Culturally Relevant Teaching What is Culturally Relevant Teaching? Culturally relevant teaching is a term created by Gloria Ladson-Billings (1994) to describe a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Participating in culturally relevant teaching essentially means that teachers create a bridge between students home and school lives, while still meeting the expectations of the district and state curricular requirements. Culturally relevant teaching utilizes the backgrounds, knowledge, and experiences of the students to inform the
teachers lessons and methodology. Barriers to learning As teachers, we have to break down barriers everyday to reach our students. We cant empower them intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically if we unable to help them overcome these obstacles so they can see their own potential. Breaking through the Barriers
Poverty Broken homes Culture Learning disabilities Lack of motivation Lack of role models and guidance Physical and emotional limitation Language barriers Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007 Annual Demographic Sure United States # of Children in Poverty in 2006
All Races 12,896,000 Caucasian 7,908,000 Hispanic* 4,072,000 African-American 3,777,000 Asian-American 360,000 Native American** 194,272 % of Children in Poverty
17.6% 14.1% 26.9% 33.4% 12.2% 31.9% Hispanics may be of any race. Native American numbers from 2000 Decennial Census (not counted in 2006) Spotlight on Poverty Using the SAT and ACT to determine the academic abilities of students from various background
One of the best way to determine a students college readiness is by looking at their SAT or ACT scores. For a more comprehensive look at the average SAT and ACT scores for all states, go to: http://www.commonwealthfou ndation.org/policyblog/detail/2 010-sat-scores-by-state Arizona Statistics 2011. We
rank 29th. Our combined score is 1529. Illinois is # 1 with a combined score of 1807 SAT reading: 517 SAT math: 523 SAT writing: 499
A Look at the SAT According to The College Board, 1,647,123 students in the class of 2011 took the SAT during high school, the largest class of SAT takers ever. Still, mean SAT scores have dropped steadily since 2007 to an average of 497 in critical reading, 514 in math and 489 in writing.
Only 43 percent of college-bound seniors, the College Board says, met the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark, which represents the level of academic preparedness associated with a high level of college success and completion. Minorities and Scores Information taken from: http://www.s chools.com/ news/numbe r-of-students -taking-sat-is -up-scores-a
re-down.html Forty-four percent of SAT takers in the class of 2011 were minority students, 36 percent reported being the first in their family to attend college, and 27 percent reported that English was not the only language first learned at home. More than 21 percent of SAT test takers in the class of 2011 took the SAT for free through the College Board's SAT Fee Waiver Program, a 77 percent increase since 2007. Closer Look at our Hispanic and African American Students
Some students do need a little more push in the right direction. African-American and Hispanic Profile This years pool of ACT-tested graduates is the largest and most ethnically diverse in the 52-year history of the exam. More than 1.62 million 2011 graduates49 percent of the entire U.S. graduating classtook the ACT, an all-time record number for the seventh year in a row. The proportion of AfricanAmerican and Hispanic/Latino test takers has grown from 19 percent in 2007 to a high of 26 percent in 2011. For more information go to: http://www.act.org/newsroom/releases/view.php?la ng=english&p=1470
A Look at our Schools Largest Population For more information: http://www.a ct.org/newsr oom/release s/view.php?l ang=english &p=1470 The improvement in college readiness among Hispanic students is most evident in the key area of mathematics. This
year, 30 percent (compared to 27 percent in 2010 and 26 in 2007) of the students in this group met or exceeded the ACT College Readiness Benchmark in math, while 47 percent (compared to 46 in 2010 and 49 in 2007) met or exceeded the English benchmark. Thirty five percent (compared to 34 in 2010 and 2007) of Hispanic graduates met or exceeded the ACT benchmark in reading. Finally, 15 percent (compared to 14 percent in 2010 and 13 percent in 2007) met or exceeded the benchmark in science. However, ACT results continue to show an alarmingly high number of students who are graduating without all of the academic skills they need to succeed after high school. Forty-five percent of Hispanic test takers in the 2011 graduating class failed to meet any of the four ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. What the high scorers have in common?
Students who reported completing a core curriculum (four or more years of English, three or more years of math, three or more years of natural science, three or more years of social science and history), had SAT scores that were 143 points higher than those who did not complete a core curriculum. Similarly, students who reported taking Advanced Placement or Honors English had SAT scores that were 163 points higher, and those who reported taking Advanced Placement or Honor Mathematics had SAT scores that were 204 points higher. What can we learn from looking at the SAT and ACT scores?
What assumptions can be made based on the SAT and ACT data? How does this affect teacher expectations? How can we help minority students do better on national tests like the ACT and SAT? What can we do to help narrow the gap? In order to be effective, teachers will have to learn about cultural experiences of their students, while using these experiences as a
foundation of teaching. The approach is called culturally relevant pedagogy. Is there any achievement gap between the races? Is there an achievement gap between the races? Watch the following videos in the following slide to get an overview of the achievement gap and solutions to close that gap. Can we really close the gap?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35P7FCMO ePs&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNyAs5JbOA&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83IF3stMU mo&feature=related Narrowing the gap In her article Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for the Nineties and Beyond, Ana Maria Villegas pointed out that ignorance of cultural differences
could lead teachers to underestimate the true academic potential of minority students. Teachers judgments on students potential have profound and long-lasting effects on students lives, Villegas wrote. For minority children in particular, such judgments or misjudgments may
prove costly http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=bVmPKvh sNVk&feature=related Are we guilty of this? The evidence is overwhelming. When compared to their highability peers, low-ability students are called on less often in class, given less time to respond, praised less frequently and prompted less often in the case of incorrect responses.http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgvpRoAn-ro&feature=related Principles of culturally relevant teaching Students must experience academic success.
Students must develop and/or maintain cultural competence. Students must develop a critical consciousness through which they challenge the status quo of the current social order Developing and maintaining academic success Focus a great deal of positive attention on the groups in the class that have the power to influence their peers. LadsonBillings explains that one of her participant teachers challenged the [African American] boys to demonstrate academic power by drawing on issues and ideas they found meaningful.
Setting high expectations for all students has also been shown to be an effective strategy for developing aspirations for academic success. Starting with small goals and scaffolding upon student knowledge, teachers can create opportunities for students to experience academic success. Once students realize they can achieve academic success, they may feel that they are taking less of a risk with a more challenging task. Maximize ALL student potential by understanding their culture Expect more from the students no matter what their ethnic background is Developing cultural competence
Teachers who focus on developing cultural competence, encourage students to learn to maintain their cultural integrity. In their study of African American students in a Washington, D.C., Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu noted that African American students feared acting White, which meant they would try not to show interest in and succeed in school-related tasks. Many African American and other non-white students perceive school as a place where they cannot be themselves because their culture is not valued in American schools. Ladson-Billings contends, Culturally relevant teachers utilize students culture as a vehicle for learning. Teachers who use culturally relevant pedagogy provide
students with a curriculum that builds on their prior knowledge and cultural experiences. Embrace the culturally diversity around you Show the diverse population its okay to be proud of who they are Developing a critical consciousness Ladson-Billings contends that culturally relevant teachers engage in the world and others critically, and in order to do this, students must develop a broader sociopolitical consciousness that allows them to critique the cultural norms, values, mores, and institutions that produce and maintain social
inequities.Simply having individual success is not engaging in citizenship, and Ladson-Billings suggests that providing opportunities for students to critique society may encourage them to change oppressive structures. Critical thinkers in training Provide students the opportunity to interact and showcase their critical thinking abilities through collaborative group activities Kofa is doing a wonderful job meeting the needs of all students
All students regardless of their economic background are provided with free breakfast and lunch. Free learning labs are available for all students in core subject areas Tons of clubs are available and accessible to all students of various interest ranging from culturally to politically to social to academic.
A variety sports are available to meet the interest and talents of all students. Accelerated, AP, and Cambridge Curriculum are provided to meet the needs of all students in different academic levels Follow up questions 1. What did you learn or find interesting?
2. How can you apply this knowledge or information to your own classroom or lessons? 3. Did you find this information useful or relevant? 4. What specific information stood out for you? Please explain. 5. Do you have any follow up questions or comments? Sources used Coffey, Heather. (2010). Culturally Relevant Teaching. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4474
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