Dyslexia - C H Lopez Consulting

Dyslexia - C H Lopez Consulting

A Guide For Teachers Dyslexia Christine H. Lopez, Ed.D. Dyslexia - a Definition Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. That is, it is based upon the brain and its functioning. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of

effective classroom instruction. It appears that dyslexia runs in families. Secondary consequences may include problem in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. International Dyslexia Association Language-Based Learning Disability Special learning disability that is neurobiological in nature Characterized by difficulties with language, especially reading Problems with accurate and fluent word recognition Poor decoding and spelling

Difficulty with pronouncing words Challenges with math Deficit in the phonological component of language Lifelong impact - often results in much lower reading/spelling in relation to other academic areas. Benefits from multisensory, structured literacy instruction Language-Based Learning Disability Dyslexia

is a specific learning disability . . . that is neurobiological in nature. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language. .

. . that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Common Characteristics Dyslexia Not ALL may be present Common Characteristics of Dyslexia Present specific characters that persist over time and interfere with learning.

Individual diagnosed with dyslexia using has several of the following: Oral Language Reading Written Language Other Common Symptoms Characteristic: Oral Language Difficulties Difficulties: pronouncing words acquiring vocabulary or using age appropriate grammar following directions

learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs understanding concepts and relationships with word retrieval or naming problems Late learning to talk Confusion with before/after, right/left, etc. Characteristic: Reading Difficulties: learning to read identifying or generating rhyming words counting syllables (phonemic awareness) hearing and manipulating sounds (phonological processing)

learning the sounds of letters (phonics) remembering names and shapes of letters naming letters rapidly Characteristic: Reading (cont.) Transposing the order of letters in reading transposing the order of letter in spelling Misreading or omitting common short words Stumbles through longer words Oral reading slow and laborious (fluency)

poor reading comprehension during oral or silent reading, often because words are not accurately read Characteristic: Written Language Difficulties putting ideas on paper Proofreading Many spelling mistakes Many do well on weekly spelling tests, but may have spelling mistakes in daily work Characteristic: Other Common Symptoms

RAN: Rapid Automatized Naming Difficulty naming colors, objects, and letters rapidly, in a sequence Weak memory for lists, directions, or facts Needs to see or hear concepts many times to learn them Distracted by visual or auditory stimuli Downward trend in achievement in test scores or school performance Inconsistent school work Teacher says, If only she would try harder, or Hes lazy. Relatives may have similar problems

Related Learning Disabilities Dysgraphia (handwriting) poor fine motor skill Cannot remember kinesthetic movements to form letters correctly Dyscalculia (math) Counting and calculation errors Cannot retain math vocabulary or memorizing math facts ADHD - In/variable attention, distractibility, impulsivity, hyperactivity Dyspraxia (motor skills)

Difficulty planning and coordinating body movement Difficulty coordinating facial muscles to produce sounds Executive Function/Organization - loses, forgets, overwhelmed, slow pace Causes and Challenges Dyslexia Not ALL may be present Causes

Causes Differences in brain development Difficulty identifying speech sounds and learning how letters represent sounds Universal - NOT due to lack or intelligence or desire to learn Present in all languages (as we know) - reading is a learned behavior Occurs in all backgrounds and intellectual levels Runs in families Difficulties with spoken language challenges Expressing themselves clearly

Fully comprehending what others mean when they speak Social and Emotional Aspects Stress and Anxiety Can feel have no control of a situation Need to understand their learning disability Years of self-doubt = less tolerate of school and life challenges Self-image - feel dumb May be discouraged about continuing in school Success = luck; failure = blame themselves Depression Negative self-image

Difficulty visualizing a positive future Misconceptions Do NOT read backwards Spelling is jumbled because have trouble remember letter symbols for sounds and letter patterns in words NOT a disease = no cure Need proper diagnosis Appropropriate and timely instruction Diligence and support Do NOT have a lower level of intelligence - often very bright

Impact in School Dyslexia Not ALL may be present Picture of a Young Dyslexic Student Difficulties with Rhyming, blending sounds, learning the alphabet, linking letters with sounds Learning spelling rules - use letter name for sounds (lafunt = elephant) Remembering sight or red words - the, of, said

Listening comprehension is usually better than reading comprehension - understand a story when read to him but struggles independently Picture of a Secondary Dyslexic Student Reluctant readers Poor fluency - great difficulty with words not in their listening vocabulary (words in lists, vocabulary words, nonsense words) Very poor spellers misspell sounds, omit sounds, add/omit letters or syllables

Non-fluent writers - slow, poor quality and quantity of essays When speaking, mispronounce common words (floormat for format) Difficulty using/comprehending complex grammatical structures Listening comprehension superior to performance on timed reading tests Weak vocabulary knowledge and use Common Signs and Symptoms in School

Problems with Spelling and Organizing written and spoken language Memorizing number facts and completing math operations Reading quickly enough to comprehend, especially with longer reading assignments Learning another language Remembering simples sequences (counting 1-20, days of the week, alphabet, etc.) Understanding onset rhyme Pronunciation Clapping hands to the rhythm of a sound Word retrieval Remembering names of places and people

Spoken directions Plan of Action Diagnosis - Only a medical doctor can give a formal diagnosis. rules out other common causes of reading difficulties determines if the student profile fits definition of dyslexia. Intervention Planning - develops a focused remedial program with a specialized approach to reading instruction. Documentation Evaluation documents history of a students learning disability Family history has a heavy impact here. Formative assessment in the classroom is a key component.

Evaluation for Dyslexia Background information - remember family history! Intelligence - difference IQ and reading skill Oral language skills - speech

Word recognition Decoding Spelling Phonological processing = sound system of English Must be able to think about, remember, and correctly sequence the sounds in words in order to learn to link letter to sounds for reading and spelling. Reading comprehension Vocabulary knowledge Assessments for Dyslexia Comprehensive CST Evaluation

Comprehensive Reading Evaluation Teacher use Evaluation Gallistel Ellis Test of Decoding Skills WADE - Wilson Assessment of Decoding and Encoding Wilson Fundations Placement Woodcock Reading Mastery Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI) Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) Recommended Instruction Dyslexia

Not ALL may be present Teaching Dyslexia Students Dyslexic students need a different approach to learning language from that employed in most classrooms. They need to be taught, slowly and thoroughly, the basic elements of their languagethe sounds and the letters which represent themand how to put these together and take them apart. They have to have lots of practice in having their writing hands, eyes, ears, and voices working together for conscious organization and retention of their learning. Margaret Byrd Rawson, a former President of the International Dyslexia Association (IDA)

Multisensory Structured Language Teaching Effective instruction for students with dyslexia is explicit, direct, cumulative, intensive, and focused on the structure of language. This is the idea of structured language instruction. Multisensory learning involves the use of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile pathways simultaneously to enhance memory and learning of written language. Links are consistently made between the visual (language we see), auditory (language we hear), and kinesthetictactile (language symbols we feel) pathways in learning to read and spell. .

Multisensory Structured Teaching Systematic and Cumulative Systematic - follows the logical order of the language sequence - begin with the easiest and most basic concepts, progressing to more difficult concepts Cumulative - each step must be based on concepts previously learned Explicit Instruction - deliberate teaching of all concepts with continuous student-teacher interaction. Diagnostic Teaching -individualized and based on careful and continuous formal and informal assessment,

Automaticity -comprehension and expression. Structured Multisensory Reading Instruction The integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing makes this instruction multisensory. This instruction also enhances the reading and academic achievement of all students. Phonology - word attack ability to understand/apply letter/sound systems Orthography - the writing of language Syntax - the structure of sentences Morphology - word meaning: roots, prefixes and suffixes

Semantic - the organization of spoken and written discourse. Phonology = word attack - Sound-symbol association - OG = SOS Syllable instruction - identify and segment Classroom Strategies: Tips and Tools Teaching students with dyslexia across content areas is challenging! Schools can implement academic accommodations and modifications to help students with dyslexia succeed:

Give extra time to complete tasks Help with taking notes, and modified work assignments Taped tests Allow students with dyslexia to use alternative means of assessment Listen to books on tape Using text reading and word processing computer programs Orton Gillingham Approach Dyslexia

Not ALL may be present The Orton Gillingham Approach The Orton-Gillingham approach = structured, sequential, multisensory techniques established by Orton (1920) Gillingham (1936) , and their colleagues. Orton - kinesthetic-tactile reinforcement of visual and auditory associations. For example, students who confuse b and d are taught to use consistent, different strokes in forming each letter. Gillingham and Stillman (1936) alphabetic method combined multisensory techniques with teaching the structure of written English, including the sounds (phonemes), meaning units (morphemes such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots) and common spelling rules.

The Orton Gillingham Approach Direct Instruction Simultaneous, Multisensory (VAKT):uses all learning pathways in the brain (i.e., visual, auditory, kinesthetic tactile) simultaneously or sequentially in order to enhance memory and learning. Systematic and Cumulative: Follows the logical order of the language. Beginswith the easiest and most basic concepts and progress to more difficult material. Each concept must also be based on those already learned. Concepts taught must be systematically reviewed to strengthen memory.

The Orton Gillingham Approach Diagnostic Teaching: Flexible and individualized teaching. Based on careful and continuous assessment of the individuals needs. The content presented must be mastered step by step for the student to progress. Synthetic and Analytic Instruction: Synthetic instruction presents the parts of the language and then teaches how the parts work together to form a whole. Analytic instruction presents the whole and teaches how this can be broken down into its component parts. The Orton Gillingham Approach

Comprehensive and Inclusive: All levels of language are addressed sounds (phonemes) symbols (graphemes) meaningful word parts (morphemes) word and phrase meanings (semantics) sentences (syntax) longer passages (discourse) social uses of language (pragmatics). Matrix of MLS Programs Classroom Accommodations

Dyslexia Not ALL may be present Accommodations Involving Materials

Clarify or simplify written directions Present a small amount of work Black out extraneous stimuli Highlight essential information Use a placeholder Provide additional practice activities and opportunities Develop reading guides Consider graphic novels

Use an audio recording device Use of assistive technology - iPads, audiobooks, text to speech Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction USE EXPLICIT TEACHING PROCEDURES Present an advanced organizer, demonstrate the skill, provide guided practice, offer corrective feedback, set up independent practice, monitor practice, review Repeat directions - several steps, add visual, read and understand Maintain daily routines - written, oral, kinesthetic

Provide copy of lesson notes Provide graphic organizer Integrate technology Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction (2) Use step-by-step instruction Sequential Scaffolding Write key points or words on chalkboard/whiteboard (before lesson) Have student get into the habit of writing reminders for

themselves Use balanced presentations and activities - oral, visual, kinesthetic Use mnemonic instruction - rhymes/phrases Emphasize daily review Simultaneously combine verbal and visual information (Kinesthetic) Unsung Hero

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Welcome FY 2018 Homeland Security Grant Program Regional

    Welcome FY 2018 Homeland Security Grant Program Regional

    Ex. If in the original package $300,000 of CERT/CCP projects are above the cutline, the bottom projects totaling $50,000 will be removed. Minimum Project Amount - $10,000. Maximum Project Amount - $250,000. Projects with the same scope of work that...
  • A South African Big Picture for Teaching and Learning The ...

    A South African Big Picture for Teaching and Learning The ...

    Strong indications of following international trend of mimetic normative isomorphism. Expanding the professional class without proper assessment of institutional context. Need to bring research into the research management - copying 'best practice' stories is not enough.
  • Advanced Developmental Psychology

    Advanced Developmental Psychology

    Comprehensive battery of thirteen measures of visuospatial, memory, crystallized, and processing speed abilities at all 3 waves to measure "later-life cognitive ability) Visuospatial . ability: 2 subtests from the WAIS (Matrix Reasoning and Block Design) + Spatial Span (Forward and...
  • DISCOUNTING AND COMPOUNDING - City University London

    DISCOUNTING AND COMPOUNDING - City University London

    TOPICS READING BASIC IDEAS Compounding/Terminal Value Discounted Present Value DPV Discounted Cash Flow DCF Internal Rate of Return Investment/ Project Appraisal Compounding/ Terminal Value Discounting Discounted Present Value (DPV) KC=2000 (borrowed at r=10%), CF are V1=1100 , V2=1210 Valuation of...
  • Clauses: The building blocks of sentences

    Clauses: The building blocks of sentences

    CLAUSES: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SENTENCES CLAUSE: A GROUP OF WORDS WITH A SUBJECT AND A VERB The handsome young man and his ugly dog Not a clause, because no verb Making lots of money Not a clause, because no...
  • Présentation PowerPoint

    Présentation PowerPoint

    (Long & Marsland, 2011): Accentuée significativement quand l'enfant est hospitalisé à plusieurs kilomètres de sa localité (Scott-Findlay & Chalmers, 2001; Walling, Fiala et al. 2019) Les impacts engendrés nuisent à la résilience de ces familles
  • UNIT THREE HWH  Beemon Middle Ages, Renaissance, and

    UNIT THREE HWH Beemon Middle Ages, Renaissance, and

    Middle Ages. SSWH7 The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. a. Explain the manorial system and feudalism; include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne.
  • Essentials of Developing Windows Phone Apps Chinthaka Dissanayake

    Essentials of Developing Windows Phone Apps Chinthaka Dissanayake

    Exilesoft . Is it difficult to become a WP Developer?? Web Developers. Windows Developers. Runtime APIs. One Windows for All. Development Platform. Core Platform. 90%+ More skillset Reuse. More code reuse. More seamless app experiences. Shared Dev registration.