DTN GoNoGo Phase I to II

DTN GoNoGo Phase I to II

Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) Program Phase 1 And Phase 2/3 Program 23 March 2006 Preston Marshal, Program Manager [email protected] 703-696-5273 Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) Program Concept source disrupted areas Disruption Closes Connection Packet traverses net until blocked by a disruption Custodian-to-custodian connections isolate disrupted regions destination End-to-end severely disrupted by one bad link Disruption Tolerant When disruption clears, packet traverses remainder of route Packet arrives at destination. In an IP network, packet wouldnever have left source DTNs DTNsGoal Goalisisto toisisto todevelop developand anddemonstrate demonstratetechnology

technologythat thatwill willprovide providenetwork network services servicesin inthe theface faceof ofdisruption disruptionand andmassive massivedifferences differencesin indelay delayand andbandwidth; bandwidth;and andto to reduce demands on network resources by integrating storage into the network Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoDstorage Contractors into Only the network reduce demandsDistribution on network resources by integrating 2 Military Need FCS Vehicle, Ft. Benning 2006

FCS Communications Position Reports Used as Measure Highly Favorable Metric Used Loss of 2 Successive (1 Sec Interval) Reports Considered as Disconnected Wireless networks can be good for local connect, but often cant reach back to infrastructure Local storage caching can create access to information after infrastructure connectivity loss. Relying Relyingon onIP IPfor fortactical tacticalmilitary military networks is dangerous networks is dangerous Episodically connected military MANETs Episodically connected military MANETs see seerapid rapidtopology topologychanges changes Tactical radios know Tactical radios knownames, names,not not destination destinationaddresses addresses Tactical/edge Tactical/edgemilitary militarynetworks networksmay

maybe beaa mix mixof ofIP IPand andnon-IP non-IPradios radios Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 3 All Bandwidth is Not Equally Important Similar to DARPA Nodes can use local bandwidth to obtain DTN services, even if not on own node 64 Kilobps Episodic Connectivity GIG Fiber Core 10 Megabps Highly Reliable Connectivity 10 Gigabps Highly Reliable Connectivity Highly reliable, high speed (1 Gigabit) from servers on campus Several Megabits in and out to Internet Bandwidth/Reliability Networks are not hierarchies of bandwidth, they are islands Bandwidth within islands not as important as bandwidth between islands DTN augmentation within islands provides major performance benefits between islands Distance DTN Can Augment Existing

Networks without Being Inserted into Topology Wireless Enclaves Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 4 DTN Network Persistence Can Solve Fundamental Internet Application Shortfalls DTN makes applications over disrupted networks robust DTN is also an Opportunity to solve Fundamental Problems weve never before had a handle on, using Network-Managed Persistence Current Temporal Security Model Data decrypted at end system Data only decrypted for access DTN Access information by content or type rather than by network address I want maps for my area instead of I want to ftp to 192.168.4.17 Retrieve once, provide to local users as requested Learn from actual network usage Exploit in-network storage/caches and pub/sub protocols to create a dynamic and self-forming Akamai Use temporal security rather than physical security Time Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 5 Todays Network: Push or Pull, Neither Optimal Conventional Pull: Copies to every requestor

Only those who ask, get; but with delay; N requests use N times the bandwidth Multicast Push: Data goes to everyone I need a map I need a map I need a map I need a map Connected Network need a map I need a map I need a map Connected Network I I need a map Only one transfer, but data flows to everyone in the multicast group, not necessarily when / where the data is needed I need a map I need a map

DTN Resolves Both Inefficiencies.. Pulls One Time, Distributes Locally To Requestors I need a map Resources Used to Get Data I need a map 1st Subsequent requests for same data consume as much bandwidth with as much delay as the first request. 2nd Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 3rd Requests for same data 6 DTN Phase 1 Results Demonstrated DTN v TCP with typical USMC wireless connectivity patterns (MITRE/CONDOR) Demonstrated Network Delivery (BBN) Demonstrated Trusted Delivery & Resistance to DDoS (Lehigh) Designed architecture intrinsic ability of DTN to operate to the extremes of the network without segmenting to match network characteristics meta-architecture (MITRE/JPL) Potential to move this extensible framework to other building blocks of the network Have to adapt Cisco/Nortel/Lucent/Juniper behaviors Implemented Experimental Operating Wireless DTN (GaTech/UMass)

Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 7 Demonstrated DTN v. TCP with USMC Wireless Connectivity Patterns Consecutive 10-KByte File Retrievals over 24 hours, using HTTP and DTN 4000 INMARSAT terminal Number of File Transfers 3500 3000 2500 HTTP DTN 2000 Cisco 2811 1500 1000 KG-250 500 0 DT N File Retrieval Time (seconds) 10 KByte File Transfers in 24 hours 4000 3500 3000 2500 Abandoned 10-KByte File Transfers in 24 hours 140

120 HTTP HTTP DTN 100 DTN Cisco 3725 EPLRS CONDOR Gateway cable map 80 2000 3580 1500 60 1000 40 500 20 0 user 115 .. 368 Completed

0 0 Abandoned Demonstrated that DTN is Useful & Feasible, and that DTN can be Transitioned to COTS-based Military Systems DTN Is A Deployable Technology With Massive Performance Benefits for DoD Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 8 Phase 1 Go/NoGo Metric: Demonstrate DTN Network Performance in Disrupted Network & Evaluation Platform Hardware in the loop emulation of actual DTN nodes ACH IEV ED 100% Reliable Delivery with 80% Utilization over 20% Available Links Link characteristics capacity: delay: MTU: 19.2 kb/s 5 ms 1480 bytes Bundle traffic Go/NoGo criterion met for reliable delivery DTN would have delivered all traffic given enough time

size: 2800 bytes total originated: 264 Network Transit time >620ms For random link dynamics, at most 16 (out of 31) bi-directional links were up at any time Link StateTransit time 4.3s Mean time between link transitions ~5s Run time: 3600 s Network changes faster than it updates.. never static. IP would never have correct topology.. would fail in a Distributionconventional Statement: Distribution LimitedMANET to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 9 Delivered Bundles Vs. Path Distance Run at 20% Target Availability: Random Link Dynamics Opportunistic Routing Found Ways to Deliver All Traffic, Regardless of Hops TCP (End to End) Could Not Find Opportunities Delivery Performance for DTN and TCP 100 P TC 75

d En End to End requires Complete Path be Available to 50 d En End to End is Fundamentally Unsuited for Military Operations er sf an Tr Percent Bundels Delivered DTN 25 0 3 4 5 Number Hops 6 7 80% Links are only 20% Network Connected at 7 Hops 20% Links are 0.001% Network Connected at 7 Hops End to End IP (Without TCP) Shares All these Issues

Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 10 Delivery Ratio: Worst Case Dynamics DTN versus End-to-End (E2E) Baseline End to End Could Not Find Sufficient Opportunities in Any Disrupted Scenario Failed Completely Below 50% Availability DTN to En d 75 50 En d Would Complete All if Longer Duration created Opportunities 100 % Bundle Delivered DTN Accomplished All Deliveries for Availabilities Above Go/ NoGo Criteria 25 0 0

25 50 75 100 Average link Availability Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 11 Link Utilization Using DTN DTN Effectively Used All Available Link Capacity 1 0.95 Network Was So Dynamic that End to End 0.9 Would not be Aware of 0.85 Opportunities to Use Link Utilization Efficiency Decreases at 0.8 High Availability, as 0.75 More Overhead, and Early Completion of 0.7 Transfers 0.65 Phase 2 Will Develop 0.6 Technology to Adapt and Use both End to End0.55 and DTN Based on 0.5 Which Would be Most 0 Effective

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Link Availability Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 12 Trusted Delivery GNG Metric: ACHIEVED Phase Phase11Go/No Go/NoGo: Go:Demonstrate DemonstrateTrusted TrustedDelivery Delivery Demonstrate rejection of message from unauthenticated sender Demonstrate authentication and forwarding of message from trusted sender Demonstrate payload data encryption DTN DTNwill willnot not propagate propagateDistributed

Distributed Denial-of-Service Denial-of-ServiceAttack Attack DTN DTNwill will Detect Detect&&Reject RejectFraudulent Fraudulent (Forged (ForgedAddress) Address) Messages Messages Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 13 Trusted Delivery GNG Metric: ACHIEVED Demonstrate rejection of message from unauthenticated sender Two sending nodes - one legitimate, one malicious - attempt to send a bundle in a network with the BAH feature enabled The malicious node (M1) sends a bundle without the appropriate BAH to the forwarding node (N2) Result: N2 rejects the bundle - ACHIEVED The legitimate sender (N1) sends a bundle with the appropriate BAH, allowing for successful authentication Result: N2 forwards the bundle to the destination (N3) BAH: Bundle Authentication Header Security Perimeter N1 N2 N3 M1 Should have been part of the Internet from the beginning Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 14 Trusted Delivery GNG Metric:

ACHIEVED Demonstrate: 1.) Authentication and Forwarding of Message From Trusted Sender and 2.) Payload Data Encryption N1 sends a bundle to N4 (thru N2) with only the BAH activated The link between N2 and N3 is insecure, so policy at N2 requires payload data encryption N2 encrypts the payload, adds the PSH, and becomes the PSHsource, with destination N4 the PSH-destination for the bundle N4 receives the encrypted bundle from N3 (thru N2) and decrypts the message: ACHIEVED N1 N2 PSH-Source DTN Enables Security Partitioning Based on Traffic Policies Rather than Physical Topology N3 N4 PSH-Destination BAH: Bundle Authentication Header PSH: Payload Security Header Red: Cleartext Black: Ciphertext Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 15 DTN System Architecture API Legend Bundle TBD Services Bundle Encryption Bundle Flow/Congestion Ctl.

Bundle End-to-end Reliability Bundle Custody Transfer DTN Policy/Management DARPA Routing Protocol DTNRG Routing Protocol Other Routing Protocol Autoconfiguration/ Neighbor Discovery Environmental Awareness Bundle Engine Protocol Composition API Management API Routing API Configuration API Environmental Awareness API Convergence Layer Process Rendezvous Plug-ins/DLLs Single SingleDTN DTNStandard StandardWill WillBe BeExtensible Extensiblefor forCommercial Commercialor orUniquely UniquelyStructured Structured

Military MilitaryApps AppsSuch SuchAs AsUAV UAVOverflight, Overflight,Sensor SensorNets, Nets,Tactical TacticalDisruption Disruption Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 16 Technology for a Common Routing Structure with Mission-Unique Algorithms Wireless networks need diverse routing behaviors: Open Biggest Battery First (Battery-powered systems) Use Advantaged Node Last (Transient aircraft nodes) Open Least Tx Energy Path First (Energy-starved systems) Open Least Used Reasonable Path First (Fairness) Extend - dont replace - COTS products Commercial World Core/Interoperable DoD Infrastructure minimal protocol set DoD Sensor Field Core/Interoperable GIG-unique routing algo. Core/Interoperable battery-aware routing algo. UAV flight schedule UAV flight schedule

Core/Interoperable vendor-unique extension Color Legend: Buy Buycommercial, commercial,specialize specializeto tomilitary military IRG DTN Network Standard Core Commercial DTN Extension Military DTN Extensions Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 17 DieselNet Initial Deployment May 2004 University DTN testbeds (GaTech/UMass) urban ops experiment with multipath and rapid topology change (route breakage) Long-term 24/7 Experiment at Low Cost with Mobile nodes, sensors, and throwboxes analogs of tactical military wireless networks urban+rural manned & vehicular DieselNet: routers in 40 busses in Amherst Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 18

Algorithmic Results simulation time Flexible network simulation models with user-defined physical resource schedules simulation time Factor 5-6 Increase AODV simulation time AODV delivery rate Reflective Route Planning: First DTN routing algorithm based on formal reasoning technology simulation time t signaling overhead Opportunistic Routing: SCaTR framework improves delivery rate and reduces signaling overhead Fac se rea c n -3 I or 2 Factor 2-10

Reduction Resource management: Virtual infrastructure with transport frames improves delivery rate in bottleneck scenarios virtual infrastructure delivery rate no resource management simulation time delivery rate Knowledge management: Uniform information dissemination and improvement of buffer usage scenario size Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 19 DTN Progressive Maturity Protected, High Performance DTN for Static Applications with Store and Forward Phase 1 Integrate Push and Pull Metaphors Cognitive Caching Information Addressing (not Network Addressing) Multiple Native Networks (JTIDS, IP, EPLRS, ) Initial Demo Board Implementation Phase 1 + Protected, DTN

for Medium Scale, Static Applications with Caching and Distributed Query Phase 2 Progressive Technology Development Resulting in Proven and Deployable Product Demo in Military Scenario to Assess Utility Implement in Longer term, nonMilitary Application for Operational Experience Self-Organizing in Response to Network needs Large Scale Red/Black Management of Persistent Data Dynamically Self-Organized Organized, Secure Local Store, Application Linkages, Proven Phase 3 Integrate into Military Networks Implement in Longer term nonMilitary Application to Acquire Experience Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 20 Merging Information and Networking Policy & reasoning enable sophisticated queries over the network I dont know exactly what Im looking for, but I know how to describe it Late binding as a way of describing information Dont have to know where information resides Google as a metaphor, not an overlay Late binding can occur in the information domain, not only the addressing domain Want to build a formal structure for persistence and

networking, a structure for solving tactical problems Analogous to akamai, but akamai is static.. In tactical networks must build our persistence architecture on the fly Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 21 Adaptation to Reflect Network Dynamics DTN networks adapt to changing network topologies Storage configures itself around paths thru the (intermittent) network Self-forming Akamais for content distribution in response to network demands Caching as a result of delay-bandwidth product discontinuities Military Utility Reduce (eliminate?) burden of planning network deployment with unit deployment Planning costs currently comparable to or greater than people and equipment costs Network planning creates inertia/delay in deploying forces and reacting to unanticipated changes in the theatre Avoid the Comms planning cycle! Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 22 Content-based Networking Support push from core, pull from edge, and meet-in-themiddle content-based networking Steinbet: Users will pull data as needed instead of having massive amounts of information pushed to them regularly regardless of whether it is needed. .. a key tenet of net-centric warfare is that the consumers of information are smarter than their sources about what is needed operationally right now, and that they should be able to pull those data when they need it. Enable users to subscribe to or query useful information services, and have data returned when theres a new event or query match Edge networks can push data up into the network Source analysis systems can query DTN storage for Wolfpack systems enables heterogeneous sensor data fusion Distribute policies with bundles much of the flexibility of Active Networks without as much risk .. Update rules of engagement by disseminating policies thru DTN nets Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only

23 Benefits of unifying networking and storage Request information by content/type rather than by network address I want weather for my area instead of I want to ftp to 192.168.4.17 Ability to cache rather than waste wireless bandwidth Its way cheaper to store data rather than to transmit it again Integrating push-pull metaphor Pushing sends to everyone and wastes bandwidth, can pre-place data Pulling serves a single user, same data requested multiple times wastes bandwidth, incurs large delays delays in disrupted networks Akamai uses static caches in a wired network to mitigate bandwidth wastage and delay DTN Push/Pull exploits DTN in-network storage (persistent caches) and pub/sub protocols to create a dynamic and self-forming akamai Temporal security Show the data as encrypted/unencryptd Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 24 A New Security Model Red-black separation derives from the philosophy that the control center is protected once in the black, info is physically safe With low-cost devices like WNaN, no longer true How to deal with the loss of equipment at the tactical edge? Information on this equipment is compromised with the equipment How to change the security model to deal with equipment that cant be physically secured?? Current Rather than view red-black as physical separation, think temporal separation! Keep data encrypted unless the application is processing it! Encrypted data lives in local cache or edge network cache, decrypted by app Use a DTN security convergence layer shim for apps .. Withdraw access by app by revoking cert or similar action.

Temporal Security Model DTN mechanism protects information keyboard to eyeball Data decrypted at end system Protection from app to app, not from node to node DTN Data only decrypted for access Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only Time 25 Summary Bigger Challenge! Larger Funding! Massive Need! Distribution Statement: Distribution Limited to DoD and DoD Contractors Only 26

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 3

    Chapter 3

    Times New Roman MS Pゴシック Arial Arial Narrow Courier New Cactus 1_Cactus Microsoft Word Picture PowerPoint Presentation Justification and Outline The 3 Pillars of OOP&D Object-Oriented Technology The Beginnings One way to Start OOA and D System Specification Identify candidate...
  • Periodic Properties of the Elements

    Periodic Properties of the Elements

    metal oxide + water metal hydroxide Most metal oxides are known as basic oxides Ex: Na2O (s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH (aq) metal oxide + acid salt + water Ex: MgO (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H20 (l) Not...
  • Drama I: - Deer Valley Unified School District

    Drama I: - Deer Valley Unified School District

    Befitting his name, a tragedy is a drama . where most or all of the major characters die. die. Sophocles ('sof-uh-kleez): (496BC-406BC) app 90 yrs. 15. Known as the greatest Greek playwright of all time: the . focus of our...
  • Lecture Overview

    Lecture Overview

    X DB HIS3 or lacZ UAS Promoter Reporter Gene X AD z No transcription Y HIS3 or lacZ UAS Promoter Reporter Gene AD Y DB X First we have to clone our bait and prey genes into yeast plasmids to...
  • Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly 12/02/2015 El Nio/Southern Melissa

    Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly 12/02/2015 El Nio/Southern Melissa

    Easterlies bring warm moist air to Indonesian Region In order to understand the ENSO cycle, we must first understand what the Pacific is like in its neutral state. The Walker Circulation refers to an east-west circulation of the atmosphere above...
  • Fish 424: Parasitology - University of Idaho

    Fish 424: Parasitology - University of Idaho

    Fish at surface gulping or piping. Suggests parasites on gills. Fish rolling/flashing. suggests protozoan or worm infestation (internal or external) Lethargy or listlessness. Suggests gill parasite. Fish at bottom. Suggests gill parasite, especially "Ich" Fin erosion/Lesions. Indicative of external parasite....
  • What's wrong with manson - KCCBA

    What's wrong with manson - KCCBA

    NEW YORK'S NEW IDENTIFICATION LAW. Karen A. Newirth. [email protected] 212-364-5349. How certain were you at the time your identification that you identified the real gunman? How good was the view you had of the gunman? How closely were you paying...
  • Cmt and Tremor - Is It Really Cmt?

    Cmt and Tremor - Is It Really Cmt?

    Nerve root involvement in CIDP. One of the first papers written about this was by Crino, Grossman and Rostami, "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cauda Equina in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy" Annals of Neurology 1993 33 y/o man with 5...