1947-Present: The process of untangling the yoke of imperialist oppression and granting the nationalist struggle for self-determination Decolonization Results of World War II Defeat of dictatorships. Unparalleled destruction. The decline of colonial
powers. The rise of the superpowers and the Cold War. The Global South The Global South = formerly labeled third-world countries during the
Cold War now often referred to as developing nations Decolonization = term for the Global Souths independence from European rule The Global South Challenges facing the Global
South after decolonization: The legacies of empire Deep divisions of language, ethnicity, religion, and class Rapidly growing populations Competing demands of the capitalist West and the communist East Developing economies,
stable politics, and coherent nations all at the same time The End of Empire in World History Dissolution of empires = nothing new Think about the end of older empires Assyrians, Greeks,
Romans, Arabs, Mongols, etc. Whats different about the end of these empires? Mobilization of the masses within the colonies around a nationalist ideology Creation of a large number of independent nation-states following the empires
breakdown each claiming an equal place in the world Kwame Nkrumah after leaving prison in 1951 Led Ghana to national independence in 1957 Nation-States Created
Explaining African and Asian Independence The Contradictions Explanation = fundamental contradictions existed within the entire colonial enterprise that made its demise inevitable Views Held by European Rulers Christianity and material progress Increasingly democratic
values National self-determination Whats Happening in their Colonies Racism, exploitation, and poverty Rule by dictatorships Denied any opportunities to express their own national
character Explaining African and Asian Independence International circumstances that led to the end of these empires: Both world wars = weakened Europe Both world wars =
discredited any sense of European moral superiority U.S. and Soviet Union = new global superpowers = opposed the older European colonial empires United Nations = platform from which nations could express anticolonial views
Explaining African and Asian Independence: Economic and Social Circumstances By the mid-20th century = 2nd and 3rd generation Westerneducated elites (mostly male) had arisen throughout the colonial world Familiar with European culture and aware of the gaps between its values and its
practices Didnt see colonial rule as a vehicle for their peoples progress Increasingly insisted on independence Doc #1 United Nations Declaration against Colonialism This document from the general Assembly of the United Nations
illustrates the enlightened ideals which preceded it on the nature of mankind and that subjugation under imperialism was wrong and its purpose before the whole world was to end all forms of colonialism (social, political, economic and cultural). Inspired by both the enlightenment and,perhaps, self-determination under Woodrow Wilsons 14 points, the time has come to enable former colonies (84% of world in 1900) to gain their independence . The United Nations had a peacekeeping force to facilitate the free and fair elections of newly independent nations. The problem is who should be in control.
Doc #2 Edward Morel was a British journalists before the World Wars (1903) Clearly anti-imperialist, he points out the response to the white Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling and identifies the exploitative nature of imperialism (ex, diseases, slavery and militarism). Some of the problems concerning independence ( ethnic/racial conflicts, scarcity of resources and
territorial boundaries drawn as a result of the Berlin conference created a list of insurmountable difficulties in addition to the systemic racism in laws ( ex. Apartheid in South Africa and Rhodesia like Jim Crow laws in the United States) which were the vestigial elements of social Darwinism (White Mans Burden) . In Document #3 This document from a democratically elected leader of the Philippines illustrates the true nature of decolonized rule
Aquino was elected after deposed western-backed leader Marcos was overthrown. As the Philippines had been victim of Spanish and later American and Japanese imperialism, they were finally tasting the components of fair and free elections. Aquino is trying to promote more free elections and democracy identifying that it is just the beginning to form a just society. Her audience is the people of the Philippines. Document #4 is from Jomo Kenyatta whose purpose
is to fight(non-violently)for freedom from imperialist rule Kenyatta considered the father of independent Kenya worked toward a nonviolent solution to the problems of British farmers owning the best land. The Mau Mau uprising against the British colonial rule of what would become Kenya. The British were reluctant to free Kenya due to its incredible resources and strategic location. Note the
nationalists tone. Document #5 from Indias first Prime Minister Jwarhal Nehru Unlike Kenyatta in document #4. Nehru is illustrating the nature of peace and tolerance in the transitioning of Indian independence. The non-alignment movement continues the policy toward peace through not choosing sides during the cold war. Documents from spiritual leader Mohandas Gandhi's Swaraj-self
rule and accounting for his peaceful protests ( Salt March, Home spun movement) would gain a greater understanding into how India peacefully transitioned into their independence in 1947.. Document #6 the first free-African ruled country Ghana (formerly Gold Coast) Kwame Nkrumah is identifying the economic exploitation of Colonialism and the deep
desire for freedom from this oppression. He will achieve it through peaceful protests and a transition similar to India. The Pan-African organization the Organization for African Unity would illustrate the political transition of Africas first freed former colony (1957). Note the nationalists tone based on a PanAfrican rather than regional or tribal affiliation. Document #7 from Vietnamese
leader Ho Chi Minh Illustrates the influence of the French and American revolutions as well as the enlightenment of Vietnams struggle for independence. Vietnam would fight the French and later the United States for their nationalistic ambitions even siding with the Soviet Union during the Cold War (proxy wars). Ho Chi Minh was a leading figure toward Vietnamese independence inspired by the enlightenment and the United States declaration of independence. A war for independence and then the armed conflict of the
Vietnam war would eventually see Ho Chi Minhs dream realized. Document #8 illustrates the former colonial holdings of the West prior to decolonization. Thesis: After WWII, the nationalist ambitions of colonies coupled with the Enlightened principles espoused within the United Nations led to decolonization throughout Asia and Africa. Transitions to the colonized were sometimes peaceful and complete, sometimes violent and bloody and
sometimes came with mixed results.. Additional Documents: The reason would identify the religious and ethnic claim to a land that will continue to have conflicts and wars over claim and legitimacy to this land(Arab/Israeli wars will continue for the 20th and 21st centuries)
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