EEL-4713C Computer Architecture Lecture 1 Ann Gordon-Ross Benton 319 EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Administrative matters Instructor: Ann Gordon-Ross (Dr. Ann) Benton 319; Office hours: By appointment http://www.ann.ece.ufl.edu; [email protected] TA: Shaon Yousuf ; Office hours: TBD Web Page: Sakai and all files at http://www.ann.ece.ufl.edu/courses/eel4713_13fal/ Email: Start subject with [EEL 4713] (dont send email via Sakai) Course files: On Sakai and
http://www.ann.ece.ufl.edu/courses/eel4713_13fal/ Schedule: Pay special attention to the course schedule, linked off Sakai and http://www.ann.ece.ufl.edu/courses/eel4713_13fal/ Text: Computer Organization & Design The Hardware / Software Interface (Revised 4th Edition Green version) by Patterson and Hennessy, Morgan Kauffman Publishers EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Overview Computer architecture is an exciting field - Computer architects are always on the cutting edge -
Designing several future generations of processors now Exciting time to be in computer architecture! - Paradigm shift from single-core to multi-core - But this class focuses on single-core - Multi-core architecture is just a collection of single cores, so must know single-core architecture first. Computer architects have a different design philosophy as compared to software designers EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is this class about?
Computer Architecture: Instruction sets: how are microprocessors programmed? Organization: how does data flow in the microprocessor? Hardware design: how are logic components implemented? EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is this class about? Computer Architecture: Instruction sets: how are microprocessors programmed? Hardware/software interface: How are instruction sets designed? How does it impact the design of microprocessors and the software running on them? Example: Apples move from PowerPC to x86 (Intel) - Enabled greater choice in terms of processor configurations -
Software migration was a major issue; addressed with binary translation software (Rosetta) EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is this class about? Computer Architecture: Instruction sets: how are microprocessors programmed? Organization: how does data flow in the microprocessor? Instruction set defines the behavior for each and every instruction supported by a microprocessor; there are multiple organizations that can satisfy the functional behavior, and tradeoffs involved How are the major components of the data path organized and controlled? Example: Intel Pentium 4 vs. Core Duo - Additional CPU core, plus changes in the pipeline design
- Wider instruction issue (4 vs. 3), shorter pipeline - Conroe is nothing like any previous Pentium 4 products. In fact, it's based on the mobile Core Duo design which is in itself based on Pentium M, which is based on the Pentium 3 architecture. So Intel has actually done a bit of a U-turn. (trustedreviews.com) EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is this class about? Computer Architecture: Instruction sets: how are microprocessors programmed? Organization: how does data flow in the microprocessor?
Hardware design: how are logic components implemented? - CMOS, transistor size scaling; power/performance tradeoffs - The Core-based Intel Xeon is so power efficient, that Apple engineers were able to remove the liquid cooling system from the previous Power-PC based model (apple.com) EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is this class about? Computer Architecture: Instruction sets: how are microprocessors programmed? Organization: how does data flow in the microprocessor? Hardware design: how are logic components implemented?
The process of designing complex digital logic systems Based on knowledge of instruction sets and organization covered in class, you will design a micro-processor using VHDL EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What should you expect to achieve in this class? In-depth understanding of the inner-workings of modern computers, their evolution, and trade-offs present at the hardware/software boundary. Insight into fast/slow operations that are easy/hard to implement in hardware - Tradeoffs between these designs Computer architecture design process Hands-on experience with the design process in the context of a large, complex hardware system From functional specification to control and datapath implementation and simulation Using modern CAD tools and methodologies (VHDL) EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross
Course structure Class syllabus: Also refer to policies document for information on academic honesty and late assignments Book to be used as supplement for lectures When a topic is covered in class, not all details will be presented. I expect you to read on your own to learn those details Additional reading materials Key ingredient to success: Read material *before* lecture Grading: Lab assignments 55% Homework questions from book 10% Exams (two midterms, second one is not cumulative) 35% - Midterm 1 date tentative, Midterm 2 date fixed EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Course Structure
Lecture topics, order may change: Introduction and ISA/MIPS (Chapters 1 and 2) Basic RISC datapath/control design Pipelined processor design Number systems and performance evaluation Memory systems
Input/output Parallelism and other advanced topics, time permitting 4-5 extended lab period lectures or special topics Slides and reading assignments posted on Sakai or off of course files repository linked off my webpage Acknowledgement: - The slides used in class, unless otherwise noted, are adapted from David Pattersons lecture slides
EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Lab Assignments/Homework Questions No late assignments/homework will be accepted, no matter what Homeworks and labs will essentially alternate Demo assignments in lab, turn in report via Sakai Two sections: - Setup section: Get started with tools used - Lab section: Hands-on design experience Homework questions Helps you keep up with material for exams, reinforces concepts You must use the 5th edition, the white one with the orange spine Dos and Donts While studying together in groups is encouraged to foster discussion and learning, all work submitted must be your own
- Not your neighbors, partners, past years students, from the web, etc. not even with citation Plagiarism will result in an F in the course! EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Lab Assignments Lab assignments are a major component of this class Goal: expose you to the process of designing a microprocessor Labs will upon each other Challenging but rewarding Throughout this class you will design a MIPS microprocessor: To the extent that it can be simulated within a VHDL-based hardware development framework Starting with the major components of a MIPS datapath Integrate the components and control logic into a processor implementing a subset of MIPS Your tools: VHDL and Altera Quartus II Proficiency with these is key to success EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross
Internet companions EEL-4713 Web site - Sakai: Lecture slides Assignments Announcements Software documentation, tutorials Discussion forum Course schedule All course files are linked off of my webpage, Sakai may simply refer you to that directory at times EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Next lectures Homework #1 is posted, due next week All lab assignments and homeworks are available Reading for the next few lectures: chapters 1 and 2 Computer Abstractions and Technology Textbook, chapter 1 Instruction set architectures
Textbook, Chapter 2 Sections 2.1-2.8, 2.10, 2.12-2.13, 2.18-2.20 EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross What is Computer Architecture Computer Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) + Machine Organization Classic computer organization: John von Neumann Stored program computer Read instruction and data from memory; decode and execute; write results back to memory Five key components: Input, Output, Memory, Datapath and Control EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Abs trac
tion User laye rs High-level language (e.g. C++, Java) Low-level language (Assembly) Software Hardware Register-level transfer (Datapath) Basic logic gates (AND, OR) Devices (CMOS transistors) Hardware organization Tradeoff: support an efficient implementation, while providing a standard interface to software
Hardware Register-level transfer (Datapath) Basic logic gates (AND, OR) Devices (CMOS transistors) The big pict ure Registers The Pentium 4 (~40M transistors)M transistors) Software interface User
High-level language (e.g. C++, Java) Low-level language (Assembly) Software Instruction set architecture defines the interface between the microprocessor hardware and software EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross The big pict ure (2) addiu $s2,$s2,1 bne $s2,$t1,L3 s.d
$f4, 0M transistors)($t2) : outputs inputs EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Course Overview Computer Architecture Hardware Design Instruction Set Machine Language Machine
Implementation Compiler View Software interface Logic Design e.g. IA-32 vs. IA-64 Organization e.g. 90nm vs. 65nm; lowpower vs. fast clock Datapath and control e.g. Core Duo vs. Athlon Higher Lower Level of abstraction
EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Topics addressed in this course How are programs written in a high-level language translated into the hardware language? What is the interface between the software and the hardware? What are the design criteria used in defining it? What determines the performance of a program? How can a programmer improve performance? What is the design process starting from the definition of a microprocessors behavior and finishing with a functional implementation? What are techniques that a microprocessor designer can employ to improve performance while maintaining software compatibility? Focus on the architecture and organization aspects EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Execution cycle (control)
Instruction Obtain instruction from program storage Fetch Instruction Determine required actions and instruction size Decode Operand Locate and obtain operand data Fetch Execute Result Compute result value or status Deposit results in storage for later use
Store Next Instruction Determine successor instruction EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Understanding program performance Algorithms and data structures Time/space complexity e.g. nave/bubble sort O(n^2) vs. quick sort O(n*logn) determines number of source-level statements executed Not covered in this class Programming language, compiler, architecture Determines number of machine-level instructions for each sourcelevel statement Processor and memory system Determines how fast instructions go through a fetch/execute/store cycle I/O subsystem (hardware and software) How fast instructions which read from/write to I/O devices are executed
EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Before and during a program execution Before - Applications written in high-level language (e.g. C++) need to be translated to the machine language microprocessors recognize before they execute Compilers During - At runtime, applications use services from an operating system to facilitate interaction with the hardware and sharing by multiple entities E.g. Linux, Mac OS, Windows Basic I/O operations on files, network sockets, Memory allocation Scheduling of CPU cycles across multiple processes EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Application classes and characteristics Price of system
Price of microprocessor module Critical system design issues Desktop $500$5,000 $50-$500 Tradeoff price/performance High graphics performance Server $5,000$5,000,000 $200$10,000
High throughput High availability/dependability High scalability Embedded Free$100,000 $0.01$100 Low price Low power consumption Application-specific performance 02/21/20 EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross 28
Microprocessor markets EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Microprocessor market * No TV data available prior to 2004 EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Course Overview Computer Architecture Hardware Design Instruction Set Machine Language Machine
Implementation Compiler View Logic Design Software interface IA-32 vs. IA-64 Organization Datapath and control Core Duo vs. Athlon EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross 90nm vs. 65nm; lowpower vs. fast clock Instruction Set
Architecture . . . the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e. the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls of the logic design, and the physical implementation. Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964 -- Organization of programmable storage -- Data types & data structures: encodings & representations -- Instruction formats -- Instruction (or operation code) set -- Modes of addressing and accessing data items and instructions -- Exceptional conditions EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Levels of Representation temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1];
v[k+1] = temp; High Level Language Program Compiler Assembly Language Program Assembler lw $15, 0($2) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2)
sw $15, 4($2) ISA 00101001111.0101 Machine Language Program 00101010000.0101 Machine Interpretation Control Signal Spec assert address 0($2) on bus assert memory read signal select register $15; latch EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross
Example Desktop/server Instruction Set Architectures Same ISA Different Hardware Implementations Digital Alpha (v1, v3) HP PA-RISC (v1.1, v2.0) Sun Sparc (v8, v9) SGI MIPS (MIPS I, II, III, IV, V)
x86 (IA-32) (Intel 8086,80286,80386, 80486,Pentium, MMX, AMD Athlon,) HP/Intel EPIC/IA-64 (Itanium) EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Microprocessor sales by ISA 32- and 64-bit ARM: 80% sales for cell phones Other: application-specific or customized architectures EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Example Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): MIPS R3000 Instruction Categories
Load/Store R0 - R31 Integer computation Jump and Branch Floating Point Memory Management
System Special range designations PC HI LO Instruction Format OP rs rt OP rs
rt OP rd shamt immediate target EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross funct Course Overview Computer Architecture Hardware Design Instruction Set
Machine Language Machine Implementation Compiler View Logic Design Software interface IA-32 vs. IA-64 Organization Datapath and control Core Duo vs. Athlon
EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross 90nm vs. 65nm; lowpower vs. fast clock Organizatio n Logic Designer's View -- capabilities & performance characteristics of principal functional units (e.g., registers, ALU, shifters, etc.) -- ways in which these components are interconnected -- nature of information flows between components -- logic and means by which such information flow is controlled. Choreography of units to realize the ISA Register Transfer Level description EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Example: Pentium III die
IA-32 vs. IA-64 Organization Datapath and control Core Duo vs. Athlon EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross 90nm vs. 65nm; lowpower vs. fast clock Hardware design and implementation Impact performance, cost, and power consumption of architectures So far we have enjoyed exponential improvements over time in: Microprocessor performance Main memory capacity Secondary storage capacity
Moores Law Not an actual physical law; observation of a technology trend Microprocessor capacity doubles roughly every 18-24 months EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Technology => dramatic change Processor logic capacity: about 30% per year clock rate: about 20% per year Memory DRAM capacity: about 60% per year (4x every 3 years) Memory speed: about 10% per year Cost per bit: reduced by about 25% per year Disk capacity: about 60% per year
EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross DRAM capacity EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Microprocessor performance Improvements also exponential Key technology driver: device scaling As transistors get smaller (e.g. 180nm to 90nm to 65nm feature sizes) They tend to also get faster and consume less power - Faster clock rates More transistors can be packed in the same area - Superscalar pipelines; multiple cores; larger caches Problems faced by scaling at current (nanoscale) technologies: Fast transistors, but slow interconnect Transient errors
Low power per device, but billions of them packed together EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross The power wall Dynamic power = capacitive load * Voltage^2 * Frequency Load: function of transistor, wire technologies, fan-in/out As frequency increases, voltage had to be dropped to maintain power at check => 5V down to 1V At very low voltages, leakage and static power consumption become problems, approximately 40% A wall blocking frequency scaling EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Uni pro ces sor
Perf orm anc e Constrained by power, instruction-level parallelism, memory latency EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross From uniprocessors to multiprocessors Clock frequency scaling limited Can get better performance by exploiting parallelism multiple operations per cycle Instruction-level (superscalars): diminishing returns circa 2004 Process/thread-level parallelism: multi-core processors EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross Mul
tipr oce sso microprocessors Multicore rs More than one processor per chip Requires explicitly parallel programming Compare with instruction level parallelism - Hardware executes multiple instructions at once - Hidden from the programmer Hard to do - Programming for performance - Load balancing
- Optimizing communication and synchronization EEL-4713C Ann Gordon-Ross
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