Content GS Applications What are we talking about? Expected benefits Status Development status Examples Operational Approval Technical Solutions Costs and Incentives GS Applications Ground Surveillance Downlinked ADS-B data is acquired/processed by ground ATC systems used by Air Traffic Controllers to provide or support surveillance services
No aircrew involvement (downlink is automatic) No significant change to existing procedures ADS-B can be used as Primary source of surveillance data, e.g. ADS-B-NRA Supplementary source of surveillance data, e.g. ADS-B-ACC ADS-B ADS-B ADS-B receiver ground station ATC
System Application Explanation ATC surveillance for en-route airspace (ADS-B-ACC) ATC surveillance in terminal areas (ADS-B-TMA) ADS-B-RAD GS application Short description This application will enhance ATC surveillance (in en-route airspace) currently provided with radars. An example of many is the case of surveillance in areas where single radar coverage is provided.
This application will enhance ATC surveillance (in terminal areas) currently provided with radars. An example of many is the case of surveillance at low altitude and close to the terrain and also in areas where single radar coverage is provided. ATC surveillance in non-radar areas (ADS-B-NRA) This application will provide ATC surveillance in non-radar areas; e.g. remote areas, offshore operation areas, any continental areas and certain oceanic areas, which, due to the level of traffic or the cost of the equipment, could not justify the installation of radars. The purpose is to enhance traffic information and separation services Airport surface surveillance (ADS-B-APT)
This application will provide a new source of surveillance information for a safer and more efficient ground movement management at airports with or without SMGCS. Airport ground vehicles can also be fitted with the necessary equipment and displayed on an airport map, together with aircraft. Aircraft derived data for ground tools (ADS-B-ADD) This application will provide additional aircraft derived data through ADS-B to be used by the ATC ground system for developing or enhancing ATC tools like displays, MTCD, AMAN, DMAN and ground based safety nets. CDM applications will also share the benefits.It should be noted that this application does not encompass the ground tools themselves; it only provides additional input data for these tools. Expected Benefits Expected Benefits Safety: Safer operations
Better surveillance service & lower separation minima in areas where radar coverage is inexistent or incomplete Improve accuracy of surveillance data Improve ATC tools with supplementary ADS-B aircraft derived data Potentially, become a lower-cost alternative to radar in some areas Where will it start ? Remote low density areas where full radar coverage is not economically or technically viable Wide low density continental areas (e.g. Australian outback, Alaska, etc.) Islands Offshore operations Local pockets where radar coverage is incomplete
Terminal areas with terrain obstructions, mountainous regions... Areas where radar is being decommissioned Airport applications Status of GS Applications GS application Research (European) ATC surveillance for en-route airspace (ADS-B-ACC) SEAP MEDUP
CARE ATC surveillance in terminal areas (ADS-B-TMA) SEAP MEDUP CARE ATC surveillance in non-radar areas (ADS-B-NRA) NUP II Pre-operational trials
Operational NUP II Burnett Basin NUP II SEAP DADI II Bethel Alaska Gulf of Mexico NUP II Kiruna (Australian UAP expected in 2006+)
Airport surface surveillance (ADS-B-APT) NUP II CARE NUP II Arlanda Aircraft derived data for ground tools (ADS-B-ADD) NUP II SEAP MEDUP CARE
DADI II INTENT Some Examples Australian Upper Airspace Project (UAP) 28 ground stations to be deployed by end 2005 at existing communications sites throughout outback Australia Radar coverage (dual in terminal areas) Nationwide ADS-B coverage at and above FL300 Connected to TAAATS ATC System ADS-B at every Working Position
Will provide radar-like separation services to suitably equipped aircraft Improved Safety Reduced separation minima compared to current procedural or ADS-C separation Procedural ATC with VHF Australian Upper Airspace Project (UAP) 1090 Extended Squitter technology 28 x 2 ADS-B Ground Stations
Takes advantage of ADS-B out capability certified on current Airbus and Boeing aircraft (linked to ELS/EHS mandate) Available for other aircraft, including regionals and GA and as a retrofit option FL300 10,000 5,000 FL200ft FL300 FL300 UAP Radar-Like approach
Safety case: ADS-B performance as good as or better than radar ADS-B tracks made similar to radar ATC Safety Alerts (Route & Altitude monitoring, STCA) Dual architecture + backup similar to radar RAIM outages managed like scheduled radar maintenance ADS-B on every console Alaska Capstone Program Phase 1 Phase 1 (Bethel) Phase 2
Objective: Improve Safety in the area Wide scope program: surveillance, terrain / moving map, weather information TIS-B, FIS-B, ATSA-S&A, ADS-B-NRA, Weather, GPS approaches, etc. ADS-B enables radar-like capability from Anchorage centre 190 aircraft equipped Ground network of 11 transceivers Phase 2 has started in Southeast Alaska (Juneau area), includes extension to IFR operations NUP-II - GS Applications 4 Clusters addressing GS applications Greenland - NRA NRA
ADD Helsinki - APT Toulouse- APT Innsbruck(A) - NRA NUP-II Example: Greenland ADS-B-NRA application (including terminal area) - Safety issues - Terrain / environment constraints - Small airport - No business case for SSR - Reasonable number of
aircraft to be equipped NUP II Example - Arlanda ADS-B-APT application 22 buses + 17 vehicles + VDL-4 equipped aircraft ADS-B tracks visible on ASMGCS in Tower VDL-4 Ground Station also broadcasts TIS-B, FIS-B and INFO-B Will be used for ATSA-SURF Safety Case nearing completion Other GSA initiatives Safe Flight 21 test beds in Memphis, Louisville (ADS-BAPT) Gulf of Mexico (ADS-B-NRA) Projects in the Asia Pacific Region, incl. Mongolia, China Russian plans to install network of ADS-B ground stations
European Research projects: NUP II+, C-ATM, EMMA, SEAP, EGOA, etc. Several initiatives centred around use of ADS-B to monitor ground movements at the airport. And others... Operational Approval GS applications: same concept of operations, same procedures, but different technology comparison approach Easier, faster... when its acceptable no real impact on airborne procedures & training (automatic broadcast) Main issues Validate technology Safety assessment, including failure modes, backups, dependency on
GPS, RAIM holes, etc. System redundancy Maturity/stability of standards Operational Approval ADS-B GS Applications A stepping stone towards AS applications? Learn to use ADS-B data, Build confidence in ADS-B data & prepare actors for wider use of ADS-B Deploy initial ground infrastructure network for ADS-B can later be expanded to support airborne surveillance applications as well Encourage fitment of ADS-B out Technical Solutions 1/2
Airborne Systems ADS-B out capability Ground Systems ADS-B Ground Stations Communication Network Limited changes in ATC centre, e.g. Acquisition and processing of ADS-B tracks as a supplementary source of surveillance data Impact, if any, on ATC tools & Safety Nets Minor changes to CWP HMI to display/identify ADS-B tracks Exploitation of additional aircraft derived data available through ADS-B (ADS-B-ADD) Technical Solutions 2/2 1090 ES ADS-B out capability on aircraft 1090 ES implementation straightforward on ELS/EHS capable aircraft 1090 ES ADS-B out compliant avionics available from vendors
Service Bulletin available on Airbus and Boeing aircraft OK to squit No basis for certification of operational surveillance applications Current implementations deliver GPS-only position Current Implementations are RTCA DO-260 compliant Standards Initial standards exist for 1090 MHz Mode S Extended Squitter, VDL Mode 4, UAT ICAO ANC11 near-term recommendations 1090 ES for initial implementations and worldwide interoperability VDL Mode 4 and UAT for regional implementations Maturity and stability of standards is an issue, e.g. NUCp -> NIC/NAC/SIL Intent information
RFG activity essential to determine adequate performance and interface standards, based on intended applications Costs and Incentives 1090 ES ADS-B out capability on aircraft facilitated by European ELS/EHS mandate Cost impact is marginal Opportunity for better, wider and more consistent fitment of ADS-B out could do better Will probably need incentives, e.g. for General Aviation Costs and Incentives Business case for ADS-B Ground Surveillance is promising Potential to improve Safety and provide better surveillance
services at a fraction of the cost of radar Main issue is airborne equipage Difficulty of equipping an acceptable percentage of the fleet depends on Aircraft mix operating in the area How many aircraft account for most of the flights How fast will aircraft become ADS-B out equipped as a result of European ELS/EHS mandate Potential for local pockets of implementation (e.g. coastal areas, islands) as well as for large areas (e.g. continent-wide Australian deployment) Is there a case for replacement of radars by ADS-B? Conclusion Initial Ground Surveillance applications of ADS-B are happening Immediate safety and operational benefits expected with GS applications A step towards AS applications
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