Developmental psychology

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY DR. GEOFF GOODMAN LECTURE 7 10/25/16 PLAY, FUN, SYMBOLIZING, PRACTICING, AND MUCKING ABOUT INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAY INTRINSIC VALUE ENGAGING IN REWARDED TASKS KILLS FUN SEPARATE FROM BUT RELATED TO REALITY RELATED TO CAPACITY TO SYMBOLIZE AND TO CREATE FLEXIBILITY OF ROLES, COMBINATIONS, AND REPRESENTATIONS POSITIVE AFFECT IS TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PLAY

PLAY CONDITIONS LESS STRESS MORE CONFIDENT LESS ANXIOUS NURTURING FAMILY CONTEXT SECURITY FACILITATES PLAY, AND PLAY FACILITATES SECURITY PLAY IN INFANCY TRAINING FOR THE UNEXPECTED BEGINS IN INFANCY (NEAR END OF FIRST YEAR) INCREASED MOBILITY, DEXTERITY, AND SPEED PRECURSORS OF ROLE PLAY, FANTASY, AND IMAGINARY GAMES PLAY BECOMES RICHER AND FULLER UNDER SECURE CONDITIONS PLAY IN OTHER SPECIES PLAY IS CONSIDERED AS A DISCRETE NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM ALONG WITH FEAR, SEX, AGGRESSION, AND ATTACHMENT (PANKSEPP, 2007) PLAY HAS BEEN OBSERVED ACROSS ALL CULTURES AND IN MANY

MAMMALIAN SPECIES PLAY HAS BEEN SELECTED FOR EVOLUTIONARY REASONS KEY TO DEVELOPMENT OF EXPLORATORY-ASSERTIVE MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEM KEY TO SOLIDIFYING SOCIAL HABITS KEY TO DEVELOPING PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE CAPACITIES ROUGH AND TUMBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY (PELLEGRINI, 2007) POSITIVE AFFECT PLAY FACE HIGH ENERGY EXAGGERATED MOVEMENTS SOFT, OPEN-HANDED HITS OR KICKS ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY DIMINISHES WITH SEXUAL MATURATION PURPOSES OF ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY

AIDS MUSCULAR SKILLS BUILDS STRENGTH STIMULATES BRAIN DEVELOPMENT INCREASES AFFILIATIVE BONDS IN ADOLESCENCE, ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY IS USED TO ESTABLISH DOMINANCE AND STATUS IN THE SOCIAL HIERARCHY DIFFERENT KINDS OF PLAY, DIFFERENT KINDS OF LEARNING PLAY DIFFERS BY CULTURE BUT CONTAINS COMMONALITIES MOST CHILDREN ACT OUT SCRIPTS OF EVERYDAY ADULT LIFE MAYAN BOYS PRETEND TO BE BAR OWNERS UGANDAN CHILDREN PRETEND TO BE FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE ROLE OF SYMBOLIC PLAY DIFFER

BY CULTURE AMERICAN PARENTS SYMBOLIC PLAY AIDS IN LEARNING KOREAN PARENTS PLAY IS AMUSEMENT JAPANESE PARENTS SOCIOCENTRIC PLAY IS ENCOURAGED DIFFERENT KINDS OF PLAY, DIFFERENT KINDS OF LEARNING CONT. CHILDREN LEARN BEST IN A PLAYFUL ENVIRONMENT THAT BALANCES STRUCTURE AND FREE PLAY TOOLS OF THE MIND (BARNETT ET AL., 2008) STORYTELLING/STORY-ACTING (STSA; PALEY, 1990) ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT BUILD ON CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO REACH NEXT LEVEL CHILDREN ENGAGED IN THIS KIND OF PLAY BUILD CAPACITIES LONGER PERIODS OF CONCENTRATION

INCREASED ABILITY TO PLAN, CONCENTRATE, AND SELF-REGULATE INCREASED ABILITY TO ENGAGE IN COMPLEX INTERACTIONS OTHER EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL ADVANTAGES PLAY AS A WINDOW INTO THE PSYCHE PLAY HAS BEEN HARNESSED FOR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES CHILDRENS PREOCCUPATIONS ARE EXPRESSED SYMBOLICALLY STANDARD ASSESSMENTS OF PLAY CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENTAL PLAY INSTRUMENT (CHAZAN) ATTACHMENT STORY-COMPLETION TASK (BRETHERTON) PLAY HAS BEEN HARNESSED FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES CHILDRENS PLAY CAN BE WORKED ON IN THE SAME MANNER AS FREE ASSOCIATIONS AND DREAMS IN ADULT THERAPY PLAY CAN BE USED IN CHILD THERAPY FROM A WIDE RANGE OF THEORETICAL ORIENTATIONS PLAY ALWAYS HAS SOME CONNECTION, HOWEVER OBSCURE, TO PAST EXPERIENCES

TRAUMATIC PLAY NOT THERAPEUTIC LIKE FLASHBACKS IN ADULTS REPETITIVE, STEREOTYPED, AND RIGID PROJECTION OF UNWANTED FEELINGS INTO PARTICIPANTS AND OBJECTS PLAY, PRETENDING, SYMBOLISM, AND GROWING MINDS PLAY ALLOWS CHILD TO TRY ON DIFFERENT WAYS OF BEING

DOCTOR - PATIENT TEACHER - STUDENT MARY - BABY JESUS (CARLYN) PLAY ALLOWS CHILD TO LEARN HOW AN ADULT THINKS, ACTS, FEELS, AND UNDERSTANDS THE WORLD FROM THE INSIDE CHILDREN ARE TIPPED OFF TO PRETENSE WHEN THERE IS MORE SMILING AND LONGER SMILING SMILING MEANS MORE THAN JUST AN EXPRESSION OF PLEASURE LONGER AND MORE FREQUENT GAZING AT PLAY PLAY, PRETENDING, SYMBOLISM, AND GROWING MINDS CONT. WHO ADVANCES CHILDRENS PLAY? MORE SOPHISTICATED PLAY PARTNERS ADULT OLDER SIBLING

SCAFFOLDING GREATER PLAY SOPHISTICATION RAISES CHILDS LEVEL ATTUNEMENT (I.E., ACCURATE EMOTIONAL SIGNALING AND RESPONSIVENESS) DURING FIRST YEAR PREDICTS SYMBOLIC PLAY ABILITY IN LATER YEARS PLAY DEVELOPS IN PHASES PRETENDING TO DRINK WITH CUP NINE MONTHS CONVEYING INTENTION TO STIMULATE OR PRETEND FOUR YEARS THEORY OF MIND IMPLICATED ROLE SHIFTING AVAILABLE THEORY OF MIND ENHANCES PLAY, AND PLAY ENHANCES THEORY OF MIND LINK BETWEEN STORYTELLING AND PRETEND PLAY (NICOLOPOULOU, SUMMARY SYMBOLIC PLAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH UNDERSTANDING OTHERS MINDS

PLAY HELPS CHILDREN COMMUNICATE THEIR DEEPEST DESIRES AND FEARS, THUS MAKING THEM AVAILABLE FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PROCESSING PLAY HELPS CHILD TO BRACKET HERE-AND-NOW EXPERIENCE TO PARTICIPATE IN ANOTHER REALITY CHILDREN ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM HAVE DIFFICULTY PLAYING BOYS, GIRLS, AND GENDER BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES AND RARE CONDITIONS BRAIN DIFFERENCES MALES BIGGER, MORE LATERALIZED (LANGUAGE IN LEFT HEMISPHERE, VISUOSPATIAL TASKS IN RIGHT HEMISPHERE) FEMALES MORE COMPLEX NEURONAL CONNECTIONS, LESS LATERALIZED (LANGUAGE IN BOTH HEMISPHERES) GENITAL DIFFERENCES

PENIS = CLITORIS SCROTUM = LABIA CONTROLLED BY TESTOSTERONE AND ESTROGEN RELEASED IN UTERO HORMONES IMPACT THE BRAIN MASCULINE BRAIN AND FEMININE BRAIN BRAIN GENDER CAN DIFFER FROM ANATOMICAL GENDER WHEN SUCH A DISCREPANCY OCCURS, THE INDIVIDUAL TENDS TO IDENTIFY WITH BRAIN GENDER DIFFERENT STYLES OF PLAY AND LEVELS OF AGGRESSION BOYS MAKE LESS EYE CONTACT (LOOK LONGER AT MOBILE AT BIRTH) A WEAKER SEX? GENDER AND THE IMPACT OF EARLY EXPERIENCES MALES ARE MORE BIOLOGICALLY VULNERABLE 140 MALES CONCEIVED FOR EVERY 100 FEMALES AT BIRTH, 105 MALES TO 100 FEMALES MALES HAVE A HIGHER MORTALITY RATE MALES MORE LIKELY TO SUFFER FROM AUTISM, TOURETTES, READING DELAYS

REASONS FOR MALE VULNERABILITY ONLY ONE X CHROMOSOME, SO LESS ROOM FOR ERROR MALES WORK HARDER AND LONGER (ALTHOUGH THAT IS CHANGING) MALES TAKE MORE RISKS AND ARE MORE AGGRESSIVE REASONS FOR GIRLS INVULNERABILITY RESPOND BETTER TO SOCIAL STIMULATION BETTER AT AFFECT REGULATION LESS ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY DISRUPTIONS IN PARENTING DEPRESSED MOTHERS RESPOND MORE POSITIVELY TO GIRLS MALES TEND TO EXTERNALIZE CONFLICTS, WHILE GIRLS TEND TO INTERNALIZE CONFLICTS DIFFERENT CULTURES, DIFFERENT GENDERS WOMENS DISCOURSE CAN BE DIRECT, ASSERTIVE, EVEN AGGRESSIVE (GAPUN WOMEN OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA) XANITH IN OMANI ACT LIKE A THIRD GENDER PASSIVE HOMOSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS

DRESS AND ACT LIKE WOMEN NATIVE AMERICAN BERDACHE MALE AND FEMALE SPIRIT IN SAME BODY CAN HAVE SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH EITHER GENDER VENUS AND MARS: LANGUAGE AND DIFFERENT PLANETS MOTHERS SPEND MORE TIME WITH AND ENGAGE IN MORE MUTUAL EYE CONTACT WITH GIRLS, PERHAPS ACCOUNTING FOR GIRLS GREATER VERBAL FLUENCY GIRLS TEND TO USE MORE HEDGES (WORDS TO DESCRIBE TENTATIVE MEANING) ON PLAYGROUND, GIRLS TALK MORE, WHILE BOYS ENGAGE IN MORE PREFERRED CULTURES, DIFFERENT GENDER PREFERENCES, AND BELIEFS BOYS ARE PREFERRED IN MOST CULTURES FOR ECONOMIC REASONS GIRLS ARE PREFERRED FOR A BRIDE PRICE (DOWRY), WHICH BOOSTS THE ECONOMY

DIFFERENT GENDERS, DIFFERENT PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESENTATIONS GIRLS ARE MORE LIKELY TO SUFFER FROM INTERNALIZING DISORDERS DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND EATING DISORDERS (BUT WHAT ABOUT BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER)? BOYS ARE MORE LIKELY TO SUFFER FROM EXTERNALIZING DISORDERS ADHD, ODD, AND CD BOYS ARE MORE RISK-TAKING THAN GIRLS TO ATTRACT A MATE (SEXUAL COMPETITION) BOYS ARE MORE AGGRESSIVE AND EVIDENCE MORE VIOLENT THEMES IN FANTASIES THAN GIRLS TESTOSTERONE AGAIN, AND OTHER HORMONES TESTOSTERONE IS ASSOCIATED WITH MORE VIOLENT CRIME, BEHAVIORAL DIFFICULTIES, AND OF COURSE, BEING MALE TESTOSTERONE IS LATER ASSOCIATED WITH LESS JOB SUCCESS LESS MARRIAGE SUCCESS

LESS POLITENESS LESS SMILING WOMEN WITH HIGH TESTOSTERONE EVIDENCE MORE DOMINANCE MORE AGGRESSION MORE COMPETITIVENESS FETAL EXPOSURE TO TESTOSTERONE SENSITIZES THE BRAIN AND HELPS TO PRODUCE MASCULINE TRAITS HIGH TESTOSTERONE LEVELS MIGHT MAKE SOMEONE LESS AMENABLE TO PARENTAL (AND SOCIETAL?) INFLUENCE CULTURE PLAYS A ROLE IN TESTOSTERONE LEVELS (AT LEAST IN ADULTHOOD) SOCIAL LEARNING CHILDREN IDENTIFY WITH THEIR GENDER BY 3 YEARS OLD, BUT OTHERS GENDERS ARE STILL PERCEIVED AS NOT FIXED CHILDREN AGES 4 TO 6 ASCRIBE GENDER TO SUPERFICIAL CHARACTERISTICS

(HAIRSTYLE OR CLOTHES) CHILDREN AGES 6 AND 7 VIEW GENDER AS STABLE AND BEGIN SOCIALIZING IN GENDERED GROUPS WOMEN PERFORM MORE POORLY ON INTELLIGENCE TESTS AND DESCRIBE THEMSELVES IN FEMININE WAYS WHEN MEETING A MAN WITH A PREFERENCE FOR TRADITIONAL WOMEN EAT LESS SPEAK IN SOFTER VOICE BECOME LESS COMPETITIVE ADULTS RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO BABIES DEPENDING ON GENDER OF CLOTHES AND NAME ROUGHER PLAY FOR BOYS BIGGER BODILY MOVEMENTS FOR BOYS ENCOURAGEMENT TO PLAY WITH GENDER-TYPICAL TOYS SUMMARY: NATURE AND NURTURE AND FUZZY GENDERS MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY CAN BE VIEWED AS OCCUPYING

TWO CONTINUA, NOT THE OPPOSITE POLES OF ONE CONTINUUM BIOLOGY AND SOCIALIZATION BECOME ENTWINED QUITE EARLY IN DEVELOPMENT IT QUICKLY BECOMES DIFFICULT TO TEASE THEM APART

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