CSIS 641: Advanced Cybersecurity

CSIS 641: Advanced Cybersecurity

CSIS 641: Advanced Cybersecurity Dr. X Who am I? Dr. X Computer Scientist PhD at North Carolina State University Optical networks

performance Worked at IBM Software Performance Engineer Post doc at College of William and Mary research on performance and power savings for hard disk drives Assistant professor at Jacksonville University, Wofford College Assistant professor at CofC Scuba diver, manga comics collector, science fiction reader,

hacker 2 Who am I? 3 What is wrong with this picture?

What is wrong with this picture? Syllabus Assignments Lab reports 2 students Reading reports individual

Midterm Research Project Participation Public website: http:// mountrouidoux.people.cofc.edu/CSIS641/index.html Office hours Ethics

To learn to defend systems, you will learn to attack them. You must use this knowledge ethically. In order to get a non-zero grade in this course, you must electronically sign the Security and Privacy Code of Ethics form by 6pm on January 18th Attacks, Defenses, & Pen Testing

Ch. 1 Pen testing textbook, Ch. 1 principles of information security Outline The Security mindset Attacks Defenses Information security Security Development Life Cycle

Penetration Testing The Security mindset The Security mindset Think critically Challenge assumptions Be curious

Think about weaknesses The Security mindset That new product X sounds awesome, I cant wait to use it! versus... That new product X sounds cool, but I wonder what would happen if someone did Y with it...

The Security mindset Why its important Technology changes, so learning to think like a security person is more important than learning specifics of today Will help you design better systems/solutions Interactions with broader context: law, policy, ethics, etc. Social Systems are Systems too!

Social Engineering Lying Being nice to people Acting like you belong Attacks (OWASP) Abuse of Functionality Data Structure Attacks

Embedded Malicious Code Exploitation of Authentication Injection Path traversal Probabilistic techniques Protocol Manipulation Resource Depletion Resource Manipulation

Sniffing Spoofing Defenses Information security: a well-informed sense of assurance that the information risks and controls are in balance. Jim Anderson, Inovant (2002) Cybersecurity: is the body of technologies, processes and practices

designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access. whatis.techtarget.com/definition/cybersecurity What is Security? The quality or state of being secureto be free from danger A successful organization should have multiple layers of security in place:

Physical security

Personal security Operations security Communications security Network security Information security What is Security? (contd.) The protection of information and its critical elements, including

systems and hardware that use, store, and transmit that information Necessary tools: policy, awareness, training, education, technology C.I.A.N.A Components of Information Security Key Information Security Concepts Access

Asset Attack Control, Safeguard, or Countermeasure Exploit Exposure Loss

Protection Profile or Security Posture Risk Subjects and Objects

Threat Threat Agent Vulnerability Critical Characteristics of Information The value of information comes from the characteristics it possesses:

Availability Accuracy

Authenticity Confidentiality Integrity Utility Possession Balancing Information Security and Access Impossible to obtain perfect securityit is a process, not an absolute

Security should be considered balance between protection and availability To achieve balance, level of security must allow reasonable access, yet protect against threats Approaches to Information Security Implementation: Bottom-Up Approach Grassroots effort: systems administrators attempt to improve security

of their systems Key advantage: technical expertise of individual administrators Seldom works, as it lacks a number of critical features: Participant support Organizational staying power Approaches to Information Security Implementation: Top-Down Approach

Initiated by upper management Issue policy, procedures, and processes Dictate goals and expected outcomes of project Determine accountability for each required action The most successful also involve formal development strategy referred to as systems development life cycle

Approaches to Information Security Implementation The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC): methodology for design and implementation of information system within an organization Methodology: formal approach to problem solving based on structured sequence of procedures Using a methodology:

Ensures a rigorous process Increases probability of success Traditional SDLC consists of six general phases SDLC Waterfall Methodology Investigation

What problem is the system being developed to solve? Objectives, constraints, and scope of project are specified Preliminary cost-benefit analysis is developed

At the end, feasibility analysis is performed to assess economic, technical, and behavioral feasibilities of the process Analysis Consists of assessments of: The organization Current systems Capability to support proposed systems

Analysts determine what new system is expected to do and how it will interact with existing systems Ends with documentation of findings and update of feasibility analysis Logical Design Main factor is business need Applications capable of providing needed services are selected

Data support and structures capable of providing the needed inputs are identified Technologies to implement physical solution are determined Feasibility analysis performed at the end Physical Design Technologies to support the alternatives identified and evaluated in

the logical design are selected Components evaluated on make-or-buy decision Feasibility analysis performed Entire solution presented to end-user representatives for approval Implementation Needed software created Components ordered, received, and tested

Users trained and documentation created Feasibility analysis prepared Users presented with system for performance review and acceptance test Maintenance and Change Longest and most expensive phase Consists of tasks necessary to support and modify system for remainder of its useful life

Life cycle continues until the process begins again from the investigation phase When current system can no longer support the organizations mission, a new project is implemented The Security Systems Development Life Cycle The same phases used in traditional SDLC may be adapted to support

specialized implementation of an IS project Identification of specific threats and creating controls to counter them SecSDLC is a coherent program rather than a series of random, seemingly unconnected actions Investigation Identifies process, outcomes, goals, and constraints of the project Begins with Enterprise Information Security Policy (EISP)

Organizational feasibility analysis is performed Analysis Documents from investigation phase are studied Analysis of existing security policies or programs, along with documented current threats and associated controls Includes analysis of relevant legal issues that could impact design of the security solution

Risk management task begins Logical Design Creates and develops blueprints for information security Incident response actions planned: Continuity planning Incident response Disaster recovery

Feasibility analysis to determine whether project should be continued or outsourced Physical Design Needed security technology is evaluated, alternatives are generated, and final design is selected At end of phase, feasibility study determines readiness of organization

for project Implementation Security solutions are acquired, tested, implemented, and tested again Personnel issues evaluated; specific training and education programs conducted Entire tested package is presented to management for final approval

Maintenance and Change Perhaps the most important phase, given the ever-changing threat environment Often, repairing damage and restoring information is a constant duel with an unseen adversary Information security profile of an organization requires constant adaptation as new threats emerge and old threats evolve

Security Professionals and the Organization Wide range of professionals required to support a diverse information security program Senior management is key component Additional administrative support and technical expertise are required to implement details of IS program

Senior Management Chief Information Officer (CIO) Senior technology officer Primarily responsible for advising senior executives on strategic planning Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Primarily responsible for assessment, management, and implementation of IS

in the organization Usually reports directly to the CIO Information Security Project Team A number of individuals who are experienced in one or more facets of required technical and nontechnical areas:

Champion Team leader

Security policy developers Risk assessment specialists Security professionals Systems administrators End users Data Responsibilities Data owner: responsible for the security and use of a particular set of

information Data custodian: responsible for storage, maintenance, and protection of information Data users: end users who work with information to perform their daily jobs supporting the mission of the organization Information Security: Is it an Art or a Science?

Implementation of information security often described as combination of art and science Security artesan idea: based on the way individuals perceive systems technologists since computers became commonplace Security as Art No hard and fast rules nor many universally accepted complete solutions

No manual for implementing security through entire system Security as Science Dealing with technology designed to operate at high levels of performance Specific conditions cause virtually all actions that occur in computer systems Nearly every fault, security hole, and systems malfunction are a result

of interaction of specific hardware and software If developers had sufficient time, they could resolve and eliminate faults Security as a Social Science Social science examines the behavior of individuals interacting with systems Security begins and ends with the people that interact with the

system Security administrators can greatly reduce levels of risk caused by end users, and create more acceptable and supportable security profiles Penetration Testing Legal and authorized attempt to locate and successfully exploit computer systems for the purpose of making those systems more secure

Differences Between attacks and vulnerabilities? Between pen testing and vulnerability assessment? Black vs white hat Black vs white hat

Authorization Motivation Intent Black box vs white box White box: overt, thorough Black box: covert, realistic

Tools of the trade Tools Kali Programming Your brain! Summary

Categories of attacks that represent most known attacks today Information security is part of the defense Security development lifecycle: as in software engineering lifecycle we can design security in phases Pen testing is part of the defense and it is not just about tools! For next class Reading posted on website

Setup Virtual box, Kali VM, XP VM Download Metasploitable, Webgoat Read project description carefully, prepare questions Read syllabus (if you havent already) Check the presentations spreadsheet for your presentation date Find a lab team mate fill the google spreadsheet on Oaks Find a project team mate - fill the google spreadsheet on Oaks

Sources Principles of Information Security, Fourth Edition OWASP CSE 484 UWA, Ada Lerner

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