Framework and Models UNC Framework To help understand the field To develop a system that will allow us to Develop good designs Test Evaluate We need a framework for describing and modeling the visualization process. UNC Lets take a Historical Look Static images 10,000 years
art, graphic design Abstract constructs 200-500 years Maps, charts, tables Moving images, pictures 100-200 years Photography, Cinematography, TV Interactive graphics, 3D 20 years computer graphics, human-computer interaction, computer games, 3D How about an interactive visualization of this History: A Brief History Whats passed the test of time? UNC
Direct representations Sketches Pictures Maps Photography, Video capture Abstractions Charts (which kinds?) Graphs Kind of hard to make calls on stuff thats < 20 years oldClearly interactive tools, dynamic control and 3D will play major roles. Currently, though, lots of specialized tools. What will still be important in 100 years? UNC What Brad thinks is new about visualizations (last 20 years) Interaction with information
Exploration of information User control of filtering, processing, which enables exploration and visual analytics. Some specific examples of new interactions Interact with environment (live map data, GPS) Interact with people (social networks) Interact with live data (sensor networks, webcam, ski report) UNC Taxomony, Models, Framework Major Thinkers 1900s: Philosophers (mostly French, like Ferdinand de Saussure (1959)), in US C.S.Peirce described the study of symbols, call semiotics. 1983: Jaques Bertins masterpiece, Semiology of Graphics. Personal preferences, graphic deign based approach to semiotics. Gibson: Theory of affordances, top down approach to perceptual processing
that affects HCI. Tufte: several books on Visualization. From artistic, graphic design approach. 1980s-Today: Trying to make a science of it Colin Ware Stuart Card Jock Mackinlay Ben Shneiderman Stephen Few UNC Major Publications The Structure of the Information Visualization Design Space Stuart K. Card and Jock Mackinlay The Eyes Have It:A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visu alizations Ben
Shneiderman The Value of Visualization, Jarke J. van Wijk Rethinking Visualization: A High-Level Taxonomy, Melanie Tory, Torsten Mller Automating the design of graphical presentations of relational information UNC Taxomony, Models, Framework Bertins Semiology of Graphics. Foundation work describing use of signs/symbols for 2D static presentations. Based on valuable practical experience, although it some cases untested (and didnt always turn out to be true, and sometimes is misleading). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Bertin
UNC Taxomony, Models, Framework Whats your framework? What do you think are the important things to include? What things are given to you? What do you get to choose? How can you evaluate what is better/best? Class exercise: Develop Framework Proposal UNC Basic FrameworkCUT-DDV Context User
Task Data Display Visualization Techniques CUT-DDV Framework Visualizatio n Techniques Datase t Raw Data Processed Data Represente d in
Data Model UNC Displays Map to Display(s) Contex t Display to Eye User Filter,
Transform, Modify Mapping to Data Model Task UNC CUT-DDV Framework Raw Data Dataset UNC CUT-DDV
Framework Dataset Mapping to Data Model Processed Data Represented in Data Model UNC CUT-DDV Framework Display
Visualization Techniques Map to Display(s) Filter, Transform, Modify UNC CUT-DDV Framework Task Display to Eye User Visual acuity
R/G colorblind Attentiveness Multitasking Memory Disabilities Detection Search Recognition In depth study Entertainment Context UNC User Diversity Perceptual differences
Color-blindness Age-related issues Disabilities Blindness, deafness Motor impairments Cognitive issues Literacy Cultural Gender Education UNC Tabletop Sharing of Digital Photographs for the Elderly (Apted et. al, 2006) Visual issues Reduced acuity Loss in color perception
Increased sensitivity to glare Motor issues Slower Poorer coordination Fine motor action Less experience with computer UNC CUT (Context) Examples UNC Complete Model Where do design principles like Tuftes guidelines fit in? What about evaluation and refinement? Lets put it all in one picture, and highlight the parts we can control.
UNC Full Framework: CUTT-AD- DDV Given, and should be identified by designer Context User Task Data Types Generally known Human Abilities (perception, memory, cognition) Design Principles These you have some control over Data Model Display Visualization Techniques
UNC Visualization Framework Human Abilities Visual perception Cognition Memory
Motor skills Imply Design Principles Visual display Interaction Inform design
Context User Tasks Data Types Constrain design
Given Data Model Display(s) Visualization Techniques Chosen Design Process
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