Dias nummer 1 - TLI

Dias nummer 1 - TLI

Thomas Riis Trademarks & portrait rights, images rights, personal names, other personal indicia Professor Thomas Riis Centre for Information and Innovation Law Slide 1 Thomas Riis Conflicts between personal names etc and trademarks 1. Distinctiveness: Case C-404/02 (Nichols) Many protected trademarks consist of names

2. Title to names etc.(common law rights): Prevention and limitation Codified in Trademark Directive art. 4(4)(c): the use of the trade mark may be prohibited by virtue of an earlier right and in particular: (i) a right to a name; (ii) a right of personal portrayal; (iii) a copyright; (iv) an industrial property right Danish Act: + a distinctive name of or a picture of the real property of another party Limitation on the exercise of trademark rights, Directive art. 6(1)(a): The trade mark shall not entitle the proprietor to prohibit a third party from using, in the course of trade: (a) his own name or address; in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters Slide 2

Thomas Riis Suggestive mark: Leg Godt Play well Forbes The World's Most Valuable Brands - LEGO: No. 95 Brand value of $ 6.2 B Slide 3 Thomas Riis Louise Lego and her gallery Domain names: louiselego.dk and galleri-lego.dk. Email: [email protected] Google AdWords Galleri Lego and Lego

Meta tags: Louise Lego and Lego Danish Trademarks Act Sect. 5(1) The proprietor of a trade mark right shall not be entitled to prohibit others from using, in the course of trade and in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, (i) his own name and his own address (cf. Trademark Directive Art. 6(1)) 4 Thomas Riis Slide 5 Thomas Riis The Judgment (UfR 2008.372H) Commercial and Maritime Court (Jan. 2006)

Louise Lego is entitled to use: - Her name as signature - Galleri Lego - [email protected] Not entitled to use: - Lego as key word or meta tag takes unfair advantage of the repute of the LEGO mark Supreme Court (Nov. 2007) The LEGO trademark has been used extensively, it is extremely wellknown and it has a high degree of distinctiveness The trademark is so well-known that the term GALLERI LEGO inevitably will be associated with the LEGO trademark Since the term GALLERI LEGO is used for products and services which only to a low degree is similar to those for which the LEGO trademark is registered, there is no real risk of confusion

and Louise Lego is not using her name in a way that is unfair, takes unfair advantage of, or is detrimental to the LEGO trademark Slide 6 Thomas Riis Complications and considerations 1. Are there any elements of national law? - Directive art. 6(1): in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters 2. The scope of the right to use ones own name as a trademark Slide 7

Thomas Riis Title to personal names A.P. Mller (UfR. 1990.65/2H): A.P. Mller Maersk A/S Anton Peter Mller (1876-1965) The word mark AP MLLER is registered in all classes A bank inserted advertisement in a number of national newspapers praising the merits of AP Mller and promoted a savings fund that the bank had established The subsidiary Rederiet A.P. Mller A/S sued the bank for the use of the name

Slide 8 Thomas Riis A.P. Mller (UfR. 1990.65/2H) - No trademark rights were invoked Supreme Court: - The company, Rederiet A.P. Mller A/S, and the (deceased) person, A.P. Mller, is so closely related that the company is entitled to prosecute other persons use of the personal name A.P. Mller

- On the basis of common law rights the company can prevent that the name is used by other persons for marketing purposes (The banks use of the name was furthermore not in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters.) Slide 9 Thomas Riis The right to use ones own name as a trademark: JENSEN (Supreme Court Sep. 2014) Jensen is the most common family name i Denmark JENSENS BFHUS [= Jensens steak house]

JENSENS FISKERESTAURANT [= Jensens fish restaurant] 2001: 30 restaurants Extensive marketing 2 restaurants JENSEN: Well-known trademark Slide 10 Owned by Sby Fiskehal ApS Sby Fiskehal ApS sole owner is Jacob Jensen

Thomas Riis Conclusion and complications Supreme Court: The limitation cannot be extended to the name of the owners of a limited company, or to the names of such a companys executives and the like. Hence, Sby Fiskehal is not entitled to use the name Jensen pursuant to 5 of the Act. - The Court disregards that Jacob Jensen has title to the name Jensen Jacob Jensen is entitled to change the name of his limited company to Jensen

Proposal for amending the Trade Mark Directive (June 2015), Art. 14(1)(a): The trade mark shall not entitle the proprietor to prohibit a third party from using, in the course of trade: (a) where the third party is a natural person, the name or address of the third party; Slide 11 Thomas Riis Bramstrup Estate Title to the name of a property - Previously, a village called Bramstrup close to the estate

- Activities: Farming, machine pool, property rental, agricultural research, management research, musical performances and cultural events Word mark BRAMSTRUP in class 41 (Education, entertainment), 42 (Science and technology services), 44 (Agriculture etc.) - Slide 12 Thomas Riis Auto mechanic

Address: Bramstrupvej 27 Nr. Kyndelse, Bramstrup 5792 rslev Located 1 kilometer from the Estate Slide 13 Thomas Riis Judgement of 26 Aug. 2015, Eastern Court of Appeals The name: Bramstrup is only the name of the estate not the name of a city or a geographical area (despite indications in the BBR register and the fact that a small village

in Jutland is called Bramstrup) The right: Title to the name of the real property Bramstrup - Protection per se? - Protection in relation to similar goods/services (risk of confusion)? (City Court) The owner of the Bramstrup Estate has a common law right to the commercial use of the name and can prevent others from using the name commercially within the area that he describes as Bramstrup Estates circle of acquaintances no doubts that the mechanic is located within the Estates circle of acquaintances Hence, it is naturally to make connections between the names Slide 14 Broader than trademark protection

Limited geographical scope Thomas Riis The auto mechanics website Dec. 2014 The auto mechanics website Oct. 2015 Slide 15 Thomas Riis Slide 16

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