DBQ Comparing East and West Africa 600-1450

DBQ Comparing East and West Africa 600-1450

DBQ Comparing East and West Africa 600-1450 Assessing the role of African trade across the Sahara, through the Mediterranean and writing the Indian Ocean. Illustrative DBQ: Using posterboard,markers,crayons and each other, please do the following: Write the prompt on top of the poster board

Provide small area for contextualization Create visual image in the center (Map,picture,meme,acrostic etc.) pertaining to prompt Group documents with POV, one sentence summary and identify similarity or difference (graphic organizer)

Locate area fro synthesis linking topic to another place, theme or time Write thesis at the bottom ( along with group name for classwork grade) Historical context and outside information Bantu migrations started a pattern of settlement from the ancient through the

classical and really became intensive in the post-classical 600-1450. Africa had been made up of stateless societies generally headed up by a chief with no formal method of tax or law. Animism was widely practiced and evidenced in art (statuary, masks, rite of passage ceremonies, instruments, medicine)

Griots were oral traditionalists who both maintained historical lineage but morality and ethics through proverbs and lessons sometimes it is the hunter who tell the lions tale Women were valued as cattle raisers and lineage was determined by mothers line (matrilineal) and bride wealth was paid by groom to father of bride ( opposite of dowry)

Sorghum, millet and wheat were African agricultural staples Bantu was a family of languages and Swahili (coastal) was a mixture of Bantu and Arabic on the East Coast of Africa. Zimbabwe( stone-dwelling) was a East African Kingdom known for its vast sums of Gold, Ivory and animals hides Document #1 Arab traders

description of the Swahili Coast This merchant identifies the role of the ivory trade in Africas East coast, he looks at the long-distance trade of Indian Ocean from Oman to China and India ( all being part of Muslim lands. The mention of the Zanj (land of the blacks) and their hunting of elephants with spears suggests an ethnocentric tone, however the lure of trade is the purpose of his writing with the intention to draw more Arab merchants in. Document #2 Al-Bakris description of Ghana. As a Arab, Spanish Muslim, Bakri He marvels at the urban planning, location of Mosques and centers

of justice and the gold-salt trade in which there is a large amount of gold. His purpose may be to draw the significance of trade in a global context to hi fellow merchants and supporters who are also Muslims and merchants as Arab merchants provided 2/3 of Gold coming into Europe and the Middle East from Ghana. Like Document #1, Bakris intention is the draw of trade (in this case Gold) from Ghana but more respectfully as many of its inhabitants are fellow Muslims. Document #3 Ibn Battutas description of the Swahili coast As a traveler, pilgrim and Qadi (Muslim judge), Ibn was warmly welcomed to the various regions Throughout Dar Al Islam. He refers to its inhabitants as pious (deeply religious) honorable and upright (a Deep compliments from this holy man), He differentiates the Muslim Zanj from the heathen Zanj Who were constantly in conflict and evaluates the great advances of Muslim mosques in Kilwa. His

Purpose is to glorify (like doc #2) the great Muslim advances in Africa (this is East Coast like doc #1) Document #4 Ibn Battuta in West Africa on justice As a Qadi (Muslim judge) he is definitely impressed with the administration of Sharia (Muslim law).The Complete security of the country (unlike fights in East Africa in document #3) impresses Ibn as people Safety is only surpassed by their respect of fellow Muslims (like the Arabs) and their attention to Friday Prayers, mosque attendance and recitation of Quranic prayers. Very similar to his admiration in Document #3. Document #5 Spanish map of the extent to which Mansa Musas Pilgrimage and Gold-salt trade influenced European perception of

Africa This document was utilize by European merchants to highlight the great amount of Gold coming Out of Africa in the 14th century. Europe was engaging in a commercial revolution and became Increasingly more interested in gaining gold for their economy ( approximately 2/3 of all European Gold came from Arab traders in Africa). Made Mansa was the wealthiest man in the world Giving so much away it was devalued in Cairo (along his pilgrimage routes) for 20 years. Musa Subsequently established the great trading city of Timbuktu where Islamic scholarship was valued More than Gold. Document #6 A Portuguese merchant desiring to gain access to Swahili trade in Kilwa

This European merchant in 1505 is engaging in the European age of exploration and is attempting To tap into the pre-existing Indian Ocean trade. He views all of the sound urban planning, regulation Of trade and gold and silver (precious metal or bullionism became part of Europes capitalist commerci Economy). He views similar to Ibn Battuta in Doc #3, however as a Christian wanting wealth and Conversion, his purpose is different. Document #7 Spanish Arab Scholar on Timbuktu This scholar marvels at the peace and prosperity of Malis capital and how their Muslim assimilation In veiling and justice is strong. He illustrates the power of the King through military and tribute and the Wealth that is derived for many through trade (Trans-Saharan Gold/Salt) as well as the urban planning Which makes Timbuktu a thriving commercial urban center. This can be grouped in political, economic

Or cultural and ,like most of the documents, favorably either for the purpose of tying Africa into the Muslim world or for trading purposes (perhaps both) Thesis: Comparing views of East and West Africa 900-1500 The introduction of Islam from 900-1500 increasingly integrated both East and West Africa into the wider World. The location along major trade routes ( Trans-Sahara, Mediterranean and Indian Ocean) saw many Merchants interested in their riches and opportunities, Muslim scholars marveled at the assimilation of Muslim laws, architecture and religious fervor while others saw the vestigial elements of older heathen Practices. While the Muslim world would see the riches of Africa initially, the introduction of European Interest in African trade would see an increased interaction with newer European merchants first indirect And then directly.

Synthesis: Last to the Table The Portuguese in the 15th century started to embark on voyages Volta de Mar looking Outward to the Atlantic. With the help of the patronage of Prince Henry and years of advances From Moorish conquest, initial connections between Europe and Africa would begin. Initially it was A mutually beneficial relationship as Europeans were looking for Gold and the legend of Prester John, but the desire to Christianize, commercialize and tap into pre-existing trade led to raids, Introduction of gunpowder weaponry and the racists chattel slavery that would persist to the 19 th Century. The great Kingdoms, empires and city-states renowned for their Islamic scholarship, vibrant Trade and safety and stability would undergo a tremendous change for the worse. Indian Ocean Trade, too would become violent and tumultuous no longer stabilized by the Muslim diasporic Merchant communities.

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