Cloud Computing: Enabling New Opportunities for Libraries Marshall Breeding Independent Consultant, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding May 16,2014 COSUGI 2014 Summary Marshall Breeding will present a
summary of the latest trends in library technologies. Many of these new products, especially those based on cloud computing technologies, have a profound impact on the models of resource sharing available to libraries. Library Technology Guides w a r b i l . ww
h c e t ry g o l no Library Technology Industry Reports American Libraries 2014: Strategic
Competition and Cooperation Library Journal
2013: Rush to Innovate 2012: Agents of Change 2011: New Frontier 2010: New Models, Core Systems 2009: Investing in the Future 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil 2007: An industry redefined 2006: Reshuffling the deck 2005: Gradual evolution 2004: Migration down, innovation up 2003: The competition heats up Library Systems Report 2014 Library Systems Report 2014 Arabic
Integrated Library Systems Integrated library systems continue to incrementally evolve and remain viable for public libraries and others where the central concern continues to focus on print and electronic books. Integrated library systems, though not as radically reengineered as library services platforms, must still make ambitious improvements in functionality, especially in their patron Library Services Platforms
Recent years have seen the emergence of library services platforms, a new genre of automation systems designed to manage electronic and print collections. These platforms follow the services-oriented architecture, are deployed through multitenant SaaS, and have other distinctive characteristics that set them apart from the integrated library systems. ILS vs LSP: Shades of grey The term library services platform was established to differentiate these products from the model of automation inherent in
integrated library systems. These two categories also have significant areas of overlap in functionality, and some products embrace characteristics of both. Library Services Platform Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services Services
Service oriented architecture Exposes Web services and other APIs Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users Platform General infrastructure for library automation Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data
Library Services Platform Characteristics Highly Shared data models Delivered through software as a service Multi-tenant Unified workflows across formats and media
Flexible metadata management Knowledgebase architecture Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores MARC Dublin Core VRA MODS ONIX Bibframe New structures not yet invented Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability SirsiDynix
BLUEcloud Suite Evolutionary development toward the creation of a Library Services Platform New BLUEcloud modules consistent with Library Services Platform Symphony and Horizon belong to the ILS category Overall deployment = Interim Hybrid model
BLUEcloud components expand Dependence on ILS component shrinks LSP / ILS Hybrid Model m r o f t a l P s e c
i rv e S y r a r Lib ) s ( m te s y S y
r a r b i L d e t a r g e t In Library Systems Report Tables
http://www.americanlibrariesmagazine.org SirsiDynix in Library Systems Report SirsiDynix signed 128 contracts for its Symphony ILS, with the majority made to libraries outside the US, dominated by public libraries (63), with significant numbers of SirsiDynix in Library Systems Report
The company has developed the BLUEcloud Suite, a set of web-based products that operate in conjunction with its Symphony or Horizon ILS through a layer of web SirsiDynix in Library Systems Report Products previously delivered through this architecture include MobileCirc, to allow staff to perform selected circulation functions on tablets or other mobile devices; Analytics; eResource Central,
for management and access to ebooks and other electronic resources; the Enterprise discovery interface Portfolio, which extends Enterprise for access to digital collections; BookMyne, a mobile online catalog app; and Social Library, a native Facebook online catalog. Resources currently available through eResource Central include ebooks from OverDrive, 3M Cloud Library, Baker & Taylors Axis 360, EBSCO, and Recorded Books. SirsiDynix in Library Systems Report Development of BLUEcloud Cataloging is underway, with release planned in 2014 as the first of the staff modules offered
through a web interface. Software as a Service: Major industry trend The transition to cloud computing provides a significant increment of industrywide growth. SaaS: New financial model A software-as-a-service
(SaaS) economy model trades higher upfront costs, incurred by libraries for equipment and software licenses, for a comprehensive annual subscription fee. SaaS: Efficient model of computing Leveraging economies of scale, SaaS providers have the potential to enable savings for libraries over time compared with direct and indirect costs of maintaining local servers and related infrastructure.
Saas: Library Adoption Newer products come only via SaaS. Even for serverbased integrated library systems, libraries increasingly opt for hosted options as they acquire new products, instead of replacing outdated equipment Cloud Computing for Libraries Book Image Publication Info:
Volume 11 in The Tech Set Published by Neal-Schuman / ALA TechSource ISBN: 781555707859 http://www.nealschuman.com/ccl Local Computing
Traditional model Locally owned and managed Shifting from departmental to enterprise Departmental servers co-located in central IT data centers Increasingly virtualized Fundamental technology shift
Mainframe computing Client/Server Web-based and Cloud Computing http://www.flickr.com/photos/carrick/619 52845/ p://soacloudcomputing.blogspot.com/2008/10/cloud-computing.html ttp://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-10-2001/jw-1019-jxta.html Cloud Computing Major trend in Information Technology Term in the cloud has devolved into
marketing hype, but cloud computing in the form of multi-tenant software as a service offers libraries opportunities to break out of individual silos of automation and engage in widely shared cooperative systems Opportunities for libraries to leverage their combined efforts into large-scale systems with more end-user impact and organizational efficiencies Gartner Hype Cycle 2009 Gartner Hype Cycle 2010 Gartner Hype Cycle 2011 Gartner Hype Cycle 2012
Cloud computing characteristics Web-based Interfaces Externally hosted Pricing: subscription or utility Highly abstracted computing model Provisioned on demand Scaled according to variable needs Elastic consumption of resources can contract and expand according to demand
ASP / Server Hosting / Colocation Vendor hosting of server associated with single-instance system Each instance separately installed and configured Often deployed on virtualized servers Client/server systems may require installation of client software on staff workstations Multi-tenant SaaS
One Instance serves all users of the service (institutional or Individual) Supports institutional or individual partitioning of functionality Supports shared data access as needed Fixes and features deployed once for all users Web-based interfaces, no workstation clients
Benefits of Cloud Computing Libraries Elimination of capital expenses for equipment Lower annual costs Redeployment of technical staff to more meaningful
activities Providers / Vendors Higher revenues relative to softwareonly arrangements Provision of infrastructure at scale with lower unit costs Longer-term relationships with customers
Cost implications Total cost of ownership Do all cost components result in increased or decreased expense Personnel costs need less technical administration Hardware server hardware eliminated Software costs: subscription, license,
maintenance/support Indirect costs: energy costs associated with power and cooling of servers in data center IaaS: balance elimination of hardware investments for ongoing usage fees Especially attractive for development and prototyping Budget Allocations Local Computing
Server Purchase Server Maintenance Application software license Data Center overhead Energy costs Facility costs Cloud Computing Annual
Risks and concerns Privacy of data Ownership of data Policies, regulations, jurisdictions Avoid vendor lock-in Integrity of Data
Backups and disaster recovery Caveats and concerns with SaaS Libraries must have adequate bandwidth to support access to remote applications without latency
Quality of service agreements that guarantee performance and reliability factors Configurability and customizability limitations Access to APIs Ability to interoperate with 3rd party applications Security issues Most providers implement stronger safeguards beyond the capacity of local institutions Virtual instances equally susceptible to
poor security practices as local computing Data as a service SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models Bibliographic knowledgebase: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries
Discovery indexes: article and object-level index for resource discovery E-resource knowledge bases: shared authoritative repository of e-journal holdings General opportunity to move away from libraryby-library metadata management to globally shared workflows More than a technical transition Transforming infrastructure
Transform resources Working toward shared infrastructure Identify areas where libraries can collaborate to share resources Infrastructure transformation Bandwidth Shared services Refocus development from stand-alone applications to platforms
Platform development APIs that allow individual libraries or campuses to consume content or services according to local needs Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data
Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source full access to internal program of the application Open APIs expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality Strategic Cooperation and Resource sharing Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate Many regional consortia merging
State-wide or national implementations Shared Consortial ILS Search: Holdings Model: Multiple independent libraries in a Consortium Share an ILS Bibliographic Database
Library 10 Shared Consortia System ILS configured To support Direct consortial Borrowing through Circulation Module South Australia SA Public Library Networ 140 Public Libraries Northern Ireland
Recently consolidated from 4 regional networks into one 96 branch libraries http://www.ni-libraries.net/ 18 mobile libraries Collections managed through single Axiell OpenGalaxy LMS Leveraging the Cloud Moving legacy systems to hosted
services provides some savings to individual institutions but does not result in dramatic transformation Globally shared data and metadata models have the potential to achieve new levels of operational efficiencies and more powerful discovery and automation scenarios that improve the position of libraries overall. Move up the technology stack
Infrastructure General support Library-specific support Utility programming Application programming Strategic technology planning Creative innovation Questions and discussion
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