Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability, and Reform Course Enhancement Module on Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions: Part 3 (Supplemental Behavioral Interventions) H325A120003 Part 3: Supplemental Behavioral Interventions What Are Supplemental Interventions? The Implementation Process The Importance of Choosing EvidenceBased Behavioral Interventions and Implementing Them With Fidelity Examples of Supplemental Interventions and Strategies Measuring Student Progress Case Studies: Meet Ryan and Aiden
Note Part 3 uses content and resources from The National Center on Intensive Intervention (NCII) www.intensiveintervention.org OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) www.pbis.org Floridas Positive Behavior Support www.flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support www.pbismissouri.org What Are Supplemental Interventions? What Are Supplemental
Interventions? Supplemental interventions are designed for at-risk students and students who are not responding to universal strategies. Universal strategies can be effective for approximately 80 percent of students. Supplemental interventions can have a positive impact on approximately 15 percent of students. (Filter et al., 2007; Kett & Nelson, 2010) CONTINUUM OF SCHOOLWIDE INSTRUCTIONAL AND POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBIS.org)
~5% ~15% Universal: School/ClassroomWide Systems for All Students, Staff, and Settings ~80% of Students Individual/Intensive: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students With High-Risk Behavior Supplemental:
Specialized Systems for Students With At-Risk Behavior Supplemental Interventions No more than 15 percent of students identified as at risk Examples of supplemental interventions: Social skills instruction Check In Check Out (CICO) ~15% Key Characteristics Continuously available
Quickly and easily accessible Minimal time commitment required from classroom teachers Required skill sets can be easily learned by classroom teachers Aligned with schoolwide expectations (Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010) Key Characteristics Staff/faculty are aware of the intervention(s) and their roles in the process The intervention(s) is consistently implemented with most students, but with some flexibility The selected program is matched to the function of the students behavior
The Implementation Process The Implementation Process 1. Identify students at risk 2. Match intervention to student need 3. Implement intervention 4. Progress monitor 1. Identifying At-Risk Students Office discipline referrals (ODRs) These identify students who are not successful at the universal level Teacher referrals
These follow a clear process They also provide supporting data Screening This involves the use of a tool or checklist, such as Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Walker-McConnell Scales 2. Match Intervention to Student Need Remember the ABCs of behavior Choose an intervention(s) that matches the likely function of the behavior
Academic Supports Students displaying inappropriate behaviors may need more academic supports. Curriculum-based assessment should be used to monitor academic performance. Center on Response to Intervention www.rti4success.org 3. Implement the Intervention Make a plan for implementing the intervention in accordance with the developers directions: Who will deliver the intervention? When and where?
For how long? 4. Progress Monitoring Progress monitoring is the process of systematically planning, collecting, and evaluating data to inform programming decisions. Progress monitoring Provides a basis for determining whether an intervention is effective for a given student Assists with developing effective intervention plans Evidence-based supplemental interventions work for many students. Monitor progress to determine if the plan is working for this student. Progress Monitoring Uses
Determine the rate of progress or response to the intervention Assess current performance Data allow us to Identify when an intervention change is needed Hypothesize potential sources of
need Progress Monitoring Benefits Evaluation Dissemination Accountability Justification Transparency Activity: How Much Do You Remember? With a partner:
1. List the four steps in the implementation process 2. Write as many facts as you can that describe each step 3. Explain why each step is important Handout #5: The Four Steps in the Implementation Process The Importance of Choosing Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions and Implementing Them With Fidelity Evidence-Based and Implemented With Fidelity 1. Evidence-Based Intervention
2. Fidelity a) b) c) d) e) Adherence Student Engagement Program Specificity Quality of Delivery Exposure Evidence-Based Interventions Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) reflect a base of research
evidence that documents their effectiveness. EBIs are likely to be effective in changing target behavior if implemented with fidelity. Examples of EvidenceBased Interventions Some commonly used and well-researched interventions include The Behavior Education Program (also known as Check In Check Out) Check & Connect Social Skills Instructional Groups Academic Instructional Groups Academic Accommodations Supplemental Environmental Interventions pbismissouri.org
Examples of EvidenceBased Behavior Curricula Bully-Proofing Your School Cool Tools: An Active Approach to Social Responsibility First Steps to Success Good Talking Words Second Step Violence-Prevention Curricula Stop and Think Skillstreaming The Social Skills Curriculum The Walker Social Skills Curriculum: The Accepts Program PBIS Center, www.pbis.org Resources to Locate Evidenced-Based Practices
What Works Clearing House - http://ies.ed.go/ncee/wwc/ Promising Practices Network - http://www.promisingpractices.net/ Current Practices Alert - http://www.teachingld.org/Id_resources/alerts/ Evidence Based Interventions Network -http://ebi.missouri.edu/ IRIS Center - http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project - http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/index.cfm Activity: Evidence-Based Behavior Curricula Using the list of evidence-based curricula provided, choose one or two that you would like to learn more
about. Research these curricula so you can explain them to the group. Provide the group with information about: Which students would benefit from the curricula Who should implement them How long they should be implemented for How to determine whether they are working Handout #6: Examples of Evidence-Based Behavior Curricula
Elements of Supplemental Interventions 1. Evidence-Based Intervention 2. Fidelity a) b) c) d) e) Adherence Student Engagement Program Specificity Quality of Delivery Exposure Why Is Fidelity
Important? Ensures that intervention has been implemented as intended Allows us to link student outcomes to intervention Helps us to determine if the intervention is effective and make instructional decisions Helps us achieve positive student (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2008) outcomes Five Elements of Fidelity Student Engagement: How engaged and involved are the students in this intervention or activity?
Program Specificity: How well is the intervention defined and how is it different from other interventions? Adherence: How well do we stick to the plan, curriculum, or assessment? Exposure/Duration: How often does a student receive an intervention? How long does an intervention last?
Quality of Delivery: How well is the intervention, assessment, or instruction delivered? Do you use good teaching practices? (Dane & Schneider, 1998; Gresham et al., 1993; ODonnell, 2008) Examples of Supplemental Interventions and Strategies Social Skills Instruction Check In Check Out What Are Social Skills? Social skills can be defined within the context of social and emotional learning recognizing and managing our emotions, caring and developing concern for others, establishing positive
relationships, making responsible decisions, and handling challenging situations constructively and ethically (Zins, Weissbert, Wang, & Walberg, 2004). Activity Giving and Accepting Compliments 1. When the music starts walk around the room. 2. When the music stops, introduce yourself to someone standing near you. 3. Give each other a compliment. 4. After the activity, discuss:
How did it feel to give and receive compliments? Why is it important for students to understand how to give and receive compliments? How Do We Teach Social Skills? Modeling Coaching Self-management Positive reinforcement Students with disabilities may need additional modeling, coaching, selfmanagement, and positive reinforcement. Modeling Demonstration of the skill or behavior
Contrived or natural Verbal explanation Student is aware of both the model and the behavior Students with disabilities may need more explicit modeling examples, both verbal and non-verbal. Coaching Goes hand-in-hand with modeling Requires immediate feedback from the teacher Involves discussion Invites student feedback Students with disabilities may need
immediate feedback more often. Self-Management Is the ideal Requires regular feedback in the beginning Involves cues Invites reflection Self management might be more difficult for students with disabilities and younger students. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the student after the
desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future. Reminder: Different people respond to different reinforcers! Check In Check Out: A Targeted Intervention Rob Horner, George Sugai, Anne Todd, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Cindy Anderson, Terry Scott University of Oregon and University of Connecticut Handout #7: Examples of Evidence-Based Behavior Interventions Student Recommended for CICO
CICO Is Implemented Teach/Role-Play Skills Check In Check Out (CICO) CICO Coordinator Summarizes Data For Decision Making Morning Check-In Source: Michigans Integrated
Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (http://miblsi.cenm i.org Parent Feedback Regular Teacher Feedback Bi-Weekly Meeting to Assess Student Progress Afternoon
Check-Out Revise Program Exit Program Who Should Receive the Check In Check Out Intervention? Students engaging in externalizing behaviors Less than 15 percent of students Students with multiple referrals (i.e., two to five major referrals) Students who receive several minor referrals Students who receive referrals in multiple settings Students who find adult attention rewarding or
reinforcing Handout #8: Worksheet for Identifying Students for Check In Check Out Source: Michigans Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (http://miblsi.cenmi.org)/ HAWK Report Student _______________Teacher___________________ Date ________ 0 = Not Yet 1= Good 2= Excellent Be Safe
Be Respectful Keep hands, feet, and objects to self Use kind words and actions Be Your Personal Best Teacher initials Follow Working in directions Class
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1
2 Recess 0 1 2 0 1 2 0
1 2 Class 0 1 2 0 1
2 0 1 2 Lunch 0 1 2 0
1 2 0 1 2 Class 0 1
2 0 1 2 0 1 2 Recess 0
1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 Class
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1
2 class 0 1 2 0 1 2 0
1 2 0 1 2 Measuring Student Progress Data Collected for Supplemental Interventions Data to assess impact: Office Daily Referrals (ODRs)
Data collected as part of the intervention (e.g., check-in, checkout points) Data to assess implementation: Implementation checklists Classroom observations Pattern: Improved Behavior After Intervention Change Interpreting Improved Behavior After Intervention Change Situation: The students response improves after an intervention change (direction depends on target behavior). Analysis: No change in intervention is needed at this time. Continue monitoring until a change is needed or
the goal is met. Pattern: No Change in Behavior Interpreting No Change Situation: The data are similar before and after the change in intervention. Possible interpretations: The student is not responding to the intervention. The student has not received the intervention with fidelity. The DBR tool is not sensitive to change for this behavior (revisit definition or anchors). The intervention is not an appropriate match for the students needs. The intervention is not addressing the function of the
behavior. Disruptive DBR Rating Pattern: Highly Variable Data Number of School Days Interpreting Highly Variable Data Situation: Data are inconsistent. Possible explanations: The DBR tool is not reliable for this behavior (revisit definition or anchors). The administration of the assessment is inconsistent.
The behavior is as variable as the data suggest. Look for patterns in the setting, time of day, day of week, etc. Daily Data Used for Decision Making Ryan's BEP Performance Steves CICO Performance 2010-2012 2000-2001 Percentage of Points 100 80 60
40 20 0 03/07 03/08 03/09 03/12 Date 03/13 03/14
Daily Data Used for Decision Making RachellesBEP CICO Performance Rachelle's Performance 2010-2012 2000-2001 Percentage of Points 100 80 60 40
20 0 02/05 02/08 02/13 Date 02/20 02/23 Case Studies: Meet Ryan and Aiden
Student Example Ryan Background: Ryan was identified as having externalizing behavior problems in January of his fourth-grade year. Ryan had an excessive number of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) and frequently instigated fights with other students. Intervention Platform: Because of Ryans excessive ODRs, a Check In Check Out system was implemented. Check In Check Out Procedures for Ryan Dedicated staff person checks in with the student to get ready for the day Teachers provide feedback on student goals
(aligned with schoolwide expectations) throughout the day Dedicated staff person checks out with the student to reflect on the day Student accumulates points that can be traded at pre-determined times for activities, prizes, or free time Staff collect data daily and review student progress weekly Ryans Check In Check Out Card GOALS Period 1
Period 2 Period Lunch Recess Period Period 3 4 5 Be Safe 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 TOTAL 0 = Goal not met 1 = Goal partially met 2 = Goal fully met Ryan Check In Check Out Fidelity Check-in and check-out occur daily Dedicated staff person is consistently available
Student goals align with schoolwide expectations Student is provided feedback in different settings throughout the day Progress Monitoring: Are We Doing What We Said We Would Do? Is it Working? Progress monitoring tool: Check In Check Out card Measure(s): 1. Percent of daily Check In Check Out points 2. ODRs 3. Teacher fidelity Outcome: Although some progress was evident, Ryan continued to have an unacceptable number of ODRs based on school cut points, and he met his daily report card goal of earning 80 percent of his CICO points only 40 percent of the time.
*Unlike academics, it may be unrealistic to expect behavior to change along a linear progression. Progress Monitoring: Is it Working? Ryan's CICO Points 100 3 80 70 ODRs 2
60 ODRs % Total CICO Points 90 50 40 1 30 % Total CICO Points 20
10 CICO Goal 0 0 7-Jan 8-Jan 9-Jan 10-Jan 11-Jan 12-Jan 13-Jan 14-Jan 15-Jan 16-Jan 17-Jan 18-Jan Next Steps Despite supplemental interventions delivered with fidelity, Ryan continued to make insufficient progress. The intervention teams decided that more intensive supports were needed.
The team needs to problem solve and hypothesize what modifications may be effective. Aidens Story Background: Aiden is a 12-year-old boy enrolled in the seventh grade. School records indicate that he has had difficulty getting along with his teachers and he gets easily frustrated when given certain academic assignments, especially in mathematics. He refused to complete his work and causes disruptions in the classroom. When the teacher gives back mathematics quizzes and tests, he usually rips his up. None of Aidens peers want to sit next to him.
Activity Case Study Review Aidens case study and decide the following: 1. What is the behavior issue? 2. How you would address it? What intervention would you use and why? 3. How would you implement the intervention? 4. How would you tell if it was working? Distinction Between Supplemental Intervention and Intensive Interventions Supplemental Intensive
Instruction Follow standardized, evidence-based programs as designed Use standardized, evidence-based programs as a platform, but adapt instruction based on student data Duration and Timeframe Use the duration and timeframe defined by the
developer Increase the frequency and/ or duration to meet student needs Group Size Use the group size defined by the developer Decrease group size to meet student needs Progress Monitoring
At least once per month Weekly Population Served At-risk (typically 15% of the student population) Significant and persistent learning and/or behavior needs (3-5% of the student population) Key Questions to Ask Before Intensive Interventions
Has the student been taught using an evidence-based, supplemental intervention program (if available) that is appropriate for his or her needs? Has the program been implemented with fidelity? Content Dosage/schedule Group size Has the program been implemented for a sufficient amount of time to determine the response? In Summary Supplemental interventions should Be evidence-based and
implemented with fidelity Help students be successful, both academically and behaviorally Set the foundation for intensive intervention, if necessary Activity Alphaboxes 1. Pick a card. The letter on the card is your assigned letter. 2. Prepare a display on their file card. Each file card should contain a word or idea beginning with the assigned letter and a visual (related to the word or idea). 3. Share your card with the group.
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