Dry-Heat Cooking II

Dry-Heat Cooking II

DRY-HEAT COOKING II GRILLING AND BROILING Definition: Grilling and broiling use dry heat without fat or oil Quick technique that uses portion-sized or small pieces of meat, poultry, or fish GRILLING AND BROILING: FOOD SELECTION Items to be broiled or grilled should: Be tender

Have intermuscular fat content Be individually portioned Suitable main items include: Meat Seafood

Vegetables GRILLING AND BROILING: MARINADES Purposes of marinating: Preserve food Flavor food Tenderize food GRILLING AND BROILING: COMPONENTS

OF MARINADES Acid: Tenderize, preserve, and flavor Aromatics: Flavor Oil: Preserve, flavor, and protect Salt: Preserve and flavor

Vegetables: Flavor GRILLING AND BROILING EQUIPMENT Broiler Conventional gas Electric

Grill Gas Charcoal Hardwood GRILLING AND BROILING PROCEDURES

Thoroughly clean and preheat grill Season main item; marinate or brush with oil if necessary to prevent sticking Place main item on grill Turn item 90 to produce crosshatch marks

Turn item to cook completely and to desired doneness GRILLING AND BROILING PROCEDURESCONTINUED Thin items are cooked at high heat, as quickly as possible Medium-thick items are started on high heat and can be finished on a cooler area Thick items are started on high heat and

can be finished on a sizzle platter in the oven Food should be broiled at the last possible moment Keep broiler clean at all times GRILLING AND BROILING: THINGS NOT TO DO Dont pierce meat with a fork during cooking

Dont cook food ahead of time GRILLING AND BROILING NUTRITION TIPS Cooking food on a grill allows rendering fat to drip from food Flavor food with low-fat marinade

Vary wood used for grilling to add unique flavor Use herbs and spices for seasoning Serve with simple, flavorful accompaniment ROASTING Definition: Roasting is cooking by dry heat while frequently basting with fat

Suitable for cuts of meat, poultry, and some seafood items larger than a single portion ROASTING: FOOD SELECTION Items to be roasted should be: Tender Well marbled SUITABLE FOOD ITEMS FOR ROASTING

Beef, veal, lamb, or pork Game (furred or feathered) Poultry (land or water) Seafood (specific types)

Vegetables ROASTING: SAUCE PREPARATION Thickeners for gravy or jus li Flour mixed with the fat released by the food to form a roux Arrowroot or cornstarch diluted in cold liquid

Prepared roux ROASTING OPTIONAL COMPONENTS Filling Caul fat or fatback for barding Additional aromatics

Garnish or finishing ingredients ROASTING EQUIPMENT Rotisserie Roasting pan BASIC PROCEDURE FOR ROASTING Season, stuff, and marinate main item

and sear over direct heat or hot oven Elevate item in a roasting pan Roast item covered until desired internal temperature is reached For pan gravy, add mirepoix to the roasting pan during final hour BASIC PROCEDURE FOR ROASTINGCONTINUED

Let roasted item rest before carving Prepare pan gravy in roasting pan Carve main item and serve with appropriate gravy or sauce ADDITIONAL ROASTING INFORMATION Meat that renders a lot of fat should be

placed on a rack to prevent contact with fat and juice Oven temperature must be regulated to suit the kind and size of meat being roasted Type of roasting pan varies according to amount of meat or poultry to be roasted, its size, whether or not a rack is used, and spacing of the oven shelves ADDITIONAL ROASTING INFORMATIONCONTINUED Roasts should have a resting period before carving

Roasts should be sliced across the grain Baste roast with fat drippings from pan ROASTING: THINGS NOT TO DO Dont pierce roast when turning or removing from oven

Dont cover roast during cooking Dont use higher heat than necessary during roasting Dont add liquid during roasting TEMPERATURES FOR ROASTING MEAT High heat (375F to 475F) Feathered game*

Domestic poultry* Water fowl* Smaller cuts of red meat* *depending on market form TEMPERATURES FOR ROASTING MEAT CONTINUED Moderate heat (325F to

350F) Meat* Poultry* Game* *depending on market form TEMPERATURES FOR ROASTING MEATCONTINUED Low heat (275F to

300F) Red meat* Feathered game* Domestic poultry* Water fowl* *depending on market form

TEMPERATURES FOR ROASTING MEATCONTINUED Controlled heat (200F to 250F) Larger cuts of red meat* White meat* Domestic poultry* *depending on market form

TESTING ROASTED ITEMS FOR DONENESS Stem thermometer (bimetallic) Check temperature for desired doneness Time-/Temperature-to-weight ratio Check chart to determine how long, at what temperature

DEGREES OF DONENESS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY Red meat Rare Medium Rare Medium

Well done ROASTING NUTRITION TIPS Flavor food with marinades Use herbs and spices for seasoning Serve with jus or jus li Trim excess fat before cooking Roast meat on a rack

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