DNA

DNA

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS GIANT FOLDABLE - A CTIVITY Fold your paper so the two ends meet in the middle. Label Transcription on one side and Translation on the other.

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS FOLDABLE TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION What? What?

Steps of transcription? Steps of Translation? Location? Location?

Why? Why? Create a giant foldable that answers the questions below. Draw a picture to represent each part of translation and transcription. Highlight the

following terms on your diagram mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, ribosomes, DNA, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Codon, Anticodon, Protein Synthesis, Amino Acids, Peptide Bonds, Enzymes Relationship to Codons and Anticodons. AMEOBA SISTERS

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS ANALOGY - HANDOUT PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DISCUSSION DNA houses all of the genetic information in every cell. All body cells have same DNA in your body.

Written Response #9: How are genes expressed differently? Production of proteins PROTEIN SYNTHESIS In other words, the reason your skin cells are different from your eye cells: Every cell has identical DNA, yet it is not always

expressed in the same way Some genes in each cell are expressed, which code for the making of PROTEINS Written Response #10: How do we get proteins? TRANSCRIPTION STEP ONE (Transcription): Writing and sending the

script DNA cant leave the nucleus so it must produce mRNA, using its base sequence as a template (C still matches with G, but A now matches with U replaces T). Occurs in the nucleus (Because DNA cant leave!) TRANSCRIPTION HOW DOES IT

OCCUR? 1. An enzyme unzips the DNA (located in nucleus) 2. mRNA is created from the DNA template (Remember to replace T with U) 3. mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm to find a ribosome.

Written Response #11: Write the DNA sequence, then transcribe the DNA into mRNA. U A G

G C U C

A TRANSCRIPTION RNA: Ribonucleic acid Vital for protein synthesis Single stranded

Still composed of nucleotides like DNA, but each nucleotide contains: Ribose sugar (5-Carbon) Phosphate group Nitrogen base G, C, A, U (replaces T) TRANSCRIPTION

3 Forms of RNA: mRNA (messenger RNA) Takes message from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome (the site of protein synthesis/translation) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) Compose ribosomes, decode mRNA

tRNA (transfer RNA) Responsible for composing anticodons in the production of proteins TRANSCRIPTION REVIEW Occurs in the nucleus Double stranded DNA to single stranded RNA

U replaces T, but still matches with A mRNA is able to leave the nucleus ribosome in order to being step 2 (translation) TRANSLATION STEP 2 (Translation): Translating the script into the language of proteins Transcription occurs using original DNA in the nucleus. The

mRNA then leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosome, where translation decodes the 3-base codons into amino acids and assembles them into proteins TRANSLATION Once the mRNA is made from the original DNA, it leaves the nucleus in order to begin translation AKA: protein synthesis

Must travel to the ribosome Located within the cytoplasm TRANSLATION 1. mRNA leaves the nucleus 2. mRNA lands on a ribosome 3. The ribosome reads the mRNA by using codons

Codon: 3 RNA nucleotides that code for an amino acid 4. Each codon codes for a different amino acid The amino acids are brought to the ribosome by tRNA. In order for the amino acid to be left at the ribosome, the anticodon must match with a mRNA codon. 5. Materials for each amino acid are assembled. The amino acid is removed by an enzyme.

6. Amino acids link up to form proteins Use peptide bonds = polypeptides WRITTEN RESPONSE #12: WRITE THE MRNA SEQUENCE AND TRANSLATE TO TRNA ANTICODON AU C

C G A GUU TRANSLATION Proteins: Have many functions including growth/repair and gene expression

Important Proteins: insulin, hemoglobin, keratin, collagen, etc. Proteins produced in each cell dictate the type of the cell and how your trait physically appear Everything in life revolves around PROTEINS Cells produce different types and amounts of proteins to respond to their environments

Can NOT occur without transcription & translation DECODING DNA HANDOUT RESULTS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Cells respond to their environments by producing different types and amounts of proteins

The cell produces proteins that are structural (forms part of cell materials) or functional (enzymes and hormones). All of an organisms cells have the same DNA, but the cells differ on the expression of the genes. Each individual in a sexually reproducing population has slightly different sequences of nucleotides in DNA when compared to other organisms of the same species. Different sequences lead to different proteins, which produce different traits. Ex: two

humans with different eye color. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 1 codon (3 RNA nucleotides) to make 1 amino acid Some amino acids can be made with multiple codons This means we can make the same proteins even if the proteins get changed a little

START / INITIATOR CODON Codon that starts an amino acid sequence Always AUG STOP CODON Ends the sequence of amino acids UAA

UAG UGA CAG AUG GGG

UGA PROTEIN SYNTHESIS SIMULATION ACTIVITY

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