Could morphological knowledge improve literacy in dyslexic ...

Could morphological knowledge improve literacy in dyslexic ...

Could morphological knowledge improve literacy in dyslexic children? Professor Julia Carroll Coventry University Structure 1. What is morphology? 2. Is morphological awareness a strength or a weakness in dyslexic children? Are morphological difficulties associated with phonological difficulties? 3. Is use of morphological strategies in literacy associated with literacy success? Do other children with phonological difficulties use morphological strategies? 4. Are morphological approaches successful with dyslexic children? Morphology

Morpheme = smallest meaningful unit Inflectional morphemes: [DOG][S] = 2 morphemes noun root plural suffix Derivational morphemes [inter] [rupt] Prefix root Morphemes vary in how productive they are Bankrupt Bankruptcy Bankruptcies Rupture Rupturing Ruptures Ruptured

Corrupt Corrupts Corruptively corruptible Incorruptible incorruptibility Abrupt Abruptly Abruptness rupt to break or burst Disrupt Disrupted Disruption Disruptively Disruptiveness Taken from Henry, M. (2010), Vocabulogic website

Interrupt Interrupts Interrupting Interrupted Uninterrupted Uninterruptedly Erupt Erupting Eruption Eruptions Letter to the tooth fairy (6 year old Isaac, typically developing) Sorry I have swallowed my tooth. Please give me a two pence next time one of my teeth falls out. Isaac Letters used:

Soree I hav swolode my tooth. Plees giv me a too pens nex tim won ov my tooth fell out How do you spell swallowed? Sounding out alone produces errors or alternative spellings: swolode Consider the underlying structure of swallowed: Swallowed = swallow + ed (known as inflectional morpheme) Vocabulary knowledge Knowledge of the rules of spelling affixes Knowledge of spelling of the root word What do young children know about morphology?

Eyecoat: a coat that is shapt like an eye Dishdog: a dog that helps you with dishis Understands how words can combine to give new meanings Doesnt understand how spelling represents morphology Advantages of morphology English morphology is transparent. Disambiguates spelling. Bourassa & Treiman (2001), Gaustad & Kelly (2004) Jumped, rolled, hunted Past-tense morpheme spelled [ed] Pronounced /t/, /d/, /Id/. English morphology is productive. Nagy et al (1994) Vocabulary development.

[rain] in [rain][s], [rain][ed], [rain][y], [rain][water] Structure 1. What is morphology? 2. Is morphological awareness a strength or a weakness in dyslexic children? Are morphological difficulties associated with phonological difficulties? 3. Do children with dyslexia use morphological strategies in reading and writing? 4. Are morphological approaches successful with dyslexic children? Testing Morphological Awareness Test understanding and production of morphologically complex words:

Here is one cat, here are two ______ Here is one wug, here are two _____ Today the dog jumps over the fence, yesterday he ________ The cat was the most gringy, it was the _________ cat. Dynamic Morphological Awareness Q: This mans job is to zib. What do you call someone whose job is to zib? Prompt 1: This womans job is to bake. What do you call someone whose job is to bake? She is a .......? Prompt 2: She is a baker Prompt 3: When people do something as their job, we add a sound to end of the word what sound do we add? Prompt 4: This woman bakes. She is a baker . What sound did we add? Prompt 5: We add an er sound Prompt 6: baker and zibber Coventry and Warwick Morphology and Phonology Project

A comparison of children with dyslexia and children with otitis media (repeated ear infections) Do they both show reading difficulties? Do they both show phonological difficulties? Could morphology help either of these groups to progress? The Sample 36 dyslexic/poor readers, matched to 36 CA and RA controls 29 children with a history of Otitis Media, matched to CA and RA controls 8-10 year old children Age Dyslexic Dys-CA Dys-RA 109.1

109.1 Word 86.9 reading age Verbal IQ 38.7 (T-score) Nonverbal 45.4 IQ (T-score) OM-CA OM-RA 87.8 Otitis Media 110.4

110.0 101.9 127.7 88.6 109.7 125.5 110.7 46.8 47.7 41.5

46.4 46.0 54.4 52.1 45.2 52.4 49.0 Results: Literacy Measures YARC accuracy SS Spelling SS YARC

comprehension SS Dyslexic Dys-CA Dys-RA OM-CA OM-RA 105.8 Otitis Media 100.5 88.0

110.0 109.0 107.8 84.7 106.3 101.2 97.7 108.9 102.0 97.0 108.9

106.8 99.5 107.2 106.9 The dyslexic children are particularly impaired on word level literacy The two impaired groups have similar levels of reading comprehension Static and Dynamic Phonological Awareness 60 Total Prompts (/170) 80 70

60 50 40 static PA (/85) 50 30 40 30 20 20 10 10

0 0 dyslexic dys-RA dys-CA dyslexic For dyslexic children: lower than CA but not RA controls dys-RA dys-CA Static and Dynamic Morphological Awareness 30

60 25 50 40 Total Prompts (/84) Static MA (/30) 20 15 10 30 20

10 5 0 0 dyslexic dyslexic dys-RA dys-CA More impaired than CA but not RA controls dys-RA dys-CA Whats the relation between

phonology skill and morphological skill? The Warwick Speech and Literacy Project: Recruit a varied, high risk sample at school entry Including children with family risk of dyslexia and children with speech sound disorder Contrast outcomes for children with different early profiles Good vs. poor phonological processing Good vs. poor language NB correlation of 0.40 between two factors Carroll, Mundy & Cunningham (2014). Developmental Science, 17, 727-742 Children with low PP at T1 had significantly poorer PA at T3, F(1) = 5.2, p <.05, irrespective of language group, F(1) = .27, p = .61. Interaction F(1) = .37, p = .55 Cunningham & Carroll (2015). Applied Psycholinguistics 36, 509-531

Children with poor PP at T1 had poorer morphological awareness at T3 No effect of language group on morphological awareness at T3 Cunningham & Carroll (2015). Applied Psycholinguistics 36, 509-531 Summary so far We shouldnt assume that morphological awareness is unimpaired in dyslexia Children with dyslexia have morphological impairments similar to their phonological impairments Children with weaknesses in phonological processing tend to have weaker morphological awareness later in development Structure 1. What is morphology? 2. Is morphological awareness a strength or a weakness in dyslexic children? Are morphological difficulties associated with phonological difficulties?

3. Do children with dyslexia use morphological strategies in reading and writing? 4. Are morphological approaches successful with dyslexic children? Short-term memory probe task Word Bees Garden Carpet Pencil Word Sock Boat Hats Bee ? Design Overlap condition

Target lure Probe M O&P S Morphological Post Postal X X Pseudo-morphological

Met Metal Semantic All Everyone Unrelated X Hypothesis: More confusable X X

Little Less Confusable Are the different groups sensitive to shared morphology, beyond shared phonology? Short Term Memory 2 1.8 Overlap p = 0.013 Group p = 0.047 Interaction p < 0.001 Younger children treat the pseudo-morphemes like morphemes, dyslexic and CA children dont

1.6 sensitivity (d') 1.4 1.2 morph (post-postal) psuedo (met-metal) semantic (all-everyone) unrelated (post-everyone) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 dyslexic RA

CA Short Term Memory 2 1.8 Dyslexic children find the morphemic overlap VERY confusing Overlap p = 0.013 Group p = 0.047 Interaction p < 0.001 1.6 sensitivity (d') 1.4 1.2

morph (post-postal) psuedo (met-metal) semantic (all-everyone) unrelated (post-everyone) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 dyslexic RA CA Short Term Memory Probe Children develop sensitivity to true morphemes slowly over time

Dyslexic children are sensitive to the difference between true morphemes and pseudo-morphemes However, they also find the true morphemes very confusing in memory! Structure 1. What is morphology? 2. Is morphological awareness a strength or a weakness in dyslexic children? Are morphological difficulties associated with phonological difficulties? 3. Do children with dyslexia use morphological strategies in reading and writing? 4. Are morphological approaches successful with dyslexic children? Reading Sentences Eye tracking methodology Measure how long participants look at different types of errors

Pseudohomophones (sound right, look wrong) The village shop will have [clozed/closed] by tea time. (not too disruptive if you sound most words out) Overregularisations (contain existing morphemes) Sophie will not have [eated/eaten] all of her dinner. (not too disruptive if you decompose into morphemes) Multiple measures used total duration here Dyslexic group less disrupted by pseudohomophones Dyslexics rely more on sounding out No differences on overregularisations Z-score difference total duration Eye Tracking results 0.00

Dyslexic RA CA -0.20 -0.40 -0.60 -0.80 -1.00 -1.20 * Pseudo-homophone Over-regularisation Nonword Spelling

Prior work looked at awareness of morphology. But to what extent do children use morphological clues when writing? Compare words matched on phonological structure Sentence context gave clues as to morphological structure and therefore spelling: Control: The two girls ____(hax) in the park. She called her pet rat ____________(Poama) Morphological The two girls dack in the park, one has to go home so the other girl _________ alone. (dacks) A person who soams is a _____________(soamer) Breadmore & Carroll (in press). Applied Psycholinguistics Inflection and derivation Inflection e.g., dogs, walked

Primarily grammatical, syntactic meaning Speech good by 4 years old (Berko, 1958) Derivation e.g., unhappiness, drinkable Change part of speech and lexical meaning Less productive and transparent Speech not secure until 8-9 years (Anglin, 1993; Tyler & Nagy, 1989) Breadmore & Carroll (in press). Applied Psycholinguistics Nonword Spelling Stimuli Inflection Derivation Pree-prees Whilp-whilps Dreep-dreeped Gringy-gringiest

+s +s, +s +ed +est +er Deaver-deaverous Fomb-fombless Saughty-saughtiness Lagic-lagician +ous +less +ness +cian +tion +sion +able The two girls dack in the park,

one has to go home so the other girl _________ alone. The first one was quite ghend but the next was even _________________. The man tried to kice the bird. It could be kiced. It was ________________. She wouldnt jorse it with him. There was not point having the ____________. Phonetic spelling score 70 % phonetically plausible 60 50 40 % phonetically plausible

30 20 10 0 dyslexic dys-RA dys-CA Nonword Spelling: Suffix use 90 80 70 % use of suffix 60 control inflection (hax) complex inflection (dacks)

control derivation (Poama) complex derivation (soamer) 50 40 30 20 10 0 dyslexic dys-RA dys-CA Breadmore & Carroll (2015). Applied Psycholinguistics Do children with dyslexia use morphological strategies in reading and writing?

Yes, they do. Find morphology confusing in a word memory task (must be using it in memory) Their use of morphology in reading seems age-appropriate (all inflectional morphology), while they are less disrupted by pseudo-homophones Their use of morphology in spelling is at the level expected for their reading age, less than CA controls Structure 1. What is morphology? 2. Is morphological awareness a strength or a weakness in dyslexic children? Are morphological difficulties associated with phonological difficulties? 3. Do children with dyslexia use morphological strategies in reading and writing? 4. Are morphological approaches successful with dyslexic children?

Morphology in the national curriculum (revised 2014) Year Group 1 & 2 (age 5-7) 3 & 4 (age 7-9) 5 & 6 (age 9-11) Concepts and Terms The prefix unSuffixes ness, -er, -ful, -less, -ly Root words, Compound words Past tense ed ending Prefixes auto-, antiWord families (e.g. solve/ solution/ soluble) Verb inflections (standard English forms) Possessive s Suffixes ate, -ise, -ity Verb prefixes dis-, de-, mis-, over- Are morphological approaches successful in dyslexia?

Anecdotal evidence: yes Analogical evidence: helpful with children who are deaf But a different type of phonological impairment Meta Analysis: Goodwin & Ahn, 2010, 2013 Morphological intervention is moderately effective for struggling readers (particularly speech & language problems) More effective when integrated into broader literacy tuition Significant improvements on comprehension and spelling, smaller on decoding Conclusions: Could morphological knowledge improve literacy in dyslexic children? Morphological awareness is not unimpaired in dyslexic children However, dyslexic children do have some sensitivity to morphemes Structured and systematic tuition including morphological awareness is likely to be useful.

Thanks to: All my collaborators on these projects: Helen Breadmore, Anna Cunningham, Ian Mundy All of the children, teachers and parents involved My Funders:

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