CS 4594 Broadband Communications SONET C L Morgan Synchronous Optical Network C L Morgan SONET = Synchronous Optical Network
First standardized by ANSI/ECSA, now SDH by ITU-T. SONET is Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). SONET encompasses optical and electrical specifications. SONET uses octet multiplexing. SONET uses extremely precise timing. SONET provides support for operation, maintenance, and administration (OAM). SONET is superior to T-3 and T-4 with improved (over T-carrier) C L Morgan
transport performance ability to identify substreams international connectivity enhanced control and administrative functions SONET electrical signal hierarchy STS-1 = Synchronous transport signal level 1 speed = 51.84 Mbit/s designed to carry DS-3 or a combination of DS-1, DS1C, and DS-2 signals that are equivalent to DS-3 STS-N = Synchronous transport signal level N
C L Morgan speed = N x 51.84 Mbit/s designed to carry multiple STS-1 octet multiplexed STS-1 SONET optical signal hierarchy C L Morgan OC-1 = Optical carrier level 1 (caries STS-1) OC-N = Optical carrier level N (caries STS-N) Sections, Lines, and Paths
C L Morgan Sections are bounded by repeaters or multiplexers that terminate the line. Lines may carry several tributary signals.Lines are bounded by multiplexers. A path goes end to end (between terminating multiplexers). SECTION, LINE, and PATH M1 repeater
section repeater section line path C L Morgan section M1 MPX MPX
STS-1 Frame C L Morgan Each STS frame lasts 125 microseconds (8000 types a second) STS-1 frame has 6480 bits = 810 octets The octets are understood in terms of a table of 9 rows of 90 columns SONET Frame 3 Columns 9 rows
C L Morgan 87 Columns Sonet Frame STS-1 Frame - Columns The first three columns contain TOH = Transport Overhead: TOH has 9 rows by 3 columns (27 octets) which is subdivided into SOH = Section Overhead: 9 octets (3 rows of 3 columns) LOH = Line Overhead:18 octets (6 rows of 3
columns) C L Morgan SECTION, LINE, and PATH M1 repeater section repeater section line path
C L Morgan section M1 MPX MPX Overhead patterns - Section and Line Section Overhead Line Overhead A
B D H B D D D Z A E D H K D D D Z
C F D H K D D D Z A - framing B - error monitoring C - identification D - data communications channels E - orderwire F - network use G - receiver status
H - pointer J - path indicator K - data communications channel Z - future growth C L Morgan Overhead Streams C L Morgan Section Overhead (SOH) defines and identifies frames, and monitors section errors and communication between
section terminating equipment Line Overhead (LOH) locates first octet of SPE and monitors line errors and communication between terminating equipment Path Overhead (POH) verifies connection, and monitors path errors, receiver status, and communication between path terminating equipment STS-1 Frame - Columns The last 87 columns hold SPEs = Synchronous Payload Envelope SPE has 9 rows by 87 columns which are divided into POH = Path Overhead payload
C L Morgan The SPE does not necessarily start in column 4. The SPE does not necessarily stay within one frame. Two SONET Frames 3 Columns 9 rows C L Morgan 87 Columns Sonet
Frame SPE = Synchronous Payload Envelope 3 Columns 87 Columns Sonet Frame 9 rows SPE Path overhead C L Morgan
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