Digital, Hybrid, Virtual Libraries: an overview

Digital, Hybrid, Virtual Libraries: an overview

Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries Muhammad Ajmal Khan Outline 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is Library Definitions History

Classification Principles Characteristics Myths Challenges Conclusion What is Library Collection of books, documents, newspapers, audio visual materials kept and organized for people to read or borrow.

Characteristics 1.Collection of data objects 2.Collection of Metadata Structures 3.Collection of Services 4.Domain Focus 5.Quality Control 6.Preservation Definitions

Digital Library Collection of electronic resources that provides direct/indirect access to a systematically organized collection of digital objects. Hybrid Library Provides services in a mixed-mode, electronic and paper, environment, particularly in a co-coordinated way. Derived from a strand of eLib which explored the issues surrounding the retrieval and delivery of information in these types of environment but also investigated the integration of different electronic services so that single search

approach could be offered to the End user. Virtual Library Access to electronic information in a variety of remote locations through a local online catalogue or other gateway, such as the internet History International Perspective Vennever Bushs Memx Machine, 1945 Invention of Internet 1983

World Wide Web by Tim Berners Lee, 1989 Digital Library Initiative I 1992-1998 Digital Library Initiative II ( 1999-2002) History Pakistani Perspective Karachi Institute of Information Technology Digital Library, 2002

United Nations Digital Library, 2003 Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library, 2003

Higher Education Commission Digital Library PakLAG Digital Library Model, 2005 Memex by Vennever Bush United Nations Digital

Library Characteristics of Digital Library 1. 2. 3.

4. Universal and unlimited access Contents will be in digital format which can be utilized only with the help of computer Contents in textual, image, sound and video form Collection to connection

Principles of Digital Library Development 1. Expect Change 2. Know your contents 3. Involve the right people 4. Design usable systems 5. Ensure open access 6. Be(a)ware of data rights 7. Automate whenever possible 8. Adopt and adhere to standards

9. Ensure quality 10. Be concerned about persistence Components of Digital Library Types of Digital Libraries 1. Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) 2. Federated Digital Library (FDL) 3. Harvested Digital Library (HDL)

Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) This is the regular classical library implemented in a fully computerized fashion. SDL is simply a library in which the holdings are digital (scanned or digitized). The SDL is selfcontained - the material is localized and centralized. The ACM Digital Library IEEE Computer Society DL

Federated Digital Library (FDL) This is a federation of several independent SDLs in the network, organized around a common theme, and coupled together on the network. A FDL composes several autonomous SDLs that form a networked library with a transparent user interface.

The different SDLs are heterogeneous and are connected via communication networks. Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertation Bibliographic Navigation Tools for Digital Libraries

SCOPUS ELIN Knowledge Cite Library Database Advisor OCLS FirstSearch Harvested Digital Library (HDL) This is a virtual library providing summarized access to related material scattered over the network. . Examples of HDLs are the Internet Public Library

(IPL) 1. A HDL holds only metadata with pointers to the holdings that are "one click away" in Cyberspace. 2. Developed by Library Professionals, or Computer Scientists Four Corner Stones of Digital Library Community

Computer Communication technologies Content Community 1. Library Professionals 2. Library Users

3. IT Professionals 4. Vendors Communication Technologies Communication Networks Web Servers, Bandwidth, Local Area Network, Internet and software Network standards 1. The Digital Object Identifier;

http://www.doi.org/ 2. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP); http://www.w3.org/Protocols/ 3. Persistent URL Home Page; http ://purl.oclc.org/ Contents Images .BMP .TIF .GIF .PNG .WMF .PICT .PCD .EPS . EMF .CGM .TGA .JPG

Animation .ANI .FLI .FLC Video .AVI .MOV .MPG .QT Contents Audio .WAV .MID .SND .AUD .mp3

Web Page .HTM .HTML .DHTML .HTMLS .XML Text .DOC .TXT .RTF .PDF Programs .COM .EXE

Contents Markup standards 1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/ 2. Extensible Markup Language (XML); http://www.w3.org/XML/ 3. Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/SGML/

Contents Metadata standards 1. 2. 3. Dublin Core; http://dublincore.org/

MARC 21; http://Icweb.loc.gov/marc/ Encoded Archival Description (EAD); http://Icweb.loc.gov/ead/ Computer Personal Computer Server Machines Digital

Library Conceptual Models PakLAG Digital Library Model Relational Database (MySQL) Stores Metadata Web Server (Tomcat)/ Digital Object Repository

Web Browser (IE, Netscape etc.) User User Myths 1. The internet is the digital library 2. Fully automated library is digital library 3. The myth of a single digital library or one-window

view of digital library collections 4. Digital libraries will provide more equitable access, anywhere, any time 5. Digital libraries will be cheaper than print libraries Challenges 1. Interoperability Technical, process, language, ( Different platforms etc) 2. Building digital collections 2.a Digitization

2.b Acquisition of original digital works 2.c Access to external materials 3. Metadata 4. Naming, identifiers, and persistence 4.a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

4.b Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) 4.c Uniform Resource Name (URN) 4.d

Digital Object Identifier Challenges 5. Copyright / rights management 5.a Usage tracking 5.b Identifying and authenticating users 5.c Providing the copyright status of each digital object, and the restrictions on its use or the fees associated with it 6. Preservation

6.a Preservation of the storage medium 6.b Preservation of access to content Conclusion The concepts of Digital and Virtual libraries are actually services added to the traditional libraries wherein the resources which can only be utilized with computers. We hope digital libraries will coexist with traditional libraries whether within them or as separate entities. However the role of professionals will be drastically changed in digital

environment. Digital libraries have customers instead of users and provide pull and push information delivery methods.

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