Double Dutch: Language in the Lowlands John Nerbonne, Director, Linguistic Research, University of Groningen Curious about the Dutch? 2009 Double Dutch Basic facts
History Structure Influence on English Varieties Color Future Basic Facts about Dutch 21 million speakers in The Netherlands and Belgium (Flanders) more in Suriname, Aruba, Indonesia approx. 140,000 in US (1990 census) 48th in list of most widely spoken languages (2000)
Afrikaans is related, nearly intelligible (but speakers not the counted in the 21 mill.) Plattdeutsch likewise closely related (Low German spoken in Northern Germany) Frisian also related, but less closely First documents ca. 1100 AD Genealogy of Dutch In d o e u ro p e a n 3 ,0 0 0 B C
R om ance L a t in , F r e n c h , . . . S la v ic R u s s ia n , C z e c h , . . . W e s t - G e r m a n ic 200 BC E n g lis h F r is ia n D u tc h A fr ik a a n s G e r m a n ic
N o rth G e rm . S w e d is h , . . . G e rm a n ... E ast G o t h ic How Do We Know Prehistory? Dutch German English Latin voet
Fu foot pedes vol voll full plenus vis
Fisch fish pisces vader Vater father pater /f/ /f/
school school, poort gateway, pond pound, peper pepper Frisian -- tjalk small boat, sjokken trudge, klunen walk w. skates on land, kapen capture (as a pirate) French Borrowings enqute questionaire, bureau office, bureaucratie, administratie, officieel, procedure avontuur adventure, blazoen coat of
`physical therapy, homeopathie Psychology: autisme, paranoia, waanzin `madness, narcisme, gestaltpsychologie General: Nachwuchs `younger generation, berhaupt, Kater (meaning hangover) English Influences Too many modern borrowings to count Technology, politics, pop culture, science Reborrowings cruise `pleasure trip on a boat gin `genevermade popular in England by
William of Orange (taxed French imports) cookie entry in textual log of web browser Improved English Borrowings stationcar station wagon cola light diet coke folder brochure liften hitchhike
globaal rough (globale schatting) beamer lcd projector picknick picnic, showbizz `show biz lat (relatie) living apart together relation, i.e. that of a non-cohabitating couple Other improvements grfiti (note stress), maffia mafia occasion used car (French meaning, English pronunciation) Double Dutch
Basic facts History Structure Influence on English Varieties Color Future Distinctive Structure
Sounds Spelling Words Phrases Meanings Spanish,Russian i Unusual Sounds u o
e a Diphthongs (combined vowels) i u schuwe hij huis nieuwe
boei Minimal combinations hou Complex Combinations? hooi leeuw groeien huis, schuwe, leeuw - involve front rounded vowel like German ue or French u
haai a Unusual Sounds harde g as in Groningen, lage landen Low Lands, rug back, acht (8) noisier than German Bach, Russian xopoo combination with s used as a
Shibboleth test for foreigners (and spies): Scheveningen Spelling Dutsj is essensjullie a Loo Sjurmennik lenkwitsj wis det vunkie letter (det riepleezes Y) plus a serieuslie koel ortografie. regular reforms,last 95, 06 Unusual Words
Can anything be a verb? voetballen, tennissen, bridgen, sudokuen, fitnessen, etc. computeren `do something w. computers musiceren `make music klussen `do odd jobs opsexen `make sexy kerken `go to church uitzieken `let an illness run its course rijstafelen dine on rijstafel gebiologeerd `biologized (fixated) Can anything be diminutive?
lam/lammetje `lamb/lammykins eventjes `shortly-kins tussendoortje `in the midst of-kins onder ons-je [a conversation etc.] between you and me-kins Endings or compounds? Unusual compounds (using verbs) koffiezetapparrat (coffee-brewV-machine) coffee machine brandblusinstallatie (fire-extinguishV-installation) fire extinguisher aardappelschilmesje (potato-peelV-knife) potato peeler
Intensifier prefixes reuze- giant: reuze-slim very smart, reuze-leuk very nice wereld- world wereld-meid great girl reduplication: in- en in triest very sad; dood- en doodziek very ill (lit. deathly and deathly ill) Missing preposition lid raad van bestuur member [of] council hoofd communicatie head [of] communications adjunct directeur juridische zaken adjunct dir. [of] legal affairs
Productive processes mammoet-wet all-encompassing (educational) law -baron baron: afvalbaron rich trash dealer (cf. Engl. czar) bliksem- lightning: bliksem-bezoek quick visit Unusual Phrase Structure Verb Second like German vestiges in English Hans gaat morgen naar huis
Hans goes tomorrow to home Hans is going home tomorrow Morgen gaat H. naar huis Naar huis gaat H. morgen In the forest lived a woodsman. Never have I been so shocked. Unusual Phrase Structure Cross-Serial Dependence Subject-Verb Relations Cross
Hans vermoedt dat (H. suspects that) Piet Marie leert zwemmen teach to swim Hans suspects that P. is teaching M. to swim Cross-Serial Dependence Crossing Relations Iterate Theoretically hard to process Hans vermoedt dat Jantje Piet Marie zag leren zwemmen
saw teach swim H. suspects that J. saw P. teach M. to swim. Repeating Construction herhalingsconstructie We zijn het min of meer zijn we het eens We are it more or less are it agreed Aka mirror construction, overflow construction (ANS)
Overlapping templates? Empty sentence endings? Dat is de zoon van [X]. Thats Xs son (X a celebrity). Het is Jean Sarkozy. Hij is de zoon van. We zullen het steunen mits [X]. Well support it as long as [X]
We kunnen het niet accepteren tenzij [X]. We cant accept it unless [X] U moet begrijpen dat we deze maatregelen niet zomaar nemen, maar in het kader van [een reorganisatie]. in the context of [a reorganisation] Je kunt hem schrijven, bij wijze van [spreken] You could write to him Unusual Meanings Negative items occur only with negation
English ever, any, budge, give a hoot Dutch has at least 100 of these Groningen research Hoeksema, Zwarts (current rector) Double Dutch
Basic facts History Structure Influence on English Varieties Color Future Dutch Borrowings in English Shipping and naval boom, bow, buoy, commodore, cruise, dock, freight, keel, keelhaul, pump, skipper, sloop, yacht, smuggle
Textiles bale, duck (cloth), nap, spool, stripe Art easel, etching, landscape, sketch War beleaguer, holster, freebooter, onslaught Dutch Borrowings in English Food and Drink
booze, brandy, coleslaw, cookie, crullers, waffle Other bluff, bully, boss, derrick, dollar, drill, dike, frolic, grime, hunk, kink, runt, scum, slim, snap, spook, stoop Dutch Accents in English Dutch English is excellentgenerally this [dIs]/[zIs], thin [sIn] Dutch [dyt] (like French u, German )
spelling mispronunciation Bob [bop], God [got], dog [dok] bad/bed [bt], language [lk.fIt] (Eng. [l.gwd]) Dutch in English double Dutch - nonsense in Dutch with her - in trouble with Dutch treat, go Dutch - split costs (no treat) dutchman - cover-up for construction error
Dutch courage - from alcohol Dutch bargain - deal made w. alcohol Dutch uncle - someone with unwanted advice Dutch disease - politics of consensus (W.Laqueur) also Dutch oven, Dutch doors -- but mostly negative
Double Dutch Basic facts History Structure Influence on English Varieties Color Future
Dutch Dialects Experts distinguish 3-5 main areas, approx. 30 areas in total (in only 40K km2) Frisian recognized as minority language Lower Saxon, Limburgs recognized as regional languages Lay interest enormous clubs, songs, web sites, publications Dutch Dialect Areas
How different are dialects from each other? Standard Dutch Groningen Zeeland Frisia Flanders Twente
Ons oude huis is afgebrand Our old house [is] burned down Dialect Differences oude / ouwe / olle huis / hus () / hoes afgebrand / afbraat / outband / afabraat How different are dialects from each other?
Standard Dutch Groningen Zeeland Frisia Flanders Twente De pastoor heeft goede wijn The minister has good wine Dialect Differences
wijn / win xoede / xoeje / xoje / xoeoe / hoede / goede / beste heeft / het / ai / hat Other major differences final n lopen standard lope, Groningen lopm hard/soft g laag, Goede
how much noise in the g/ch (and how far forward in the mouth its pronounced) aspirated (English-like) vs. unaspirated (French-like) p,t,k phaard, paard Dialects vs. Standard Dutch Dialect Continuum? Double Dutch
Basic facts History Structure Influence on English Varieties Color Future Color
Interest in Language Coinages with cultural speculation Humor Obscenity/Cursing? Idioms, Proverbs Interest in Language
Onze Taal - private foundation for language issues Taalunie - government organization for questions of standards, technology Algemeen Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal - 45K pages! Worlds largest Dictionary. Six semi-regular language columns in newspapers Huib Boogert De Telegraaf Peter Burger Algemeen Dagblad Jan Kuitenbrouwer
Volkskrant Liesbeth Koenen NRC Handelsblad Wim Daniels Eindhovens Dagblad Ewoud Sanders Nederlands Stadscourant Interest in Language
Foreign languages 5 in college-prep. schools (gymnasia) Excellent facility with English (even TV) Foreigners trying to learn Dutch find it difficult to find Dutch who are willing (they all want to practice English) but Dutch are critical of foreign residents who dont take the trouble to learn Dutch Culture & Coinage
vergadercultuur - meetings culture alle neuzen dezelfde kant op - all noses in the same direction -- the goal of decision makers is consensus gedoogbeleid - policy of tolerance, esp. w.r.t. soft drugs & sex, sometimes also w.r.t. zoning & safety maaiveld mowing field - whatever pokes out above the rest is cut back derogatory terms for show-offs, braggarts, etc - kapsones; kakkineus, elitair of dik doen; opscheppen; naast je schoenen lopen; spatjes hebben; jezelf op de borst kloppen Culture and Coinage
inspanningsverplichting - responsibility to try verworven rechten - acquired rights planologie - urban planning onthutst, verontwaardigd, verbijsterd, ontgoocheld lots of words covering indignation wildplassen urination outside usual facilities Humor About the Dutch - miserly How to break up a demonstration? Pass a
collection plate. Why are Dutch nostrils so big? --The air is free. Whats a Dutchman do if he wins the lottery? --Recounts the money. In fact the Dutch donate generously Dutch Humor Strong maaiveld streak -- humor that cuts big shots down to size Gonzo elements, free fantasy
Youp van t Hek on Maxima even makes fun of the royal family (uncommon target) Everyone loves Cruijff "Italianen kennen niet van je winnen, maar je ken wel van ze verliezen. (Italians cant beat you, but you can lose to them.) Als je wilt scoren, moet je schieten (If you want to score, you have to shoot) Ieder nadeel heeft zn voordeel (Every
disadvantage has its advantage) Obscenity/Cursing lots of cursing, obscenity obscenities focus on genital rather anal area less sensitive no forbidden words for radio, TV cursing - wishing disease krijg de tering/kanker/tyfus/pokken/stuipen/beroerte! `get TB/cancer/typhoid/smallpox/convulsions/stroke
Van der Waals Dutch Terms of Abuse Maledicta 13, 2005 Ellending, Pestpokkentyfuskankerteringwijf! Bond tegen het Vloeken Anti-Cursing League campaigns in train stations religious focus Idioms and Proverbs Appreciated in speech and prose Idioms often based on water and shipping Water
Dat zet geen zoden aan de dijk That sets no sod on the dike That doesnt help. oude koeien uit het sloot halen old cows out of the trench haul Bring up painful memories van de wal in de sloot from the bank into the trench out of the frying pan, into the fire Idioms and Proverbs Idioms based on shipping, fishing tussen wal en schip vallen between shore and ship fall
fall between the cracks de beste stuurlui staan aan de wal the best helmsmen stand ashore Talk is cheap Achter het net vissen behind the net fish go through the motions with little chance of success Idioms and Proverbs Idioms based on shipping, fishing de boot missen, afhouden miss the boat, keep the boat away miss an opportunity, prevent something happening de stormbal hijsen Hoist the storm ball
Warn of impending danger het roer omgooien turn the rudder change radically Proverbs Pieter Brueghel the Younger (15641638) created a painting dedicated to Proverbs Copied his fathers work Many other versions -- popular topic Dutch -- The Future
Unrest about influence of English Minister of Education Ritzen proposed that universities switch to English (1993) Lots of English in everyday Dutch Ik heb alle hits gedownload van de web I downloaded all the hits from the web English more attractive in experiments, but not more reliable, knowledgeable Giftshop Marianne / Cadeauwinkel Marianne Will Dutch survive? --Unquestionably.
A Bit of Gronings Groningers known for laconic understatement Het kon minder -- high praise It could have been less unlike Eng. It could have been worse My wish: when you summarize your stay here, youll want to say Het kon minder
Ceftriaxone 2 g IV qday or Penicillin G 4 million units IV q 4 for 2-4 weeks. Fungal Meningitis. Can include Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Candida, Histoplasma, Blastomyces. LP shows mononuclear increase, elevated protein and near normal glucose. Treat with Amphotericin B...
Most involved a varied range of tasks and locations Written communication central to most jobs Use of ICT is a major element of their work Teamwork, project management and supervision are central elements of many graduate jobs Internal and external...
obstacles avenues of approach key terrain observation and fields of fire cover and concealment vgt-1 obstacles reinforcing minefields/wire roadblocks antitank ditches hindering deep rivers or streams urban areas swamps avenues of approach roads draws ridges trails key terrain provides advantage...
ELEMENTS OF PLOT STRUCTURE. Told by. The Three Little Pigs. Once upon a time, three little pigs said goodbye to mama pig and went off to seek their fortunes in the world. EXPOSITION. What is this stage called? Once upon...
Lisa is => Lisa's. Stress. ... Growing research on using rhythmic cueing to facilitate speech/gross motor movements across a number of disorders (see Fujii & Wan 2014 for a review) No literature available on treatment of speech rhythm disturbance.
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