Contamination and Decontamination - Training Officer 101 - HOME

Contamination and Decontamination - Training Officer 101 - HOME

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Contamination The transfer of a hazardous material in greater than acceptable quantities to People Equipment Environment C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Decon Contamination Reduction The process of removing hazardous materials to prevent the spread of contaminants beyond a specific area Reduce contamination to levels that are no longer harmful C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Types of Contamination

Primary (Direct) Secondary Surface Permeation C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Types of Contamination Primary (Direct) Simply referred to as contamination Occurs in the hot zone Direct contact with a hazardous material Direct transfer of a hazardous material to People

Animals Equipment Environment Easiest way to avoid contamination Avoid contact with the hazardous material C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Types of Contamination Secondary Sometimes called cross contamination Occurs outside the hot zone carried by

Personnel's clothing Tools Air Currents Runoff Water Personnel, equipment, etc. must be decontaminated prior to leaving the hot zone C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination

Types of Contamination Surface Limited to the surface of a material Doesnt penetrate, permeate, or soak into materials Dry solids Chemical powders Chemical dusts Unlikely to contaminate anything except the outer surfaces they contact C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination

Types of Contamination Permeation Penetrate below the surface of a material Particularly if chemicals are liquids or gases Contact material is porous C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Methods Must determine the type and method of decon before personnel enter the hot zone Methods Wet or dry Physical or chemical

Before initiating decon consider? Is it safe to conduct decon? What are the alternatives? Are there adequate resources to conduct the operation? C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Methods Wet Involve washing the contaminated surface with solutions Flushing with a hose stream or safety shower

Usually necessitate the collection of runoff water Wading pools Liquid retaining devices C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Methods Dry Methods such as scraping, brushing & absorption

Removing contaminated clothing Allowing an aerosol to evaporate Removing contaminated dust Vacuuming Sticky tape Do not create large amounts of contaminated liquid runoff C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Methods Physical Contaminated removed without changing the

material chemically Contaminant is then contained for disposal Absorption Adsorption Brushing Scraping Dilution Evaporation

Washing C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Methods Chemical Used to make the contaminant less harmful Changes it through some kind of chemical process Using bleach to kill a potentially harmful etiological agent

Chemical degradation Sanitization Disinfection Sterilization Neutralization Solidification C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures

Can be performed by operational level responders Operations Plus Must be given appropriate training C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Gross Decon Aimed at getting the worst contaminate parts off the victim quickly Usually by flushing with water Hose stream Safety shower

Other water source Performed before technical decon Entry team personnel Victims during emergency decon Persons requiring mass decon C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Emergency Decon Removing the threatening contaminant from the victim as quickly as possible No regard for the environment or property

May be necessary for both victims and rescuers Failure of protective clothing Accidental contamination of first responders Heat illness or other injury suffered by first responders Immediate medical attention required for other victims C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures

Emergency Decon Considered a quick fix Removal of all contaminants may not occur A more thorough decontamination must follow Creates contaminated runoff that can be harmful to the environment Benefit outweighs the risk C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Technical (Formal) Decon Uses chemicals or physical methods to thoroughly remove contaminants from responders Primarily entry team personnel and their equipment May also be used on incident victims in non-lifethreatening situations Usually conducted after gross decon C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Technical (Formal) Decon

Uses chemicals or physical methods to thoroughly remove contaminants from responders Primarily entry team personnel and their equipment May also be used on incident victims in non-lifethreatening situations Usually conducted after gross decon C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Mass Decon Process of conducting gross decontamination of multiple people at one time in emergency situations

May be conducted with or without formal decon High volume low pressure nozzles Ideally, a soap and water solution is more effective Using building features Fire sprinklers Public fountains Swimming pools C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Patient Decon Necessary whenever victims have been

contaminated yet need medical attention Uses the same techniques as Gross Emergency Technical C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Decontamination Implementation Site Selection Accessibility Adjacent to the hot zone Terrain and surface material

Site ideally slopes towards the hot zone Lighting (electrical supply) Should have adequate lighting Drains and waterways Protect all environmentally sensitive areas Water supply Water must be available Weather Up wind of the hot zone C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Decontamination Corridor

Should be visually identifiable Barrier tape Safety cones Ensure privacy Bag and tag contaminated clothing / effects C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Evidence Collection Haz mat incidents may also be crime scenes Minimize the amount of disturbance Life safety must always be a top priority

Dead victims may contain evidence on or in their bodies Still must go through decon before transporting Personal effects become evidence C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Decontamination Types and Procedures Termination NFPA 471 A debriefing needs to be held for those involved As soon as practical Provide as much information as possible

Delayed health effects Schedule follow-up examinations C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Contamination and Decontamination Works Cited N.F.P.A. 472 Standard for Competence of responders to Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents 2008 Edition N.F.P.A 1001 Standard for Professional Firefighter Qualifications 2008 Edition N.F.P.A. 1561 Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System 2008 Edition O.S.H.A 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response U.S. DOT Emergency Response Guidebook 2008 Edition

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