Covalent Bonding Sharing is caring Types of Bonds Review Transfer Electrons Unit Cell Ionic Molecule Metallic Covalent Share Delocalized Electrons
(sea of e-) Electrons Electronegativity and bond types Another way to usually tell whether a bond is ionic or covalent is with electronegativities Electronegativity (Page 194) the tendency of an atom to gain electrons in a chemical bond. If the difference between the electronegativities is large, the bond tends to be ionic. If it is small, it tends to be covalent. Compounds can have both, but usually show one type more than the other chemically, usually ionic). Naming Covalent Compound Types of Covalent Compounds
Diatomic molecules (twins): H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 ________________________________ There are seven diatomic molecules ________________________________ NEVER FOUND AS SINGLE ATOMS if alone Their names are just the name of the element Binary Molecular Compounds
___________________________(no metals or Non-metals with no H+ ions) i.e. Does not start with an H. Steps to name compounds Name _________ first a. _________ - use entire name Name second - change ending to ide b. _________ _________ c. Prefixes used to indicate _________ number of atoms of each p. 832
Only time that no prefix is used is if the first is a one Examples: CCl4 carbon tetrachloride As2O3 di arsenic tri oxide The Prefixes Mono- monocle Tetra- Tetris Di-Dialogue Tri- tricycle Penta- pentagon
Octa- octopus Acids Always begin with ______ H+ binary and ___________ oxyacid Two Types: _________ Remember: The number of hydrogen atoms in the acid equals the charge of the anion Binary Acids + H O
Binary Acids - ______ but no _______ Steps to name compounds hydro a. Use prefix - _________ b. Root of second element plus suffix -ic _________ followed by the word acid Example: HCl - hydrochloric acid Oxyacids O polyatomic ion so most have ___
has a ________________, Steps to name compounds Identify polyatomic ion p. 178 a. Use root of anion, change suffix ending and word acid -ic a. Suffix rules: ends in ate change to _________ b. ends in ite change to _________ -ous Example: HNO3 nitric acid Hydrocarbons a compound containing carbon and hydrogen Named using prefixes that correspond to the number of carbons in the compound.
1 meth 2 eth 3 prop 4 but After this it used the normal prefixes Hydrocarbons Ending refers to the type of functional group found in the compound. -ane alkane - simplest hydrocarbon - only has single bonded carbons with hydrogens (2(Carbon atoms)+2). -ene alkene - has a double bonded carbon in the formula -yne alkyne - has a triple bonded carbon in the formula More functional groups Class
Attached Functional Group Effect on Name Alcohol Changes end to -ol Aldehyde Changes end to -al Amine Changes end to -amine (or starts with amino-)
Carboxylic acid Changes end to -oic acid Ester Divides compound in two parts, side without O is named as functional group, side with O will end with -oate Ether Divides compound in two parts, name both halves as a functional group and add ether to the end Ketone Changes end to -one
Practice Formula PCl5 HI N2 C2H6 Type of Covalent Bond Name Binary Molecular Phosphorous pentachloride Binary Acid
Change of State Vapor Pressure What is Vaporization? aka Evaporation Change of state: liquid to gas Is Evaporation Exo- or Endothermic? Endothermic…why? Must overcome the intermolecular forces DH(vap) for H2O is 40.7 kJ/mol Practical Uses for Vaporization Most of the...
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