Vygotsky and Language Learning Erin Silkey Child Growth and Development Fall 2015 Vygotsky &

Cummins Language Acquisition Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky November 5, 1896 - June 11, 1934 (died of tuberculosis at age 38) 1913 completed gymnasium in Gomel 1917 graduated from Moscow University, specialized in literature 1917-1923 taught literature and psychology in Gomel; founded the Teacher Training

Institute, a psychological laboratory 1924 -January 6, visited Leningrad to give a lecture at the 2nd Psychoneurological Conference; inspired a young generation -moved to Moscow to work at the Institute of Psychology; founded Mrs. Khirallahs the Institute Hero and Heartthrob of Defectology-studied physically defective and mentally retarded

children; Crain, W. (2011). Chapter 10: Vygotskys Social-Historical Theory of Cognitive Development. Theories of Development: Concepts and taught at numerous institutions Applications, Sixth Edition (224-252). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Dixon-Krauss, L. (1996). Part I: Classroom Instruction. In L. Dixon-Krauss (Ed.), Vygotsky in the Classroom: Mediated Literacy Instruction 1924-1934 led a young and Assessment (1-5). White Plains, NY: Longman

Publishers USA.group of scientists working with a Marxist Luria, A. R. (1978). Biographical Note on L.S. Vygotsky. In Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., & Souberman, E. (Eds.), L.S. Vygotsky: socialist Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (15-16). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Jim Cummins Professor Emeritus at the University of Toronto, Ontario

Institute For Studies in Education, the Curriculum, Teaching and Learning Department 1970 B..A. Psychology, National University of Ireland (first class honours) 1971 Diploma Applied Psychology, The National University of Ireland 1974 Ph.D. University of Alberta, http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/ctl/Faculty_Staff/Faculty_Profiles/1464/James_Cummins.h Educational Psychology tml

Cummins, J. (2008). BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the Distinction. In 1979 first introduced the idea of BICS and Street, B.CALP & Hornberger, N. H. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 2: Literacy. (pp. 71-83). New York: Springer Science + Business Theoretical Foundation Vygotsky

Approach Contextual construction of development Collaborative Learning Zone of Proximal Development Potential elucidated through instruction

Spontaneous and Scientific Concepts Language Learning Cognitive/ Theoretical Mental Foundation (Thinking) Oral

Vygotsky (Speaking) Written Oral Speech Inner Speech Written (Writing) Speech Become conscious of the signs of speech: metacognition

Vygotsky, L. (1934). Thought and Language. p. 182. Mahn, H. (2013). Vygotsky and Second Language Acquisition. The Encyclopedia of Applied LInguistics, First Edition. C. A. Chapelle (Ed.). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. sense/feeling (non-verbal) Theoretical Foundation

Vygotsky socially constructed meaning (verbal) internalized individually interpreted meaning

Oral Speech Inner Speech Written Speech Vygotsky, L. (1934). Thought and Language. p. 182. Mahn, H. (2013). Vygotsky and Second Language Acquisition. The Encyclopedia of Applied LInguistics, First Edition. C. A. Chapelle (Ed.). Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oral Speech mediates between Inner Speech and 2 Aspects to Language Learning

Theoretical Foundation Cummins Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) Cognitive

Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) BICS-CALP Iceberg Analogy Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) above-the-surface language

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) below-the-surface language simple, here and now, daily, concrete, commonly used words, lived experience academic, there and

then, abstract, themes, educated imagination Roessingh, H. (2006). BICS-CALP: An Introduction for Some a Review for Others. TESL Canada Journal, 23, (2), 91-96. Active Method in Orbergs Lingua Latina textbook and workbook Latin series

Research Study Objectives of research: Purpose To investigate the impact of writing and speaking during second language acquisition. It aims to examine Vygotskys notion that an essential feature of learning is that it creates the zone of proximal development; that is, learning awakens a variety of internal developmental processes that are able to operate only when the child is interacting with people in his environment and in cooperation with his peers.

Questions Is there an appreciable, assessable difference in Latin vocabulary acquisition when the learner learns alone (with written mediation only) without benefit of oral or social mediation versus when the learner has benefit of both oral and social mediation (but no written mediation) versus when the learner has benefit of oral, social, and written mediation? Hypothesis A socially mediated learning context utilizing both the receipt of written and oral materials,

and transmitted by writing, will have the highest success for learning and recall. 23 Participants 15 UD students 8 non-UD participants: 1 16 year-old and 7 adults. I had hoped to address survey material (majors, ages, genders, language experience,

learning styles, study styles) Research Study 3 Groups Group 1: Only learning through receiving by reading and transmitting by writing without social mediation Group 2: Only learning through receiving aurally and

transmitting orally with social mediation Group 3: Learning through both receiving written material and transmitting by writing AND with social mediation Group 1 Provided Map

Group 2 Provided Map Group 3 Provided Map

Written Worksheet Oral Worksheet Written Worksheet & Oral Worksheet

Written Quiz & Oral Quiz Map Written Worksheet and Written Quiz Data Analysis-Types of Data Scored 2. Germany is in Europe, but it is not a Roman province.

Germania in Europa est, sed ea non est provincia Romana. Data Analysis-Types of Data Scored Data Collected-Group I Data Collected-Group II Data Collected-Group III

Data Collected-Groups I, II & III Data Collected-Groups I & III: Written Data Collected-Groups II & III: Oral Quiz Rubric Quiz Rubric-Group I

Quiz Rubric-Group II Quiz Rubric-Group III Quiz Rubric-Groups I, II & III Quiz Rubric-Groups I & III: Written Group I Group III

Quiz Rubric-Groups II & III: Oral Group II Group III Results My hypothesis that Group III would do the best with written and oral help with language acquisition was not supported by the results.

In fact, it had the lowest scores! Group II, the group I thought would do the worst, was actually in between Group I and Group III in scores. So purely written work did the best, followed by purely oral work (with a map for help), then the combined group. Confessions of a First-Time Researcher Time Constraints Clarity of directions Consistency of directions

Consideration of participant needs and abilities Communication in the classroom Lessons Learned as a Future Teacher Ideally, I would have preferred to give a short lesson as a key component to the acquisition of the language, rather than rely solely on independent work with the material. Language acquisition is not related to intelligence so much as to cognitive ability and mental processes. In this I mean how someone processes information, which I do not correlate with level of intelligence. In my opinion, a participants ability or inability to acquire the language in this process tells more about their learning style, and how their mental processes work.

One thing I found quite interesting was what the participants did or did not remember and use, such as using spaces for knowing something went there even when they couldnt recall what the word was. The use of other languages as substitutions or insertions is quite fascinating, but I didnt have time to research it. I was actually totally blown away and impressed by how well everyone did. Quite a feat, considering Latin Composition is actually an advanced course. So not only were they thrown new vocabulary, declensional endings adn different word order, but they had to reproduce it. It would have much much easier for them to translate the Latin into English and compose the English sentences.

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