Ecohydrology of forests: water and energy exchange

Ecohydrology of forests: water and energy exchange

Terrestrial biosphere and global change: the carbon cycle at the land surface Han Dolman [[email protected]] Alterra Wageningen, NL Top Down: atmospheric methods The Dual constraint approach for carbon balances Bottom up: forest inventories, models The Global Carbon Cycle 60 62 - 63

6.5 90 92 Oceanic exchange Fossil fuels & cement production 1 -1.5 Terrestrial production & respiration Deforestation Atmosphere 750, + 3 per year Terrestrial ecosystem Vegetation 610 Soils 1400 Litter

60 _____________ Total 2070 Fossil fuel reserves 4000 Carbonate rocks 65x106 Surface ocean 1020 0.4 40 50 Marine biota 3 6 4 6 DOC

700 100 92 Ocean 38,100 0.2 Sediment Interannual variability A global network Brasil: LBA-EUSTACH Manaus K34 and Sites Manaus C14 Rio Negro Manaus Rio Solimoes Caxiuana Rio Amazonas Belem

Caxiuana Rio Xingu RONDONIA Rio Jaru Ji Parana Rebio Jaru Fazenda Nossa Senhora Towers at Reserva Biologica do Rio Jar New tower Abracos CO2 eddy fluxes over 2 years in the Central and Southern Amazon Manaus K34 Rebio Jaru

Manaus C14 Fazenda NS Jan/2001 Jan/2001 Jan/2001 Jan/2001 Sep/2000 Sep/2000 Sep/2000 Sep/2000 May/2000 -20 May/2000

Jan/2000 Jan/2000 Sep/1999 Sep/1999 May/1999 May/1999 May/2000 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 May/2000 Jan/2000

Jan/2000 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Sep/1999 Sep/1999 Data are 10-day averages. Missing data are green or dark blue May/1999 May/1999 Jan/1999 0 im eofday(G M

T = local+ 4h) T im eo fd a y(G M T = lo ca l+ 4h )T 6 12 18 Jan/1999

24 0 6 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 -30 12 18 Jan/1999 24 -10 0 10

20 0 Tim eofday(G M T=local+4h) 6 12 18 Jan/1999 24 0 T im eofday(G M T =

local+ 4h) 6 12 18 24 Manaus: slight sesaonality Average daily C flux (t ha-1 d-1) 0.02 0.01 Fit and 95% confidence of fit data eddy flux (10 day averages) Manaus K34 0.00

-0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.04 Jun 99 Dec 99 Jun 00 Dec 00 Rebio Jaru: Seasonality Average daily carbon flux (t ha-1 d-1) 0.02 Eddy flux data (10 day averages) Fit to all data 0.00

-0.02 Rebio Jaru 1999-2000 -0.04 Jan 1999 Jul 1999 Jan 2000 Jul 2000 Jan 2001 Annual C-uptake in the Amazon CO2-opname Grove Den, Kootwijk 1997-1998 30 0.8 20

10 0.4 0 0.0 -10 -20 -0.4 -30 -40 -0.8 -50 -1.2 jan '97 -60 apr jul

okt jan '98 Tijd apr jul okt jan '99 Monthly NEE Loobos Interannual variability in NEE Loobos 16 NEE Respiration Assimilation CO2 flux (ton C ha-1 yr-1)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 19 95 19 96 Y 19 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 ear

What is causing the variation in NEE? 5 4 60 40 3 2 200 210 220 230 240 250 260

Length of growing season 270 280 Flux anomaly NEE (ton C ha-1 yr -1) Length of growing season 20 0 -20 -40 -60 Radiation load -0.4 -0.3

-0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 Normalised shortwave radiation anomaly 0.2 0.3 Growing season length Conservation between carbon and water fluxes (WUE) Coupling of H20-CO2 flux at ecosystem level The Carbon Balance of a Forest Fluxes in t C ha-1 yr -1

MRT years CO2 NPP 62 NEP Litter 51 31 Wood 31 Mineralisation 1.40.7 1.50.9 Soil C flux Harvest Litter Wood <1-3 1-250

managed forest mean: 80 Products 15-20 O layer A horizon 14-52 70-170 Land Use Change Landscape scale monitoring mC/dt+uMmC/x+vMmC/y = (Ci-Cm)/t -Wi) I /m -AR+MmCf/t Free troposphere CO2 Flask sampling

Weather Flux aircraft Biospheric uptake Fossil fuel emission Future: regional integration? CarboEurope - Flux Monitoring Sites 32 eddy correlation flux measurement towers 8 sites with process studies 5 with aircraft CO2 profiles 7 chronosequences In addition (not shown): 10 stations of background atmospheric CO2 monitoring plus 10 stations from NOAA / CMDL

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