffers from insufficient broadband infrastructure in terms of fixed and wireless

broadband resulting in inadequate coverage The penetration metrics are low relative to the rest of the Caribbean Much of Belize is very dense challenging the deployment of fixed networks, impacting the penetration which stood at 3.1% - 80% of Belize districts have penetration below 5% Belize has an IDB Broadband Development Index (IDBA) index of 3.15, which is below the average for the region of 3.66 Infrastructure & Access The density of much Belizes geography make fixed network deployment a challenge results in a significant unserved area With the average broadband penetration at 3.1%, the penetration ranges from 5.15% in Belize district to 0.83% in Toledo an agricultural district Broadband is not provided under a legal monopoly, but Belize Telemedia is the only provider of fixed broadband A practical monopoly in fixed broadband exists due to issues with terrain as well as the absence of network sharing policies

Alternative technologies to fixed will need to be utilized such as WIMAX, 4G, and LTE to reach dense or remote areas and to provide more cost effectively than fixed Development of mobile broadband will also have to be encouraged Infrastructure & Access Electricity is a key input to broadband services According to Belize National Census the average percentage of households with electricity was 82.7% in 2010 The component 1 Consultants found a strong interdependence between electricity access and broadband access Avg. percentage of households with access to electricity network Avg. broadband penetration Belize district

93.1 Toledo district 55.6 5.5 0.83 Source: BIIPAC Report: Belize Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 27/01/2014t Infrastructure & Access A hindrance to access of broadband is the price of the service The price of broadband in Belize is among the highest in the region prices notwithstanding having been reduced by approx. 50% over 2012 to 2013 Broadband prices represent 15% of gross national income per capita; mobile broadband prices

represent 4% of monthly income There has been a lot of progress in mobile broadband with operators making significant infrastructure investment with plans aimed at providing 4G to entire country and to start to provide FTTH in 2016 Enabling Environment The Belize Telecommunications Act provides for competition along with the Public Utilities Commission Act 199. A suite of Regulations is however required to give effect to some parts of the Act; only interconnection has the requisite instruments for implementation ICT enabling legislation existing Electronic Transactions Act 2003 Freedom of Information Act 1994, amended 2008 There remains a deficiency in ICT enabling legislation, specifically there is no legislation to address privacy and data protection, cybercrime/e-crimes, and interception of communications Belize Government has set some focus on development of ICTs

The Government has undertaken a number of projects to develop ICTs, particularly educational ICT projects Belizes overall IDBA rank is below the Caribbean average due to the strong efforts through policies and projects in liberalization and ICTs, especially education, the county scored well in the Strategic Regulation pillar of the index at 4.31 Enabling Environment At the time of Component 2 review Belize was in the process of developing an e-government Policy and Strategy for completion by July 2015 they could not ascertain the status of this report The Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is a multi-sector regulator Does not regulate broadcast and TV Therefore not covering all components of a converged sector A National Broadband Plan (NBP) should cover all ICTs including TV and Broadcast The development and administration of the NBP requires a dedicated team, with the appropriate level of authority to implement A converged regulator vested with appropriate authority would be well placed to oversee and execute the NBP as

part of governance requires a leader and a champion for the Plan at a senior level of the administration, such as a Minister of Government, who would be responsible for setting and driving the policy definition and be the accountable party. Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Note: *A Needs List developed by the Component 4 Consultants was shared with officials in Belize but feedback on these needs was not received in time for reporting so the responses are based on an assessment from research

Identified need Belize* Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Yes Training / Capacity to develop and implement a NBP Yes Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development

Yes Yes Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Yes Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, egovernment) Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Technical assistance to develop joint projects (as using USF for regional project either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side such as: disaster planning and recovery; cyber security and incident response co-ordination) Yes Yes Yes Yes

Key BIIPAC Recommendations Facilitate the expansion of broadband infrastructure through incentivizing the provision of broadband with technologies such as WIMAX and satellite to cover areas where population density and geography preclude the use of fixed technology Imposing policies such as Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) on incumbent provider Minimize the hindrance of high price to increased penetration and use by Establish new carrier international connections to provide decreased international bandwidth prices that will contribute to lower pricing The implementation of a universal broadband tariff to low incomes family, which could be partially subsidized by the government or could be based on broadband operators cost accountancy Provide for the reducing or subsidizing the cost of consumer devices Complete the ICT sector enabling legislation, enacting regulations to implement aspects of the Telecommunications Act Enact legislation to address consumer protection areas such as privacy, data protection, cybercrime,

and interception of communications Key BIIPAC Recommendations Enhance the regulatory and legislative framework Use HIPCAR draft model legislation to effect legislation on tariffs & pricing, competitive safeguards, and spectrum management Complete the legislation for effecting US through development of Regulations and operationalize a USF Revise the Interconnection framework to facilitate transparent interconnection between broadband networks and unrestricted access to facilities and customers; Include coverage requirements in the licensing framework. Develop a NBP that establishes the Policy and measurable objectives, for example with respect to improving the 3.1% average penetration to a specific target in a time target Effective Governance structure for implementation of Policies and NBP Establish a converged ICT regulator incorporating broadcast, TV and telecommunications Establish a Policy Unit reporting to the Minister to develop and implement the NBP

JAMAICA Metrics Jamaica Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas)1 13th (4.37) UN e-Government Development Index (EGDI) (overall)2 109th IDI Rank3 105th

Percentage of households with Internet4 25.7% Percentage of individuals using Internet4 40.5% Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 5.4 Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 33.1

inhabitants4 Average broadband penetration- digiLAC Component 1 [1] 15.69% http://kp.iadb.org/DigiLAC/es/Paginas/Indice-de-Desarrollo-de-Banda-Ancha.aspx IDB Broadband Development Index (IDBA) ranking in the Americas reported for 2014 https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2014-Survey/E-Gov_Complete_Survey-2014.pdf United Nations E-Government Survey 2014, E-Government Development Index (EGDI) [3] http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2015/MISR2015-w5.pdf Measuring The Information Society Report 2015, ICT Development Index (IDI) [4] ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database [2]

Performance Jamaica is reported to have a highly developed infrastructure yet its penetration metrics demonstrate gaps in access Jamaica ranks 2nd in the Caribbean grouping in the IDBA index The percentage of individuals using the Internet has improved materially from 27.7% in 2010 The percentage of households with internet grew from 14% in 2010 to 25.7% in 2014 The proliferation of computers also increased moving from 22.7% in 2010 to 32.5% by 2014 The IDBA rank and avg. broadband penetration, according to Component 1 of 15.69% and 25.7% of households having internet is an anomaly; can be explained by good performance in the Strategic regulation and Strategic Vision and Public Policy pillars of the index Infrastructure & Access Government invests considerable effort to develop digital inclusion Promoting several projects in low-income urban and rural areas to improve and increase broadband access public access points Polices related to e-government, e-learning or the establishment of a new regulatory framework, have

also been implemented These policies have contributed to the high showing in the Strategic regulation and Strategic Vision and Public Policy pillars of IDBA index There is a considerable gap between the geographic areas with high and low penetration BIIPAC Component 1 (Marin, J. 2015) - ranging from St. Andrew (which hosts the capital) at 27 per cent to St. Elizabeth at 5.5 per cent (Marin, Jamaica: Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, 2015) Given a good level of infrastructure, other reasons must account for the low penetration. Broadband Penetration by Parish Source: Jamaica Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 2014

Infrastructure & Access Component 1 (Dunn, 2015) identified high price as one of the reasons for low penetration The fixed and mobile broadband markets are competitive yet prices remain high. This a challenge needed to be addressed through policies that further promote competition Having undertaken numerous Universal Service Fund (USF) projects this has not materially increased penetration Provided public access in underserved areas through locations like community centres and schools Was not aimed at contributing to broadband networks or household/individual access The USF projects have contributed to some growth in demand Internet Exchange Point installed in August 2014 should contribute to lower costs and consequently consumer prices Enabling Environment Jamaica has a well developed legislative framework; covers most of ICTs

Data protection and privacy laws are required to complete suite of laws Government indicated that data protection laws will be enacted in 2016-17 These laws are particularly important with increasing use of cloud technologies in Jamaica and the region Legislation is delineated on technological lines Jamaica was an early adopter of a competitive market, with liberalization commencing in 2000 Competition has been vibrant but has not translated to low prices and appreciably higher penetrations more competition promotion required through policies Competition policies such as Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) will Promote further network reach Contribute to lowering prices to consumers Enabling Environment Jamaica has an established, functional USF USF has played a critical role in ICTs in Jamaica- funded projects so far have primarily focused on community and educational access not infrastructure build or tariff support - this could account for

apparently low impact on penetration metrics USF is based on contributions from carriers based on incoming international voice calls This source as a flow into USF will slow with proliferation of Over-the-Top (OTT) applications for international calls that bypass traditional network Need to rethink the structure of USF with potential slowing of inflow of funds consider placing obligation on local operators to contribute Consideration should be given to expanding the use of the USF to include device acquisition; support of subsidies for low income households There are multiple agencies administering USF and projects as inflow slows the administration of the USF could benefit from centralization Enabling Environment The ICT sector is overseen by multiple stand alone agencies this is consistent with the legislation being delineated on technological lines This is an inefficient structure may in part account for slow growth in broadband penetration &

access Inefficiency is highlighted by considering triple play offerings Triple play services straddle the Office of Utility Regulation (OUR), and the Broadcast Commission for licensing and pricing regulation of the different services that make up the triple play Does not accord with best practice of technology neutral institutional framework Recognizing this the Government with IADB assistance is working to create converged regulator bringing together Office of Utility Regulation (OUR), Broadcasting Commission and Spectrum Authority Enabling Environment In Vision 2030 Jamaica, National Development Plan ICTs is key to achieving the fifteen national outcomes It sees ICTs as an enabler of the key economic sectors National outcome #11 is for A Technology Enabled-Society National Outcome #6, Effective Governance, speaks to a process of inclusion and aims for

achieving among other things modernization of the public sector A review of Vision 2030 is that Jamaica needs a broadband plan to bring together the vision of the role of ICTs in support of its Vision 2030 . Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified need

Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Jamaica* Yes Training / Capacity to develop and implement a NBP Yes Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for Yes NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP Yes for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods

Yes Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators No Yes No No Yes Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government)

Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Yes Yes Yes Technical assistance to develop joint projects (as using USF for regional project either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side such as: disaster planning and recovery; Yes cyber security and incident response co-ordination) Key BIIPAC Recommendations Expansion of broadband access Boost the mobile broadband penetration through the use of 4G technologies at 700 Mhz, which will represent a unique opportunity to boast the broadband penetration to 100% in the country

Providing a universal broadband tariff to low incomes family, which could be partially subsidized by the government or could be based on broadband operators cost accountancy Increase competition in services and networks by imposing network sharing policies such as local loop unbundling (LLU) Complete the ICT sector enabling legislation, enacting regulations to implement aspects of the legislation Enact Data Protection legislation Universal Service Define a USP that does not depend on funds from incoming international calls The fund to be used not only for demand and community and education hardware access projects, but to subsidise access cost to low income population Key BIIPAC Recommendations National Broadband Plan (NBP)

Establish the structure to oversee the development of the NBP, directly accountable to the Minister Develop the vison and objectives regarding the level of coverage within the timeframe that the NBP will drive. Increase the households with broadband to 50 percent in 2 years and percentage of individuals using internet to 75 in 18 months Governance Establish the committee responsible for the development of the NBP, directly accountable to the Minister that engages relevant stakeholder groups. Conclude the establishment of a converged Regulator for the ICT sector Rationalise the agencies that currently utilise the USF, creating one body through which the USF administration and utilization is centralized TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Metrics

Trinidad & Tobago Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas) 1 11th (4.44) UN e-Government Development Index (EGDI) (overall)2 91st IDI Rank3 70th Percentage of households with Internet4

50% Percentage of individuals using Internet4 65.1% Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 17.5 Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants4 28.3 Average broadband penetration- digiLAC BIIPAC Component 1 44.61% [1]

http://kp.iadb.org/DigiLAC/es/Paginas/Indice-de-Desarrollo-de-Banda-Ancha.aspx IDB Broadband Development Index (IDBA) ranking in the Americas reported for 2014 https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2014-Survey/E-Gov_Complete_Survey-2014.pdf United Nations E-Government Survey 2014, E-Government Development Index (EGDI) [3] http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2015/MISR2015-w5.pdf Measuring The Information Society Report 2015, ICT Development Index (IDI) [4] ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database [2] Performance Broadband has made good progress moving from 22% of individuals using the Internet in 2002, to 65.1% reported in 2014 Almost half of country have penetration rates in excess of 50% i.e. more than half of households have broadband access The IDBA ranks 4th in the Caribbean with rating above the Caribbean average of 3.66

Consistent with the trend in LAC mobile exceeds fixed broadband penetration 18.9% mobile broadband penetration and 14.6% fixed broadband penetration Access to devices has seen good improvement with percentage of households with computers increasing from 53.1% in 2010 to 54% in 2014 (ITU World Telecommunications/ICT indicators Database) Pricing is among best in region J. Marin in Trinidad and Tobago Internet and Broadband Connectivity Report reported that data from ICT Pulse showed that in 2013, the percentage of monthly income spent on 2 Mbps broadband service was around 3% of the countrys average monthly income, one of the lowest in the region Infrastructure & Access There is a digital gap in the area of participation e-Government and e-business would be the areas to create the demand but are faced with challenges BIIPAC Component 3 identified these challenges as Acquiring the necessary e-payment platforms is costly Education needed for both businesses and consumers

The Component 3 report noted additional challenge as: Banks also do not facilitate Government online receipts from citizens to-date or online / mobile payments to citizens. Banks generally do not facilitate Business to Business or Business to Government online payments (Attiba Phillips, 2015) Infrastructure & Access Government has over the years implemented several successful projects promoting ICTs and connectivity and digital inclusion The success of these projects is reflected in Trinidads performance in the IDBA index pillar of Strategic Vision and Public Policy with one of the best rankings in the Caribbean; and in continued growth in percentage of individuals using the internet Most of the country is well covered by broadband penetration there are still some gaps

BIIPAC Component 1 (Marin, J. 2015) Highest penetrations are in Diego Martin 60.8% and Tobago 59.7%; Lowest penetration is Princess Town 12.08% Broadband Penetration by Regional Corporation Source: Trinidad & Tobago Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 2014 Enabling Environment Telecommunications Act the enabling legislation is technology neutral in its scope and largely addresses Next Generation Networks (NGNs) There is a need for regulations to give effect to some parts of the legislation ICT enabling legislation is mostly complete & at the time of the BIIPAC Component 2 review

Data Protection Act had not been promulgated, this is a critical piece of legislation for a society participating in e-commerce and online transactions. The Cybercrime Bill 2015 was to be amended before it is brought back before Parliament Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad & Tobago (TATT) is a converged regulator equipped to regulate a converged sector with NGNs TATT adopts a technology neutral approach regulates broadcasting, telecommunications, including ISPs, acts as the spectrum management authority Is responsible for development of policies that further the sector Enabling Environment Trinidad & Tobago has over the years had various ICT plans each with different focus and objectives the current one is smarTT National ICT Plan 2014-2018 smatTT is focused on innovation and skills development With the current levels of penetration, the objectives that they have set are not likely to be achieved without getting citizens online

Trinidad now needs to develop a strategy and plans that will bring to reality the objectives set out in the ICT plans Work has started on a project assisted by the World Bank (WB) to develop a National Broadband Strategy This would round out and complete the overall strategic plan for ICTs development for the country A complete NBP would include the quantifiable targets for penetration metrics, this would define the work needed to take Trinidad to the next step of becoming a full e-society Enabling Environment smarTT National ICT Plan 2014-2018 describes a developed governance structure The Ministry of Science and Technology is at the core of the structure Regulator TATT is part of this structure the smarTT Secretariat is part of this structure and is responsible for ICT policy and strategy With the components of this structure all reporting to the same Minster will allow for a streamlined approach to ICT planning and ensure that the political will is engaged

Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Trinidad & Tobago Yes

Training / Capacity to develop and implement a NBP Yes Identified need Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government)

Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Yes Yes

Technical assistance to develop joint projects (as using USF for regional project either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side such as: disaster planning and recovery; cyber security and incident response co-ordination) Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations Legislation Review the sector enabling legislation to ensure that the technology neutral language is consistent throughout in support of the converged governance structure. Use of HIPCAR draft model legislation would be useful in this regard. Enact the outstanding regulations to give effect to Universal Service Enact the Data Protection Bill Universal Service

Complete the enabling framework for US with the enactment of the outstanding Regulations Implement the USF NBP The process of development is well advanced under an engagement with the WB with TATT executing, this process should be seen through to completion of the national broadband strategy and plan. Key BIIPAC Recommendations Governance The smarTT Governance framework, headed by the Minister, be maintained and TATT continue with its assigned task of development and execution of the NBP The development with the assistance of the WB engagement to continue Within the established smarTT governance framework, the smarTT Secretariat be responsible for the oversight of the NBP and stakeholder engagement. Dominican

Republic (DR) Metrics Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas) IDI Percentage of Individuals using the internet Fixed Broadband Subscriptions per hundred inhabitant Active Mobile Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants Average broadband penetration BIIPAC Component 1 Dominican Republic 13th (4.22) 102nd

49.60% 5.70 30.10 17.72% Performance The IDBA score for DR is above the average for the Caribbean of 3.66, and it ranks 3 rd in the Caribbean Dominican Republic has been increasing its percentage of individuals using the Internet year on year Over the last 15 years almost half of the population became Internet users (49%), up from 8.81% in 2000 The percentage of households with a computer more than doubled between 2001 and 2014 going from 12.69% to 26.2% Infrastructure & Access

Digital inclusion is an important strategic objective for Government of DR and a great deal of emphasis has been place on achieving this through implementing a number of policies and plans Several projects over the last 10 plus years targeted to empowering people, organizations and businesses to apply information technology have resulted in a substantial growth in internet users Broadband fixed network is relativity well implemented but there are subscription rates remain low It has been identified that pricing in the Dominican Republic represents one of the highest percentages of monthly income spent across the region (Marin J. , IADB: Dominican Republic Internet and Broadband Connectivity Report, 2015) Many of the projects have been focused at the public access level with schools and community centres so did not have material impact on household and individual connectivity. Infrastructure & Access The projects have been led by different Ministries 7 Departments and the BIIPAC Component 1 Consultant list some of these as

The Policy and Intervention on Educative Strategy based on ICTs, implemented by the Ministry of Education. The Strategic Plan 2013 2016, carried out by the Office of the President Information Technology and Communication. The digital literacy plan PAD, promulgated by the Office of the President Information Technology and Communication. Others digital inclusion projects led by the national telecom regulator lNDOTEL DR has significant competition in infrastructure DR does not rely solely on private investment to expand network, Government also made significant

investment In 2014 made significant investment with support of World Bank to build out a national optical fibre network - BIIPAC Component 1 Infrastructure & Access Notwithstanding the private and public sector investment in infrastructure DR ranks low on the IDBA infrastructure pillar Broadband Penetration per Town The country has a considerable domestic digital gap between towns with higher broadband penetration and the lower penetration Only 9% of Dominican Republic towns hold broadband penetration rates over 15%

Santo Domingo and Santiago have the highest broadband penetration rates at 46.37% and 25.87% respectively Barouco, Elas Pea and Independencia have the lowest with average Broadband Penetration percentages of 1.82%, 1.21% and 1.99% respectively Source: Dominican Republic Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 2014 Enabling Environment Having a number of plans and projects through multiple ministries there was no unified strategic plan This void would be rectified by development of 2016-2020 Dominican Digital Agenda (or EDominicana) that was being finalised (due Jan 2016) at the time of BIIPAC Component 4 review The first section of this plan addresses the infrastructure pillar that DR needs to improve given

that this is what digital inclusion plans will ride on There is a challenge in identifying a clear governance framework for implementation of Digital Agenda across all government and private sector DR has a one regulator in INDOTEL - responsible for all aspects of ICTs including telecommunications licencing, universal service, broadcasting, spectrum, and sector competition Enabling Environment The high level organisation in charge of driving the implementation the Digital Agenda, the National Information Society Commission (CNSIC) created by presidential decree in 2005 rarely met since its creation CNSIC is hosted by INDOTEL and does not seem to have been able to coordinate its implementation across all the government agencies INDOTEL, a central government institution, has no mandate over any other agency The Telecommunications Law 153-98, the principle law governing ICTs is dated and needs to be reviewed with the objective of updating for NGN It is the view of the Component 4 Consultant that The Digital Agenda 2016-2020 and the

CARCIP broadband project, both include most of the elements of a NBP, and will therefore provide a basis for its development Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified needs Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Training / Capacity to develop and/or implement a NBP

Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government) Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Technical assistance to develop joint projects (e.g. using USF for regional projects either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side ) Technical assistance and support in the use of technology in disaster planning and recovery Technical assistance and support in developing cyber security framework including incident response coordination

Dominican Rep Yes Always welcomed Always welcomed Yes Yes Always welcomed Always welcomed No No Yes Yes Yes Not an issue

Yes Yes Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations NBP Develop the NBP, based on the (a) 2016-2020 Dominican Digital Agenda (or E-Dominicana) is currently being finalised (Jan 2016), which include the Infrastructure pillar, which aims to facilitate affordable and quality access to broadband for all Dominicans, and has as first action lin, development of NBP and (b) CARCIP project Fiber Broadband deployment across the national territory Refine the categorization of municipalities and recalculate the targets (as a % of connected households, businesses and public institutions) taking into account a specific set of socioeconomic indicators. Develop a broadband stimulation model for each municipality, with a set of solutions and tools that can be used to deploy the infrastructure in each areas such as market subsidies, PPP

investments in infrastructure, special spectrum allocations, and special fiscal exemptions, specific regulations for infrastructure sharing and unbundling the local loop, promotion of special packs and/or subsidised connectivity deals, training and equipment for final consumers Key BIIPAC Recommendations Governance Mandate a high level ministry, ideally the Ministry of Economy, Planning and Development (or the Ministry of Presidency - that has a role of prime ministry) to assume the coordination of the implementation of the Digital Agenda 2016-2020, head the CNSIC, and ensure that it is coherently implemented with the national development strategy (END 2030), and sufficiently funded, monitored and evaluated (as its implementation involves specific projects and activities in all government ministries). Create a specific commission, headed by INDOTEL, to manage and implement the Broadband Plan, directly connected to the agenda outputs, using a mix of USF funds, private sector investments and donors fund. Mandate formally the other ministries and agencies that have managed specific parts of the

Agenda and Broadband plan, such as the Community Centres (currently most managed by Indotel and some by the Vice Presidency), the Education Labs, and the e-government program. Key BIIPAC Recommendations Technologies Broadband universal service should use a combination of different access technologies (WIMAX, FTTH, HFC, and 4G) to be decided upon on a case by case basis. Consider the combination of new mobile technologies such as LTE-advanced with low spectrum allocation (700 MHz band) that will reduce cost. For this purpose, the freeing of 700 MHz spectrum with digital TV, and promotion of the use of TV whitespaces need to be accelerated ( Subsidise the implementation of technologies such as radio links, or microwave technology to implement broadband connections in schools or rural community access points in the municipalities were fiber does not reach. Key BIIPAC Recommendations Unifying the procedures for existing concessionaires which currently require addressing several

different governmental entities in order to get the permissions, licenses, payment of fees, and others needed to start operation or deployment of additional infrastructure. Legislation Modifying the interconnections regulation, to address deeper national issues on ISPs interconnection and peering through IXPs3. Complete the analysis and process required to establish the Internet Exchange Point, IXP Create and enforce local regulations that foster telecommunications infrastructure sharing. Develop regulations for Domestic roaming and Mobile Virtual Network Operators, update the Price Regulation Framework, reframe the Plan for Broadband Wireless Access Services in the 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz Bands, review the Telecommunications Fees Regulations and consider the Top Down Long Run Average Incremental Cost (LRAIC) Model Specifications Guyana Metrics Guyana

Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas) 3.56 (18TH ) IDI (2015) 114th Percentage of Individuals using the internet 37.35% Fixed Broadband Subscriptions per hundred inhabitant Active Mobile Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants

8.53% 0.25% Performance Guyana ranks 6th in the IDBA in the Caribbean fixed telephone, with its rank below the average for the region Guyanas relatively good overall IDBA rank may seem anomalous with its penetration rates Having articulated ICT plans and policies they hold the top position in Caribbean in pillar of Public Policy and Strategy Vision; holds a fairly good position in applications and capacitation Percentage of households with computers, is only 26.9% at 2014 up from 17.5% in 2010 Fixed subscriptions per 100 inhabitants has been flat over the last 5 years 19.1% in 2010 to 19.9% in 2014 Infrastructure & Access At the time of the BIIPAC review Guyana was one of the only countries in the Caribbean without mobile broadband data services

Mobile Internet services are provided under GPRS-EDGE technology, which is internationally not considered a mobile broadband technology Low penetration of households with computers - one of the policies by Government was to address this was the One Laptop per Family (OLPF) programme which was replaced by the One Laptop per Teacher (OLPT). Digicel claims that, currently, 94% of Guyanas population have available network in the areas that they live and work (J. Marin, 2015, BIIPAC Component 1 Report) Guyana has been slow to the liberalization show Infrastructure & Access The BIIPAC Component 1 Consultant reported new infrastructure developments

GT&T formally submitted a request to the government for spectrum allocation to facilitate 3G/4G services. In 2012 GT&T invested US$4.2 million and Digicel US$8.8 million in the sector Digicel was at that time considering an upgrade to its network to LTE and 4G technology Penetration rates still remain among the lowest in the Caribbean Enabling Environment Guyanas regulator is promoting new policies in order to improve telecommunication development such as Fixed universal service ICT Guyana National Strategy Programmes such as the ICT Professional Development Strategy for Teachers in Guyana stand as an example of how the Ministry of Education is looking for new and innovative ways to improve integration of ICT into the processes of teaching and learning.

The combination of that program with the development of the One Laptop per Family Guyana initiative will bridge the Digital Divide In spite of those government policies, Guyana has low broadband connectivity rates compared to the rest of the Caribbean Enabling Environment To improve broadband connectivity and digital inclusion, there is need for full market liberalization and fixed broadband infrastructure, and a new set of laws is necessary to encourage competition Guyana is now coming to liberalization a little delayed relative to its Caribbean neighbours The current Telecommunications Act, and the regulatory legal framework, are outdated and constitute an obstacle to the development of the ICT sector, hindering competition, digital inclusion and development of broadband infrastructure (BIIPAC Component 4 Consultant Report, Khelldi, 2016) 2012 Telecommunications Reform Bills were reviewed in late 2015 and at the time of concluding BIIPAC in early 2016 were pending review and approval by Parliament

The Reform bills cover the Public Utilities Commission (PUC), telecommunications and subsidiary spectrum management legislation Enabling Environment The Reform Bills in the form reviewed by Component 4 Consultant (Khelladi, 2016) would cover the areas identified by Component 2 Consultants as necessary

General Recommendations for Next Generation Broadband Regulatory Framework NGB Interconnection & Access Recommendations Recommendations for Access and Interoperability Recommendations for Broadband Licensing Regulations Recommendations for Broadband Universal Access & Service Regulations Tariffs, Pricing and Costs Recommendations Consumer Protection & Quality Standards Recommendations Recommendation for Net Neutrality Policy and Regulation for Open Internet Access Broadband Spectrum Management Recommendations All areas relevant for a competitive sector Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may

require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified needs Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Training / Capacity to develop and/or implement a NBP Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management

Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Guyana Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government)

Yes Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Yes Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Yes Technical assistance to develop joint projects (e.g. using USF for regional projects either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side ) Technical assistance and support in the use of technology in disaster planning and recovery Technical assistance and support in developing cyber security framework including incident response co-ordination

Yes Yes Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations Legislation The HIPCAR licensing policy guidelines, legislative model and assessment results should be adopted where relevant, as a reference by which the current bills and licensing regulations may be strengthened in areas listed by BIIPAC Component 2 including inter alia: Policies and regulations that lower investment risk and cost structure for industry should be enacted while creating an enabling environment with clear incentives and increased regulatory certainty. Ensure and promote fair pricing and the use of cost-oriented pricing methods by telecommunications providers in Guyana Regulations are needed for infrastructure sharing by national backbone networks with backhaul providers of capacity to wireless network providers

Urgent to have approved by parliament and enacted the 2 bills drafted in 2012 (reviewed in late 2015 - after government changed) for Public Utilities Commission (PUC) and for Telecommunications (and subsidiary spectrum management regulation Key BIIPAC Recommendations Finalise set up of Telecommunications in the Ministry of Infrastructures. However, fill the post of Telecommunications Director Review and design the institutional framework for ICTs and mandate an agency to develop and manage the National ICT agenda, and the National Broadband Plan with the support of a high level inter-ministerial Commission Promote fixed broadband competition, and possibly impose the obligation of providing fixed broadband universal services at reduced prices. Provide the Public Utilities Commission, (PUC), the telecom regulator with enough capabilities to manage a competitive market such as fixed and wireless broadband

Key BIIPAC Recommendations Broadband access should be both fixed and wireless. The implementation of 4G technologies at 700 MHz is the best affordable substitute to fixed broadband in the areas of the country where there is a lack of connectivity. Create a fund to supply telecommunication services to areas where it might not be economically viable for private operators Haiti Metrics Haiti 1.81 Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas) n/a IDI (2015) 11.4%

Percentage of Individuals using the internet 0.39% Fixed line Penetration n/a Fixed Broadband Subscriptions per hundred inhabitant1 Active Mobile Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 0.5% Average percentage of broadband coverage (not 52.6% 2 penetration) BIIPAC Component 1 1. Recent deployments of FTTH/FTTB Natcom and Digicel not recorded 2. Due to the lack of broadband penetration data for Haiti Mobile Broadband coverage was the variable chosen Performance Use of the internet is steadily rising growing from 0.23% in 2000 to 11.4% in 2014

Mobile penetrations is one of the lowest in the region Notwithstanding relatively low mobile penetrations, penetration has been increasing year on year growing from 0.64% in 2000 to 69.4% in 2013 Haiti has one of the lowest fixed line penetrations in the world remains below 1% - with little demonstration of growth Haiti has the lowest IDBA in the Caribbean and ranks last in the Americas and Caribbean regions Infrastructure & Access A major challenge faced by Haiti is the destruction by most of its infrastructure by the earthquake in 2011 Since then they have been undergoing much needed restructuring with a number of projects Examples of these projects in 2012, saw 40 ICT labs in rural school deployed. Additionally, a new core rural network is being built under the Haiti Rural Initiative, delivering access to 6 key rural regions. (Marin J. , IADB: Haiti Internet and Broadband Connectivity Report, 2015) Projects such as this would have contributed to the increase in individuals using internet The broadband and mobile markets are liberalized There are Five ISP broadband providers

Two mobile operators: DIGICEL and NATCOM with a penetration of 69% and 4% Respectively The voice fixed network is a monopoly of the NATCOM - Fixed Penetration 0.39% in 2014 Low fixed network penetration can be countered by new HSPA mobile Internet services, launched by Digicel in 2013 Infrastructure & Access With the relatively high growth in mobile subscriptions and slow growth in fixed network, the growth path for broadband is mobile Wireless broadband coverage, should be promoted as the cheapest broadband infrastructure through the combination of different technologies Haiti has the 2nd highest broadband pricing in the Caribbean - subscription to fix broadband services starts at around US$45 per month - that means a 66% of GNP per capita. There is a considerable gap between departments regarding broadband coverage Only 20% of Haiti departments have a broadband coverage higher than 50%

Average Percentage of Broadband Coverage Source: IDB Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 2014 Enabling Environment The telecommunications legislation was dated and a new draft act was prepared by the government in 2012, but unfortunately the process for parliamentary approval and enactment was not completed In addition to the revised Act legislative provisions needed to make provisions for the uptake of the e-government such as, laws on electronic transactions, access to public information, privacy and data protection For regulations on the different aspects highlighted by the component 2 consultant, relative to

Interconnection & Access, Operator & Services Licensing, Consumer Protection & Quality Standards, and the Broadband Spectrum Management Under Strategic plan for the development of Haiti: An Emerging Country in 2030 a number of projects have been undertaken by the Government towards restoration of the infrastructure Enabling Environment The National Regulatory Authority is promoting the ICT competition across the country: Mobile Number Portability will be a reality in 2015 and will help to foster the competition BIIPAC Component 2 Report (Jackson, 2015) Two problems plaguing Haiti are literacy and poverty BIIPAC Component 2 Consultants noted Haiti needs to develop an effective, comprehensive and modern regulatory framework that can attract investments for the ICT sector with a structure that is determined, in part, by the legal and constitutional system of the country and includes the establishment of a comprehensive set of laws, rules, and regulations that clearly identifies the contractual obligations and property

rights of governments and stakeholders (Jackson, 2015) Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified needs Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP Training / Capacity to develop and/or implement a NBP

Haiti Yes Yes Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Yes Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Yes Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Training / Capacity in NGN regulation

Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government) Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Technical assistance to develop joint projects (e.g. using USF for regional projects either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side ) Technical assistance and support in the use of technology in disaster planning and recovery Technical assistance and support in developing cyber security framework including incident response co-ordination Not a priority Yes Yes Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations Legislation Need to update entire legal and regulatory framework, enact the revisted Telecommunications bill prepared by the government in 2012.

Additional legal texts needed: electronic transactions, access to public information, privacy and data protection, as well as the regulations on the different aspects highlighted by the component 2 consultant, relative to Interconnection & Access, Operator & Services Licensing, Consumer Protection & Quality Standards, and the Broadband Spectrum Management. Need government and stakeholders review the whole set of policies, objectives and strategies for Telecommunications and ICT. GTICs 2010 ICT strategy could be a base for a new digital agenda. NBP Meanwhile Ministry of TCT and the CONATEL define the overall policy goals, and with the participation of stakeholders design of a national broadband plan (NBP),but with a much narrower perspective and scope than a full-fledged national ICT strategy. Key BIIPAC Recommendations Establish Regulatory Capacity for Expedited Interconnection to minimize any obstacles to incremental deployment of broadband infrastructure based on interconnection issues. Establish a consistent licensing framework that is clearly targeted to achieving a set of defined policy objectives. In addition, general authorizations can be used in lieu of onerous licensing

regulations to ease market entry Need to establish projects and policies within ICT strategy covering: literacy, e-government, eeducation, ICT training, access equipment subsidies such as OLPF or OLPC, the improvement of the access to electricity, community centres and school labs, and the promotion of local hightech companies Key BIIPAC Recommendations Governance Establish a high level governmental ICT agency (Presidential or PM or Economy or planning) with overall perspective, country vision, and mandate and capacity to seek alignment between all government ministries, non-profit organizations and private sector corporations. The starting point should be creation of a national ICT committee, headed by the Prime Minister, and including the key ministries (a MTCT, economy and finance, public works, education), CONATEL, non-profit organizations or multilateral agencies, the E-government inter-ministerial commission (that was reactivated in 2015), that would review and update the 2010 ICT agendas and the governance proposal prepared by GTIC. Suriname

Metrics Suriname Broadband Development Index (IDBA) Rank (Americas) IDI Percentage of Individuals using the internet Fixed Broadband Subscriptions per hundred inhabitant Active Mobile Broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants Average broadband penetration BIIPAC Component 1 3.24 85th 40.08% 5.63% 71.65% 7.47%

Performance Suriname has one of the lowest broadband penetration rates in the Caribbean Fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants has remained relatively flat over the last 5 years at approx. 15.5% (Marin J. , 2015) Fixed broadband connections per 100 inhabitants is only 6.9 per cent The percentage of individuals who use Internet in Suriname is one of the lowest in the region growing from 2.51% in 2000 to 40.08% in 2014 Mobile subscriptions are growing to 171% in 2014 Infrastructure & Access Three challenges facing Suriname are broadband penetration, its fixed broadband network and competition in the fixed markets The reason for lack of fixed broadband is the lack of competition in the fixed market State owned Telesur is the only operator licensed to offer both fixed broadband and telephone services in Suriname, at the time of the BIIPAC Component 1 review.

There is competition in the mobile market with 3 operators, including Telesur The government is forcing the state-owned operator Telesur to invest in new mobile broadband networks and bandwidth across the country (Marin J. , 2015) With fixed penetration low and flat over a number of years, mobile growth would indicate that road to broadband growth lies with mobile Average Percentage of Broadband Penetration Source: Suriname Broadband ICT Diagnosis and Infrastructure Map, J. Marin, 2014 Enabling Environment For Suriname government ICT policy, especially in education and e-government represents a major

strategy Suriname does not have a full suite of ICT laws needed are laws coverings Electronic Transactions; Electronic Evidence; Privacy; Data Protection; and Cybercrimes There is legislation related to USF, but it is not operationalized. ICT policy in education and e-government represent a major component of the Governments overall strategy There are many non-governmental programs focused on the improvement of learning and teaching with ICTs Notwithstanding the programs penetration remains low Consensus that liberalization will assist in moving this these metrics forward Enabling Environment Suriname has a converged regulator by virtue of the Telecommunications Act in 2007 Telecommunications Authority of Suriname, (TAS) TAS has oversight of telecommunications sector, broadcasting, media and cable Television

Competition issues do not fall under the remit of TAS, and according to the Component 2 Consultant report there are no competition laws or agency, TAS has performed this function for the telecommunications sector de facto Resource Needs for NBP Human and financial resources to develop NBP identified as scarce Expertise to develop and implement is identified as needing an uplift The table following sets out a list of needs and indicates the needs for which the country may require assistance. A Needs List was developed by the Component 4 Consultants and in discussion with Administration a position regarding specific needs was developed A collaborative regional approach would mitigate cost, gain efficiencies, and share best practices Identified needs Technical assistance (TA) to develop a new or refine an existing NBP

Training / Capacity to develop and/or implement a NBP Technical assistance (TA) to develop the institutional framework and coordination mechanism for NBP Actions targeting High political decision levels and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development Technical assistance to develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods Training / Capacity in NGN regulation Training / Capacity in spectrum management Training / Capacity in USF management Technical assistance (TA) to set up the USF Develop better data gathering capacity on key NBP related indicators Specific support for demand project design (e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government) Sharing best practices on NBP and USF Policy or project design to ensure additional international bandwidth Technical assistance to develop joint projects (e.g. using USF for regional projects either in supply side, interconnecting neighbouring countries, or demand side ) Technical assistance and support in the use of technology in disaster planning and recovery

Technical assistance and support in developing cyber security framework including incident response co-ordination Suriname Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Key BIIPAC Recommendations Infrastructure Use wireless solutions such as satellite, to reach underserved remote areas. This is necessary for Suriname to achieve its goals on training, education and digital inclusion. Promote network sharing to address the speed of roll out. This would help mobile operators expand in a country with one of the lowest population densities in the world. Encourage foreign investment by promoting the competition of fixed lines and fixed broadband. Implement a new telecom reform that would include the fixed market. Structural The Telecommunications Authority of Suriname (TAS) needs to improve its regulatory capacity to effectively handle the highly dynamic nature of the demand on its human resources.

To minimize the risk of distorting investment incentives and reduced possibility of the desired market expansion, we recommend regulatory forbearance in the introductory stage of the development of the broadband market in Suriname when broadband services are new, and markets are not mature. Key BIIPAC Recommendations Legislation It was identified that there are no explicit and adequate provisions for consumer protection & quality standards. The Consultant commended the proposed consumer protection and quality of service regulations for Guyana drafted in 2011 to Suriname for adoption. Adopt HIPAR policy guidelines and draft regulation for universal access, licensing, and interconnection to effect practical implementation. Healthy competition in fixed line and fixed broadband is key to Surinames broadband growth, to facilitate this competition it is recommended that Suriname implement regulations that facilitate access to new entrants, issue new licences on fixed lines and fixed broadband, and deliver the international cable landing permits that will increase international bandwidth capacity and lower wholesale prices.

Key BIIPAC Recommendations NBP Start a participative process to develop a NBP that should include targets for infrastructure and usage in the different areas of the country, and detail the means and strategies to achieve them. Specifically, the NBP should include a comprehensive review of the use of a combination of various access technologies in different areas of the country. The NBP should coherently encapsulate a National School Connectivity program and articulate its strategies with other sectors key projects such as the E-government program and rural community centres. The President or Prime Minister issues appropriate legal text, mandating the Ministry of Transport, Communication and Tourism (MTCT) to coordinate and take the lead on the design and development of the Suriname National Broadband plan. Further, a National Broadband Commission comprising the other relevant ministries, the regulator, and public and private stakeholders (including e-gov. committee) should be established with the mandate to coordinate the design of their individual ICT strategies and plans with the MTCT.

Regional Cooperation Regional Cooperation Common positions Each of the BIIPAC beneficiary countries have digital gaps within country and there are similarities in the issues that face them Funding for reforms is a challenge across the board; options for addressing this include assistance from regional or international agencies or through USFs. All of the legislative frameworks require some level of revision and updating. HIPCAR has led the way in this as a project benefitting several countries in the region, providing implementable outputs Many countries have not implemented the recommendations out of HIPCAR and a common reason is lack of resources to do the detailed work from the draft models and policy guidelines provided Some have ICT strategies but all lack NBPs although Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago have commenced work in that area

All have scarce human and financial resources and would benefit from a collaborative regional approach to addressing the needs identified for each country in development of NBPs Regional Cooperation Regional Best Practices There are some regional best practices which can be commended for each country Converged Regulator Trinidad & Tobago has established a regulator covering telecommunications, broadcast, and encompassing ICTs, also functioning as the spectrum authority. Takes a technology neutral approach to its role. Commended as a model for others to follow E-Government development framework Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago have both established government incorporated entities tasked with promotion of e-government and providing ICT cervices to government ministries and departments. Commended to other countries as a model.

Regional Cooperation Regional collaboration will Reduce the time to develop and implement NBPs Will lead to best practices being adopted Provide efficiency Fill voids in human capacity and help to provide technical assistance and training The Component 4 Consultants jointly proposed a programme of support for adoption by the beneficiary countries Proposal for a Caribbean

Broadband Support Programme Programme Objectives Support Caribbean governments to design, implement and monitor their National Broadband Plans (NBPs) Design and validate a regional strategy or regional reference framework, with a set of common targets, and monitor it Support regional partnerships and collaboration for broadband development (such as regional projects and joint ventures on both demand and supply sides) Governance and organisation Small implementation unit (2-3 persons) hosted in one of the organisations, with a roaster of regional specialists and consultants available on demand. Steering committee that includes : the countries reps, CTU, ITU, CANTO, CARICOM, CTO, eventually also donors Caribbean Broadband Support

Programme Activities Implement high level awareness raising activities targeting High level political decision and policy makers on the strategic importance of NBP for the countries development goals Develop training (face to face and online) and provide technical assistance for telecom agencies, ministries and regulators, to enhance countries capacity to develop and/or implement an monitor a NBP to design and implement develop new NGN regulations or implementation methods spectrum management USF establishment and management Demand stimulation project design (as on e-education, OLPF or OLPC, e-government) Caribbean Broadband Support Programme Activities (Contd) On request facilitate NBP participative design processes, including consultation, target

definitions and set up of a NBP enabling institutional framework and coordination mechanism Gather relevant national and regional data, to analyse and benchmark the Caribbean countries Broadband development (using broadband development index and additional tools) Develop mechanism for permanent exchange of best practices, lessons learned and peer to peer support and collaboration Results or Monitoring Indicators High level objective indicators After 18 months, at least 60% of participating countries have updated or developed new NBP with detailed targets and KPIs After 2 years, at least 40% countries have started implementing NBP After 2 years, at least 30% countries are implementing demand projects using their USF and/or international development funding Results or Monitoring Indicators Organise by the end of year 1, a series of online training courses, offered in the areas identified by

the countries, similar to one offered by the CEABAD for Central America In 3 years, at least 8 national and 5 regional onsite training workshops have been delivered At least 2 times a year an awareness raising event is organised targeting high level policy makers (as specific panels or activities in some broader regional key ministerial events) Each year at least 4 case studies or policy briefs relevant for the region are prepared In year 1 a permanent online forum is established to facilitate stakeholders ongoing exchange of best practices, lessons learned and peer to peer support and collaboration Each year a monitoring report is prepared benchmarking the Caribbean countries broadband plans implementation and other relevant indicators. Indicators are updated online quarterly At least 5 short term technical assistance missions are implemented in countries, on demand After BIIPAC. Next Steps After BIIPAC, the momentum needs to be continued so that value can be derived from the work to benefit the countries.

The sector is a dynamic one and needs constant oversight It is recommended that the following be considered as next steps: CANTO should examine the needs identified under Component 4 to develop a project to provide assistance to accepting beneficiary countries in the development of NBP. This should be under the umbrella of regional cooperation project. These needs should be further discussed with the beneficiary countries. This would be particularly useful since some of the countries have had elections during the time of the project, resulting in Administration changes. An engagement should be undertaken to update on what activities have been undertaken since the conclusion of the project, e.g. amended and new legislation; institutional changes; progress in liberalization; progress in commencing NBPs.

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