E-Marketing, 3rd edition Judy Strauss, Raymond Frost, and ...

E-Marketing, 3rd edition Judy Strauss, Raymond Frost, and ...

E-Marketing, 3rd edition Judy Strauss, Adel I. El-Ansary, and Raymond Frost Chapter 10: Product Prentice Hall 2003 Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing

Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties A product: A bundle of benefits that satisfies the needs of organizations/consumers and for which they are willing to exchange money or other items of value. Items such as tangible goods, services, ideas, people, and places.

Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties May be classified by the purpose for which they are purchased: Consumer products = purchased by an individual for personal consumption. Businesses sell products to consumers in the business-to-consumer (B2C) market. Consumers sell products to one another in the consumer-to-consumer (C2C) market. Industrial products = used in the operation of an organization, as components for manufacture into final product, or for resale (B2B market). Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties Some new products are unique to the Internet (search engines).

Other products use the Internet as a new distribution channel +add unique technology-enabled services (books). With the Internets properties of market deconstruction, customer control, and other e-marketing trends: Many challenges, A plethora of new opportunities. The success of Classmates.com demonstrates how a new and purely online product can use the Internets properties to build a successful brand. Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties To create new products:

Research to determine what is important to customers, Design strategies to deliver more value than do competitors. In line with the Sources, Databases, and Strategy model, tier two strategies involve the marketing mix 4Ps and customer relationship management (CRM). The process of designing these strategies is closely tied to the tactics used to implement them. The marketing mix (product, price, distribution, marketing communication) + customer relationship management (CRM) work together to produce relational and transactional outcomes with consumers. Inte gra te d M a rke ting C om m un ic a t io n (IM C ) P roduc t: T he O ffe r D is tr ibu t io n C ha nne ls R e latio n al

O u tc o m e s C o ns u m e rs C RM P ric e : T he V a lue T ran s ac tio n al O u tc o m e s Marketing Mix and CRM Strategies and Tactics for Relational and Transactional Outcomes Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development

Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Creating Customer Value Online Never has competition for online customer attention and dollars been more fierce. To succeed, firms must employ that result in Customer value = Benefits Costs. Creating Customer Value Online But what exactly is value?

The entire product experience: Customers first awareness of a product, All customer touch points (including the Web site experience and e-mail from a firm), The actual product usage and postpurchase customer service, The compliments a consumer gets from friends while using the product. Value is defined wholly by the customer. Value involves customer expectations; if the actual product experience falls short of their expectations, customers will be disappointed. Value is applied at all price levels. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online

Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Online Benefits

The Internet technology brings a new set of desired benefits: Effective Web navigation, Quick download speed, Clear site organization, Attractive and useful site design, Secure transactions & privacy, Free information or services, User-friendly Web browsing and e-mail reading. BUT as Internet technology evolves, user needs change, and the opportunities expand. Marketers must make five general product decisions that comprise its bundle of benefits to meet customer needs: attributes, branding, support services, labeling, and packaging.

Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of

Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Attributes Product attributes include: Overall quality: you get what you pay for = higher and consistent quality generally means higher prices, Specific features: Include such elements as color, taste, style, size, and speed of service. Benefits are the same features from a user perspective (i.e., what will the attribute do to solve problems or meet needs and wants?). For example, Yahoo! provides a list of Web site categories (attribute), which helps users find things quickly online (benefit). Product benefits are key components in the value proposition.

Attributes The Internet increases customer benefits in many ways that have revolutionized marketing practice: The move from atoms to bits: media, music, software, and other digital products are presented on the Web. Product customization: Tangible products such as laptop computers can be sold alone or with many additional hardware and software items or services to provide additional benefits at a higher price. Intangible products, online research firms can offer many different business services in a variety of combinations. Information products can be reconfigured and personalized very easily, quickly, and cheaply, as compared to manufactured products. Attributes

The Internet offers users the unique opportunity to customize products automatically without leaving their keyboards. User personalization is another form of customization: Through Web site registration and other techniques, Web sites can: Greet users by name, Suggest product offerings of interest based on previous purchases, Amazon.com Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages

Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Branding A brand includes a name (McDonalds), a symbol (golden arches), or other identifying information.

When a firm registers that information with the U.S. Patent Office, it becomes a trademark and is legally protected from imitation. According to the U.S. government, a trademark is either a word, phrase, symbol or design, or combination of words, phrases, symbols or designs, that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others. Branding A brand is: A promise to customers,

A brand name + its image = the benefits a user desires, A way to establish trust for the customer. Important online, because of concern over security and privacy issues, Trustworthy brand names add to customerperceived benefits = higher prices, The value proposition. Branding Customers and prospects develop brand images based on every brand contact: One-way media such as advertising and packaging, Two-way communication such as conversations with the firms customer service or sales people on the phone, at trade shows, on Web sites, or in company-initiated e-mail. When using the Internet, a firm must be sure that its online messages and employee e-mails convey a positive brand image that is consistent with

messages from all other contact points. Branding Companies creating new products for online sale face several branding decisions: Whether to apply existing brand names or create new brand names for new products, Whether to lend their brand name as a cobrand with other firms, What domain name to use for the Web site. Branding 7 components for building a great global brand: 1. 2. 3.

4. Research your corporate constituencies. Information is critical for global brand building. Understand your business. Set guidelines based on global objectives. Advance the vision. Decide on the desired reputation, create a strategy to support it, and develop a strategic positioning document. Release the power of communications. All company communication should work together to promote the brand. Branding 7 components for building a great global brand: 5. 6. 7. Set up your communications infrastructure. Build a communication council with the firms advertising, public relations, investor relations, and human resource specialists, both inside and outside the firm.

Include your employees in the message mix. This is especially important in a time of PR crisis. Measure performance. Track progress toward goals and determine communication effectiveness. Using Existing Brand Names On the Web An existing brand name can be used for any new product: Makes sense when the brand is well-known + has strong brand equity (value). For example, Amazon added music CDs, videos, software, electronics, and more to its product mix. When products with offline sales introduce online extensions choosing to use the same brand name (e.g., The New York Times). Some firms may not want to use the same brand name online and offline, for several reasons:

If the new product or channel is risky, the firm does not want to jeopardize the brands good name by associating with a product failure. A powerful Internet success might inadvertently reposition the offline brand. Sometimes the firm wants to change the name slightly for the new market or channel, as a way of differentiating the online brand from the offline brand. Creating New Brands for Internet Marketing If an organization wants to create a new Internet brand, a good name is very important. Good brand names should: Suggest something about the product (e.g.,

www.Classmates.com), Differentiate the product from competitors (e.g., www.gurl.com), Be capable of legal protection. On the Internet, a brand name should be: Short, Memorable, Easy to spell, Capable of translating well into other languages. Cobranding Cobranding: When two different companies put their brand names on the same product. Common on the Internet and is a good way for firms to build synergy through expertise and brand recognition. For example: Sports Illustrated now co-brands with CNN as CNNSI.

Even the Web site address displays the cobrand: sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Internet Domain Names Organizations spend a lot of time and money developing powerful, unique brand names for strong brand equity. Using the company trademark or brand name in the Web address helps consumers quickly find the site. For example, www.coca-cola.com. Anatomy of a URL: A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) = Web site address = IP address (Internet Protocol) = domain name. Categorization scheme, similar to telephone area codes, that helps computer users find other computers on the Internet network. Are numbers, but because users can more easily

remember names, a domain name server translates back and forth. Internet Domain Names A domain name contains several levels: http:// = hypertext protocol = The browser should expect data using the hypertext protocolmeaning documents that are linked together using hyperlinks. www = world wide web = Not necessary and most commercial sites register their name both with and without it. dell = second level domain = The name of the company or the brand name. com = top level domain = Firms must first decide in which top level domain to register. Most businesses in the U.S. want .com, The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN):

A non-profit corporation, A committee of experts to make decisions about protocol and domain name assignment, registration, Approves all new top level names such as the latest: biz, .info, .pro, .name, .coop, .aero, and .museum. Domain Designation Top Level Domain Name Number of Hosts (millions) net Networks 47.8 com Commercial 44.5 edu Educational 7.8

jp Japan 7.1 ca Canada 2.9 de Germany 2.7 uk United Kingdom 2.5 au Australia 2.3

it Italy 2.3 us United States 2.1 Largest Top Level Domain Names in January 2002 and Number of Hosts Source: Data from Network Wizards (www.isc.org) Registering a New Domain Name VeriSign provides domain registering services for a mere $70/2 years/name. Problems:

More than 97% of words in the dictionary already registered as domain names, The online name a firm desires may not be available. A dictionary name is not necessarily the best option because it already has a meaning attached to it = difficult to build a competitive advantage. Registering a New Domain Name What happens if the firm name has been registered by someone else? Come up with alternative names: DeltaComm, a software developer was the first to register www.delta.com before Delta Airlines (originally www.delta-air.com), Buy the name from the currently registered holder. Many creative Netizens register lots of popular names and offer them for sale at prices of up to millions of dollars: GreatDomains.com allows users to buy and sell popular domain names. Have an Extra $1.5 Million to Spare? Buy www.ad.com.

Source: GreatDomains.com Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities

Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Support Services Customer support (during and after purchases): Is a critical component in the value proposition, Need knowledgeable customer service representatives, Is critical for some technical products for installation, maintenance problems, product guarantees, and service warranties. Customer service: Works to increase customer satisfaction with the firms products, Is a product benefit = an important part of customer relationship management. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet

New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence

A Taxonomy for Internet Products Labeling Product labels: Identify brand names, sponsoring firms, and product ingredients, Provide often instructions for use and promotional materials, On tangible products = create product recognition and influence decision behavior at the point of purchase, For online services = provides terms of product usage, product features, and other information comprise online. Labeling Labeling at Web sites, customers can read: How to install and use a software downloaded from

the Internet, Extensive legal information about copyright use on their Web pages, Online labeling can serve many of the same purposes on the Web as offline Many brick-and-mortar businesses display the Better Business Bureau logo on their doors to give the customer a sense of confidence and trust. The TRUSTe privacy shield: If firms agree to certain terms of use regarding privacy of customer information collected at their site, they affix the TRUSTe seal to their Web sites as part of a label. Microsoft Terms of Use Label Source: www.microsoft.com. Copyright 2000 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington 98052-6399 U.S.A. All rights reserved. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties Creating Customer Value Online Online Benefits Attributes Branding Support Services Labeling E-Marketing Enhanced Product

Development Customer Codesign Electronic Input Web Content Development Internet Properties Spur Other Opportunities New-Product Strategies for EMarketing New-Product Trends Value Chain Automation Promotion Product Configuration Brokerages Customer Service Distribution Relationship Marketing Outsourcing Information Sharing Centralizing Information Access Multimedia Assistive Technologies Three Types of Convergence E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development The move from atoms to bits adds complexity to

online product offers. Developers must: Combine digital text, graphics, video, and audio, and use new Internet delivery systems. Must integrate front-end customer service operations with back-end data collection + fulfillment methods to deliver product. This creates steep learning curves for traditional firms. E-marketers need to consider several factors that affect product development and product mix strategies with new technologies. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits

Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Customer Codesign The power shift to buyers allows for many unusual business

partnerships and for both business and consumer collaboration. Partners are forming synergistic clusters to help design customer products that deliver value. Internet technology allows this type of collaboration to occur electronically across international borders as well. Customer interaction in the early and late stages of product development can actually increase product success. This is especially true when product codesign occurs with what is called the lead user of a product. This is a key person who uses the product and often innovates himself to solve product use problems as they occur. Company Software Development Define objectives Begin product design

Integration of user input Beta 0 Internal testing Specs complete Customer Beta Testing Jan Stabilize software Final release Feature design and coding with input from customers March - July Beta 1 Beta 2 Beta 3

Beta 4 Beta 5 Beta 6 Netsca pe 3.0 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Customer Co-design of Netscape Navigator 3.0 Source: Adapted from Iansiti and MacCormack (2001) Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet

New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence

A Taxonomy for Internet Products Electronic Input Good marketers look everywhere for customer feedback to improve products. With the increase of Web sites inviting customer product ratings, the proliferation of e-mail word of mouse, and the speed and reach of the Net, customers are quick to spread the word about product strengths and weaknesses. Savvy firms monitor customer input electronically and refine products to meet customers needs. Companies hire electronic clipping servicesfirms to scan the Internet looking for company and product discussion = the electronic version of traditional clipping services that read print media and clip out articles mentioning the firm and its brands. The electronic input process:

Is similar to the use of marketing research to support product development; The scale is much larger because many customers worldwide can be involved and provide quick feedback. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information

Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Web Content Development On the Web, content is king. Customers visit Web sites for information, entertainment, and to buy products. Content attracts users and keeps them returning. 5 tips for screaming content:

Stay fresh. Update the site every day and at least once on the weekend. That takes a huge commitment! Be relevant and unique. Deliver highly focused content that is differentiated from competitive site content. Make it easy to find. Users want to find information or products immediately. Also, dont include hyperlinks to other sites for content because users dont often return after they leave. Serve a smorgasbord of content. Integrate current news and facts with longer features and commentary. Include interactive material relevant to the site, such as quizzes, calculators, searches, and so forth. Vary the format to include multimedia. Deliver content everywhere. This includes Web sites, wireless devices, and special networks. Web Content Development A new breed of syndicated content providers has emerged to serve Web developers: Is parallel to the Associated Press that feeds news to local and national

newspapers and magazines. Includes stock quotes, breaking news, sports updates, weather information, and morein all formats from text to video. An interesting trend involves users who want text-based content only: A small but growing group of Web users does not want the distraction of video, sound, animation, and other non-text items, They favor simple text information, They block advertising content with special software and know exactly what they want online, They do not like HTML e-mail. Important because mobile handheld devices use mostly text content. Web content providers might consider how to pare down the features in special areas for these users + charge a subscription fee for the content. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties

Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products

Internet Properties Spur Other Opportunities Market deconstruction created a disaggregation and reaggregation of product and service components to form unusual new products and firms: The Internet is a great information equalizer: These firms provide bundles of benefits difficult to achieve before the Internet. The AutoMall Online. Fierce competition + lots of product imitation + short product life cycles. In this environment, product differentiation is the key to keep from becoming a price-driven commodity industry. Online auctions: Not long after eBay came online, Amazon.com and others

began offering auctions. Short product life cycle: when Frank Sinatra died, BMGs five-person newproduct development team created a lifetime tribute and a series of product offerings for the Web site in six short hours. Firms must respond quickly to new technology or lose. Innovation online is still rewarded. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet Properties New-Product Trends Creating Customer Value Online Value Chain Automation Online Benefits Promotion Attributes Product Configuration Branding Brokerages Support Services Customer Service Labeling Distribution E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Relationship Marketing Customer Codesign Outsourcing Electronic Input Information Sharing Web Content Development Centralizing Information

Internet Properties Spur Other Access Opportunities Multimedia New-Product Strategies for EAssistive Technologies Marketing Three Types of Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products New-Product Strategies for E-Marketing Many new products were introduced by one-pony firms: = The firm was built around the first successful product, Netscape, Yahoo!, and Classmates. Other firms added Internet products to an already successful product mix: Microsoft. Product Mix Strategies How can marketers integrate hot product ideas into current product mixes? There are 6 categories of new-product strategies based on marketing objectives and other factors such as risk

appetite, strength of current brand names, resource availability, and competitive entries: Discontinuous innovations are new-to-the-world products never seen before. 1. On the Internet = the first Web authoring software, cell phone/PDA combination, shopping agent, and search engine. There are many discontinuous innovations yet to come on the Internet. This strategy is quite risky, the potential rewards for success are great. E-marketers planning discontinuous innovations must remember that their customers will have to learn and adopt new behaviorsthings they have not done before. The new behavior must be easy and the perceived benefits worthwhile. Product Mix Strategies

New product lines are introduced when firms take an existing brand name and create new products in a completely different category. 2. Microsoft created a new line when it introduced its Internet Explorer Web browser. Because the Netscape browser was already available, Microsofts entry was not a discontinuous innovation. Additions to existing product lines occur when organizations add a new flavor, size, or other variation to a current product line. 3. The New York Times Direct is a slightly different version of the hard-copy edition, adapted for online delivery. It is yet another product in The New York Times line, which includes the daily paper, weekly book review, and others. Product Mix Strategies Improvements or revisions of existing products are introduced as new and improved and, thus, replace the old product.

4. Web-based e-mail systems improved on client-based e-mail systems such as Eudora or Outlook because users could check and send e-mail from any Web connected computer. Repositioned products are current products that are either targeted to different markets or promoted for new uses. 5. Yahoo! began as a search directory on the Web and then repositioned itself as a portal (an Internet entry point with many services). Me-too lower-cost products are introduced to compete with existing brands by offering a price advantage. 6. When America Online and other ISPs were charging per hour rates for Internet access, several other providers introduced unlimited use at flat rate pricing for $19.95 per month. A Word About ROI

Need for performance metrics: As feedback so firms can assess the success of their e-marketing strategies and tactics. When introducing new products, online or offline. (The expected product revenue over time is forecasted) (marketing and other expenses) = an estimated ROI for new products prior to launch. Payout = the R & D and other initial costs will be recovered at a particular date based on projected sales. Break-even date = when the product is projected to start making a profit. How long is acceptable? Internet projects had to break even within three months or they would not get funded. Of course the exact timing varies by industry. ROI and break-even are important metrics for selling new product ideas internally and for measuring their success in the market.

Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of

Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products A Taxonomy for Internet Products Thousands of products based on Internet technologies have been introduced. These can be classified according to the customers to whom they appeal: Each column represents a group of customers, Each row in the exhibit represents a type of product. This matrix is helpful because it displays areas of new-product opportunity. Content Provider Internet Infrastructure Hardware

Server farm, highspeed switch Router, satellite, Modem, PC, Web fiber-optic backbone TV, PDA, assistive technologies, convergence products Software Web authoring, encryption, audio/video digitizing Enabling software Protocols, TCP/IP, DNS Web browser, email client, decryption, audio/video player software Services E-commerce consulting, Web

development, Web design, application service providers ISP, backbone service provider, Web hosting Web-based virus scan, auto updates, calendaring, e-mail Product Taxonomy End User Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services

Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products New-Product Trends Cutting-edge products and the technologies that make them work create digital value applying the following concepts:

Each represents a new brand, A new product line, A discontinuous innovation, A technology improvement. New products (from wireless end user appliances to B2B software) success depends on how well they deliver customer value by offering desired benefits or by lowering costs. New-Product Trends Many new products are unseen by the final consumer: BUT they form the engine that drives electronic commerce, They are enabling products, Cisco Systems makes the hardware and software that powers computer networks. New technologies accelerate product change. Most important technologies in 2002 = wireless/mobile computing, distributed content delivery and local caching, digital imaging, clustering and parallel computing, high scale interoperability, and universal

network storage. New-Product Trends 4 new-product trends in the B2B market, with the potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness in marketing functions such as sales, distribution, supply chain management, and marketing research: 1. 2. 3. 4. Value chain automation. Software products enable businesses to perform important marketing functions (value chain). Outsourcing. Businesses look for providers of key value chain functions. Application service providers (ASPs) perform marketing functions on behalf of other businesses. Information sharing. Organizations now share internal information with selected value chain partners. OBI and XML, two variations on electronic data interchange (EDI), support information sharing. Centralizing information access. Corporate portals = a single integrated interface to all of a companys data stores = reduce information search times for their employees = cost savings + effectiveness. New-Product Trends 3 new-product trends operate primarily in the B2C market and have the power to open up new markets:

1. 2. 3. Multimedia. Gains in network performance enables Internet multimedia (from video on demand to Webisodes). Assistive technologies. Clever developments allow for computer access by persons with a wide range of disabilities + use for everyday applications such as listening to ones e-mail while driving. Convergence of media. Expect the biggest initial improvements in the corporate market with gains in consumer markets close behind. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services

Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Value Chain Automation Value chain automation:

Benefits = improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of operations among suppliers, manufacturers, and the entire distribution channel, Automates existing business processes (order execution), Enables processes not previously feasible (data mining to uncover consumer behavior patterns), Helps firms solve some of its main difficulties + lower costs = lower prices for customers. Enabling products = expensive, BUT properly installed and managed, they can bring millions of dollars to the bottom line through new market opportunities or cost savings. Value Chain Automation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 6 benefits by purchasing off-the-shelf software solutions: Rapid deployment: Installation team + after-sale support services + helps to integrate existing systems with the new technology provided. Relatively bug-free rollout of systems: Service quality of the business immediately improved. Integrated solutions: Enabling technologies = integrated solutions that help with multiple functions in the value chain. Large number of features: Increasing competition = more features offered. Compatibility with business trading partners: Improves internal systems conformity to industry standards + enhances its position in systems integration. Cost savings: Infrastructure products save both time and money. Company Core Business Commerce One Value chain management B2B portals Redback Networks Broadband access solutions Vignette

E-relationship management through customized content F5 Networks Internet traffic and content managementload balancing traffic across servers Vitria Technology Value chain management Exodus Scalable Web hosting services E.piphany Customer relationship management Internet Enabling Companies Source: Adapted from Pegasus Research Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion

Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Promotion Companies can buy enabling products to help manage four key promotional activities on the Net:

Affiliate Programs: 1. Sites pay their affiliates referral fees to help to drive traffic to the affiliate sponsor, Low-cost way to acquire customers, Keeping track of the click-throughs and properly crediting the affiliates is a complex programming task. Amazon: The logo is splashed over the Web sites of some 600,000 Amazon affiliates , Each click through on the logo + merchandise purchase generates revenue for the associate. Even if Amazon were to lose money on the sale by paying the referral fee, it could make it up on repeat business by some of the referred customers.

Promotion Targeted Advertising: 2. Marketers go to great lengths to target ads to appropriate demographic and psychographic segments. User surfing patterns form an excellent basis by which to target ads. DoubleClick sells services to target ads based on users surfing habits + can follow the user from site to site around the Internet and target ads accordingly. Personalized Promotions: 3. Many sites create custom Web pages for each user, targeting specific promotions for each users individual preferences.

Dynamically creating Web pages = a complex programming task. Firms such as Vignette automate dynamic creation of Web pages. Promotion Sales: 4. In the B2B market, enabling software are used to maintain relationships with its corporate clients. Vignette gives customers instant access to pricing information, product availability, and order lead-time. Catalog aggregator: The online manufacturers rep takes information from multiple vendor databases and distills it into a single database available for search by the end user. Enabling companies help automate the aggregation process. Overview

Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing

Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Product Configuration Proper component configuration = difficult tasks in high-tech products sale: Well-trained sales force can properly configure products for end user, BUT, many end users prefer to configure their own products online: For convenience, To speed delivery of the product, Self-service = product benefit. Automatic configuration requires a software program = expert

system. Enabling software guide users through the process of product configuration based on their needs. Clients = communications, healthcare, and high-tech manufacturing industries, where configurations for equipment and services are often complex. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information

Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Brokerages Web auction sites: Are all the rage in the B2B, B2C, and C2C markets. Difficult to write + long to test and debug the software. Key characteristic = reliability. Airline, food, gas, and water industries use reverse auction software to drive down prices for products purchased from their suppliers. Payment/Financing:

Barriers to trading in the B2B market = processing credit for purchases. Enabling software = automates providing, verifying, and processing credit. Key characteristic = reliability. Software support B2B payments + financing + customer credit approvals. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution

Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Customer Service

Generally, businesses dont respond very promptly to e-mail inquiries and complaints. Ideally: messages should receive a personal response with 48 hours. BUT employee costs for e-mail customer service can be prohibitive, + businesses prefer to develop a consistent response to similar problems. Enabling softwares help route + respond to e-mail customer inquiries: Immediately acknowledges e-mail + promises a response within a fixed time frame, Can route the message ( scan for keywords) to the appropriate customer service representative, Can call up previously messages + account information to help form a context for the inquiry, Can compose a personalized response using artificial intelligence! Customer service representatives accept the generated response or compose an entirely new response. Companies can double the productivity of their e-mail response teams. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion

Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Distribution

Goal = just-in-time (JIT) delivery of products to avoid carrying excessive amounts of inventory. Main difficulty = coordination. Solution = enabling software that supports value chain management. Sun Microsystems: Does not make any of the components that go into its computers, Coordinates all interactions in its value chain, = the activities of its suppliers and its suppliers suppliers to ensure continued viability of the entire value chain. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding

Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Relationship Marketing Datamining customer information reveal important marketing opportunities.

Enabling software automates the task of profiling customers: Identify customers characteristics, Target e-mail promotions, Provide real-time profiling of consumer behavior dynamic site configuration in response to that behavior. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input

Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Outsourcing Application service providers (ASPs) perform offsite value chain functions for their client businesses. Example =outsource payroll: manager logs onto the ASPs Web site + enters the hour totals for each employee + hits submit, and a courier delivers the checks the next day! Distinction between application service providers and the enablers = location + support

Enablers: business license software + install, configure, and maintain the software on-site, ASP: the software resides at the ASPs site + the business accesses the application remotely via a Web browser. Outsourcing Advantages of the ASP: Disadvantages of the ASP: Lower startup costs, Lower or no information technology staff costs, Lower switching costs, Particularly attractive for small businesses. Lack of control over key customer data and business processes. ASPs:

Some can run an entire business = aggregate almost all of the value chain functions for the client businesses. Other ASPs focus on a single value chain function such as payroll or customer service. Application Service Provider Database Source: WebHarbor.com Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing

Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Information Sharing Today businesses are sharing information with their value chain partners. Electronic data interchange (EDI) = generic term for the exchange of data between businesses in digital form. Benefits: Consistent standards = data do not need to be rekeyed by the

receiving business, Exchange is easier if the businesses agree on a common format for exchanging data, BUT, this is complicated because most businesses store data in proprietary formats. 2 solutions: Open buying on the Internet (OBI) = each business translate its data to a common format for exchange, XML, allows each business to keep its own format while sending the instructions for translation to the receiving business. Information Sharing Extensible Markup Language (XML):

Extensible = the language can be extended by the user to accommodate new types of data. It has strong support = it is built into Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, the MS-Office suite, etc. A number of industry standards groups base their content definitions on XML. To better understand XML: Consider that a cook who is baking a cake needs both an ingredient list and a recipe to be successful, The ingredient list corresponds to a companys data, The recipe corresponds to XML formatting instructions, The company receiving the information must have both in order to decode the communication. Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits

Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Centralizing Information Access Corporate portals:

Use Web-based technology to create sites specifically for a particular companys employees. Are an extension of an earlier concept, the intranet (site for internal consumption for corporate information such as news, policies, and procedures). A wide variety of corporate information storessuch as sales data, groupware documents, and calendars. Translate data from all of the information stores into a common interface for presentation to the employee. Have the potential to save businesses millions of dollars by reducing the time that their employees spend searching for information. Example: My.yahoo where users can customize the screen display to include categories of information that they find useful. Centralizing Information Access

Extranets = corporate portals that value chain partners are allowed to access. For example, Sun Microsystems: Suns suppliers have nearly complete access to Suns production information and use that access to plan their own production schedules. Groupware products such as Lotus Domino: Used to coordinate and share information among work teams. Support threaded discussion groups. Each thread represents a separate topic. Users add to the thread by responding to one of the topics. In this way the entire dialogue and any posted documents are maintained. Other applications= e-mail and calendaring. Most corporate portals either integrate with existing groupware products or imitate their functionality.

Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of

Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Multimedia Real-time multimediasound and video: Currently of fairly low quality when viewed or heard on a computer over the Net. Limiting factor = lack of sufficient bandwidth. The quality of transmission is directly proportional to the bandwidth of the communications channel. Most users still connect to the Internet with modems operating at 56K or slower. BUT: growing penetration of high-speed access via cable modems, DSL modems, and wireless technologies. AND, Cisco systems + other networking companies are working on technologies for increased bandwidth at lower prices.

Multimedia technologies are available: Conferencing software, Webcams, CD-quality audio, Streaming video, Internet telephony VoIP. Multimedia Conferencing software: Webcam:

Allows users to hold text, audio, or video conferences over the Internet. Users can simultaneously work on shared whiteboards using Microsoft NetMeeting. Hardware device that transmits real-time video image over the Web. can be used for Internet conferencing or just be fixed on a target. 2 popular Webcam devices= Logitech QuickCamera & Intels PC Camera. Streaming audio: Delivery of live or stored audio on demand over the Internet. Users can start hearing the audio very shortly after clicking on the file without waiting until the entire file is downloaded before playing it. Sites such as Yahoo! Broadcast use its products to rebroadcast radio, TV, and music over the Internet. Multimedia MP3:

Standard for CD-quality audio. Began almost as a renegade movement that has now become mainstream. WinAmp = one of the first players to decode MP3 files. But how does the user find the files online? Napster = first major service to allow users to share MP3 files from their computers with the entire Net community. It maintained a database of MP3 availability but did not actually provide the music. Legal battles with the recording industry finally forced Napster into bankruptcy. Napster was still hoping to reemerge from bankruptcy thanks to a partnership with Bertelsmann AG. BUT Napster may have trouble winning back market share from the hundreds of MP3 search tools and services such as Morpheus.

Multimedia Streaming video: Requires more bandwidth than streaming audio. More heavily constrained by the lack of bandwidth online. BUT observers see a bright future for live video and video on demand. broadcast industry and the video rental business could be threatened by its development. SonicBlue's ReplayTV, a competitor to Sony's TiVo, allows users to record broadcast video and then share it over broadband Internet connections with other SonicBlue users. Internet telephony: Transmits phone calls relies on the Web eliminating longdistance charges.

Multimedia Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): Major constraint = bandwidth. Voice quality is quite good, but it is not reliable. Requires less bandwidth than streaming video, Internet telephony is an attractive business proposition. Net2Phone offers products that can complete longdistance calls off the Net. Represents a threat to long-distance phone companies (for international calls). Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes

Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Assistive Technologies Designed to help people with disabilities operate their computers.

Potential customers = Millions of people are for these productsnot just disabled people. Assistive technologies do allow persons with certain disabilities to productively enter the workforce: Voice-activated computers: Computer can be completely controlled by voice commands. In call centers, the caller interacts with the computer by speaking commands. Large-type screen displays. Help people with poor vision see and navigate on their computer screens. Assistive Technologies Type-to-speech or braille:

Allows blind people to interact with a computer. Reads Internet pages aloud. Technologies are also being built into automobiles such as GMs OnStar system = drivers can listen to e-mail messages and stock quotes while driving. Important implications for Web page design = designers avoid graphics since the technology can only read text. Speech-to-text telephony. The telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) converts speech to text, allowing deaf people to hold telephone conversations or conference online. Eye gaze-to-type: People who are completely paralyzed can control a computer using eye gaze-to-type technologies. The user controls her computer by staring at control buttons on the screen. Home Page Reader

Source: www-3.ibm.com/able/hpr.htm Overview Many Products Capitalize on Internet New-Product Trends Properties Value Chain Automation Creating Customer Value Online Promotion Online Benefits Product Configuration Attributes Brokerages Branding Customer Service Support Services Distribution Labeling Relationship Marketing E-Marketing Enhanced Product Development Outsourcing Customer Codesign Information Sharing Electronic Input Centralizing Information Web Content Development Access Internet Properties Spur Other Multimedia Opportunities

Assistive Technologies New-Product Strategies for EThree Types of Marketing Convergence A Taxonomy for Internet Products Three Types of Convergence The marketing opportunities in media convergence are tremendous. 3 types of convergence are attracting attention today: (1) voice, video, and data on corporate networks, (2) wireless devices and the Web, (3) the Web with broadcast media. Voice, Video, and Data on Corporate Networks Will allow corporations to have: 1 single switch for voice, video, and data communications rather than 3 separate systems.

Cisco is leading the charge in this market: Supporting both the infrastructure and end user appliances such as IP telephones. Wireless Devices and the Web Wireless devices: Cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs), With Web access + sometimes a global positioning function (GPS), Race to see whether cell phones or PDAs will become the preferred platform for wireless Internet access, Many people think these devices are likely to merge = a single device would serve as a combination cell phone, PDA, and Web browser. Limitations: 1.

The screen size of PDAs & cell phones: Tiny cell phone screen can be used to check e-mail and retrieve weather, news, and stock quotes. BUT Web content is designed for color on much larger displays. Web sites are starting to create content for the Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) so that it displays correctly on these tiny screens. Interesting application running on a PDA is Auctioneer, used to track eBay auctions. Wireless Devices and the Web 2. Bandwidth: Wireless networks are much slower than land line networks. BUT the market is growing rapidly. One technology to watch = WiFi networks built on the Ethernet 802.11b standard + 3G wireless cell phone networks. Outside of the US, the current & potential market for wireless Web access is greater (a higher penetration rate for mobile phone communications).

Why? Telephone companies in other countries usually charge by the minute for local calls. Many users conclude that if they are going to be charged by the minute anyway, they might as well have the additional benefit of wireless access. Consumers in many countries have to wait years for a telephone line to be installedat a high price. In Japan, DoCoMos i-mode service has attracted millions of users who check weather forecasts, sports scores, maps, stock trading, banking, etc. Wireless Devices and the Web Wireless mobility of the future will have 6 components : 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. Content provider. The firm creating wireless versions of current Web content. This might include sites such as travelocity.com and B2B services such as sales force automation. Portal software. These firmssuch as Yahoo!, AOL, and Microsoftwill provide a higher level of personalization, maintaining user preferences for a wide variety of content. Data aggregation agent. Companies such as Yodlee, Acxiom, and Microsoft keep track of a users login and password information for quick mobile access to banks, stock brokerage accounts, and so fortha boon to business travelers. Infrastructure. These firms provide wireless Internet access, parallel to non-mobile ISPs. Transaction providers. American Express, Visa, and others will serve online retailers by processing payments. Mobile devices. Cell phones + PDAs, or some convergence of the two platforms, allowing the user to send and receive data. Broadcast Media and the Internet iTV (interactive TV): Convergence is between broadcast media (television and radio) and

the Internet. Result = single appliance to receive broadcast content over the Internet. Major obstacle = lack of bandwidth to support full-motion video. Cable modems, DSL modems, and fixed wireless access to the home may provide more bandwidth. MSN TV: Users simply browse the Web on a TV screen. Not very successful because of the low resolution of TV screens + consumers are not used to reading on a TV screen. ABCs Enhanced TV: Users need to log onto ABCs Web site while they are watching TV. Users can get more information about the current broadcast, play games with other users, and participate in polls and chats. Broadcast Media and the Internet

When the bandwidth does become available, it is unlikely that the Web will be used only to serve TV and audio on demand. A taste of the future = BrilliantDigital produces multipath movies in which viewers take a more active role. Future products depend on the telecommunications industry: Since mid 2000: The industry started to collapse. $2 trillion lost in valuation + numerous high profile bankruptcies. Markets were flooded with products and services driving prices down below profitable levels. The products that survive in the long-term will be those that best deliver customer value. I n fra str

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n P r o v id e r *A m E x *V isa Six Components of Mobile Communications Source: Information from Peppers and Rogers Group (2001) M o b ileD ev ic e *P a lm *N o

k ia *H P Key Terms Application service providers (ASPs) Assistive technologies Brand Cobranding Media Convergence Corporate Portals Discontinuous innovations Domain name Enabling technologies Extensible Markup Language (XML) Internet telephony IP address (Internet Protocol) Just-In-Time (JIT) delivery New product lines Outsourcing Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Product Streaming audio Streaming video

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Value chain automation Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) Review Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. What are the arguments for and against using existing brand names on the Web?

List six new-product strategy categories and provide Internet examples of each. Why is value tied to the entire product experience? What are some important criteria for Internet domain naming? How does labeling work on the Internet? What techniques can e-marketers employ to enhance new product development? Why do e-marketers need to forecast revenue, expenses, ROI, and payout for new products under consideration? What are the advantages to buying B2B software off the shelf? Why are technology standards like RosettaNet important? What is the major limitation to the use of multimedia over the Net? What are assistive technologies? Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Of the three types of convergence, which do you think has the greatest

market opportunity? Why? How can automating the value chain increase customer value? Under what circumstances would it make sense to take an existing brand name online? When would it not make sense? Why do e-marketers often have difficulty estimating the revenues, costs, and payout or ROI of a new product under development? What are some of the consumer privacy issues related to enabling products for online promotional activities such as targeted advertising and personalized promotions? How would you, as an e-marketer, respond to these privacy issues? Do you agree with the CEO of Classmates.com, who says his firm has outgrown its brand name but should not make a change because of the strong existing brand equity? Defend your position.

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