TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE DATA WAREHOUSE 31.03.2014 (Muscat, Oman) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 1 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OUTLINE Users Problems and necessity for Data Warehouse BI Definition and Components Data Warehousing Concepts

DW Goals and Objectives OLAP and OLTP terms Data Warehouse vs: Operational DBMS Datamarts methodology Explanation of Star Schema and Snowflake Schema DMQL (Data Mining Query Language) OLAP Functions INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 2 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE INTRODUCTION There are 2 types of users: Operational users and Decision-Maker users Operational users use local data while decision-makers use historical data

Database design is changed if data is used for take decision. Data Warehousing is used for take decisions Data Warehouses captures data different operational sources Data Warehouses contain historical data INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 3 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Operational Data : Operational user local data gets frequent updates and queries

specific queries are needed Historical Data: Decision maker tells about something Very infrequent updates Integrated data Analytical queries that require huge amounts of aggregation Query Performance is crucial INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 4 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE

Example OLTP queries: What is the salary of Mr .Johnson ? (point query) What is address and phone number of Mr. Johnson ? (point query) How many employees have received an 'excellent' credential in the last appraisal? Example OLAP queries: Is there a correlation between the geographical location of a company and profit of the company? How is the age of the employee effect their performance ? Is gender of a staff effect the performance ? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT

5 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Data Problems and necessity for Data Warehouse Without DW : Data is everywhere and hard to manage Same data is exist at different places Data inconsistency It is hard to deploy new data Data is so complex and detailed Data can not be analysed There isnt time series INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 6

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM and The Origin of BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM is a general name of any system to support decision-makers in the decision process. DSS is the origin of the Business Intelligence system Business intelligence is designed to support the process of decision-making INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 7 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE BI Definition

Business intelligence system A set of integrated tools, technologies and programmed products used to collect, integrate, analyze, and make data (Koronios & Yeoh, 2010). The Role of BI in decision making (Olszak & Ziemba, 2007, Figure 2, p.137) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 8 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Business Intelligence Systems: Includes all technologies for gathering and analysing data Provide the input to strategic and tactical decions at senior managerial levels Managerial level dont need daily information, they need historical, strategical data. Companies invest large amount of money to BI technologies

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 9 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Query driven Approach and Data Warehouse based Disadvantages of Query driven Approach: Data is up to date, slowly queries because of transactions Historical data doesnt exist The Query Driven Approach needs complex integration and filtering processes, aggregation. So it is slow. This approach is very inefficient This approach is very expensive for frequent queries Competes with local processing at sources

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 10 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Data Warehousing Approach This is the approach commonly used in BI systems. In this approach; the information from multiple heterogeneous sources is integrated in advance and stored in a warehouse. There is another database other than running database. The data in the database is stored in a data warehouse in periodically. Users don't access database directly, they access Data Warehouse for querying. This approach provides high performance. Data Warehouse also contains historical data



Data Mining Take decision Decision-makers use dashboard that contains report, analysis, chart, maps, etc. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 13 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Some Definitions of Data Warehousing Data warehouse A subject oriented, collection of data used to support decision making in organizations (Anderson et al., 2008). Data warehousing - A systematic approach to collecting relevant business in order to organize

and validate the data so that it can be analyzed to support business decision making (Cody et al., 2002). A Data Warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-varying, non-volatile collection of data that is used primarily in organizational decision making. -- W.H. Inmon, Building the Data Warehouse, 1992 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 14 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE A Data Warehouse is... Subject-oriented, Organized by subject, not by application Used for analysis, data mining Optimized differently from transaction-oriented database

Single repository of information Data Warehousing involves data cleaning, data integration and data consolidation Supports analytical reporting, ad-hoc queries and decision making User interface aimed at executive INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 15 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Data Marts A data mart is a subset of the data warehouse. This data is specific to a particular group . Data warehouses are collection of "data marts". Data marts are also seen as small warehouses for OLAP activities It deals with specific information. For example, although a data

warehouse includes the all data of an organization, a data mart includes the data of a department. The data mart is organized for regarding people. So these people dont need to understand all the data, it is sufficient to understand the regarding data mart. Management and autherization would be easierr when using data marts. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 16 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Generic Warehouse Architecture INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 17

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Differences Between Operational Systems and Data Warehousing Systems An operational database stores information about the activities of an organization The purpose of an operatioanal system is providing online querying and processing, daily routines Operational systems are also called as OLTP (Online Transactional Processing) Data Warehouses help users to data analyze and make decisions Warehouse is a Specialized DB Data Warehousing Systems are also called as OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 18

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OLAP vs OLTP OLTP OLAP users clerk, IT professional knowledge worker function day to day operations

decision support DB design application-oriented (ER) subject-oriented (star schema) data current, up-to-date detailed, flat relational isolated repetitive historical, summarized, multidimensional

integrated, consolidated ad-hoc lots of scans unit of work read/write index/hash on prim. key short, simple transaction # records accessed tens millions #users

thousands hundreds DB size 100MB-GB 100GB-TB metric transaction throughput query throughput, response

usage access INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT complex query 19 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Types of OLAP Servers Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) : array-based multi dimensional storage Relational OLAP(ROLAP) : Uses Relational Database. Includes aggregation, additional tools and services. Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP) : Both MOLAP and ROLAP

Specialized SQL Servers INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 20 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OLAP CUBES Data cube help us to represent data in multiple dimensions. The data cube is defined by dimensions and facts. The dimensions are the entities with respect to which an enterprise keeps the records. OLAP cube is the main object of the OLAP. This cube is a multidimensional cube. The components of a cube are: fact table, dimension tables and measures. The cube concept is used to understand multi-dimensional model better. Data cubes are used for people that dont have advanced database knowledge. The cubes are capable of analyzing data from multiple

dimensions. Relational databases are not suitable for very large data. So, OLAP cube is created from these data for an easy analyze. If there are more than 3 dimensions in a cube, it is called hypercube. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 21 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OLAP CUBE Example INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 22

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE (Modelling Types) Schema Types in Data Warehousing Some modelling types: Star Schema Flat schema Terraced Schema Snowflake Schema Star Cluster Schema Fact Constellation Schema , .. Data normalization in DW is not as important as OLTP systems INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 23 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE

Star Schema INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 24 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Charecteristics of Fact and Dimension Tables Fact table: Contains numeric values that called measurements Contains huge size of data Expand fast and quickly Includes stable, derived, summarized, aggregated data Have foreign key relation with dimension tables Dimension tables:

Are Reference tables Generally includes text type data that users want to see Generally includes static data Data size is low INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 25 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Example: Table 1: 2-D view of sales data according to the dimensions time and item, where location is Vancouver. The mesure displayed is dollar in thousand

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 26 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Example: Table 2: 3-D view of sales data according to the dimensions time, item and location. The measure displayed in dollar-sold in thousand INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 27 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE

Example: 3-D data cube representation of the data in table 2 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 28 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Example: 4-D data cube representation, according to the dimensions time, item, location and supplier INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 29

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Snowflake Schema There is only one fact table Some dimension tables are normalized Due to normalization, redundancy is reduced therefore it becomes easy to maintain and save storage space INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 30 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Snowflake Schema Example

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 31 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Data Mining Query Language ( DMQL) DMQL is a SQL based language. First, it is developed for data mining process. But, It can be also used for describing data warehouses elements. SYNTAX FOR CUBE DEFINITION define cube < cube_name > [ < dimension-list > }: < measure_list > SYNTAX FOR DIMENSION DEFINITION define dimension < dimension_name > as ( < attribute_or_dimension_list > ) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT

32 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE DMQL (Data Mining Query Language) Examples Star Schema of Sales Cube Definitons: define cube sales star [time, item, branch, location]: dollars sold = sum(sales in dollars), define dimension time as (time key, day, month, year) define dimension item as (item key, item name) define dimension location as (location key, street, postal code, city) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 33

TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE The Conversion of a Relational Database into a Multidimensional Database Find Subjects and Data Marts Find all dimensions that exist but are hidden in a relational database schema Knowledge (measurements) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 34 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE OLAP OPERATIONS

Roll-up : Performs aggregation on a data cube Drill-down : reverse of the roll-up Slice : Performs selection on a dimension of a cube Dice : Performs selecton on two or more dimensions Pivot (rotate) : It rotates data axes INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 35 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE SUMMARY OLAP vs OLTP BI components are DW, OLAP, Cubes, Dashboards, ETL and Data Mining DW is subject oriented data and used in Decision Support Systems DW is also called OLAP

DW includes time dimension, historical data Querying and analysing data is easy on DW system Generally managers use DW to query Star-Schema structure is used in DW at most (fact, dimensions, measures) INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 36 TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE Thank You & Any Question ? INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES DEPARTMENT 37

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