America: America: Pathways Pathways to to the the Present Present Chapter 22 The Kennedy and Johnson Years (19611969) Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. America: America: Pathways Pathways to to the the Present Present Chapter 22: The Kennedy and Johnson Years (19611969) ection 1: The New Frontier ection 2: The Great Society Section 3: Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.
The New Frontier Chapter 22, Section 1 What factors affected the election of 1960? What domestic programs did President Kennedy pursue? What circumstances surrounded Kennedys assassination? The Election of 1960 Chapter 22, Section 1 A Narrow New Type Kennedy of Candidate Victory Kennedy Democratic won Senator the 1960 John election F. Kennedy by an had extremely servedclose in themargin.
House and Senate 14 years he ranfrom for President in 1960. for Kennedy waswhen separated his opponent, Republican Richard Nixon, by fewer Still, some than 119,000 questioned popular his candidacy votes out because of nearly of 69his million young cast. age, 43, and his Roman Catholic religious beliefs. Because of the close election,
Kennedy entered office without a mandate. Kennedy would provedhave to bedifficulty an engaging pushing television his more personality controversial during measures the 1960 presidential through Congress. debates, the first such debates to be televised. Kennedys Domestic Programs Chapter 22, Section 1 In a speech early in his presidency, Kennedy said that the nation was poised at the edge of a New Frontier. This phrase came to refer to Kennedys proposals to improve the economy, assist the
poor, and speed up the space program. Kennedys efforts to improve the economy included ordering a federal investigation into steel price fixing and proposing a large tax cut. His tax cut proposal, however, became stuck in Congress. Many of Kennedys proposals aimed to combat poverty and inequality. Although some were rejected by Congress, others were passed. These included an increase in the minimum wage, funding for urban renewal, abolishment of poll taxes, and the Equal Pay Act, which required all employees doing the same work in the same workplace to receive equal wages. Other Kennedy Initiatives Chapter 22, Section 1 Although Kennedy served a shortened presidency, he was able to initiate a variety of programs, including: Improved surplus food to unemployed Americans Largest defense buildup in peacetime history Help to communities plagued by long-term unemployment Extension of Social Security
benefits Expansion of National Park System Doubling of federal resources combating water pollution Construction of the worlds largest nuclear power plant Tightening of food and drug laws Encouragement of free trade Signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Changes in the welfare system Creation of first federal program to address juvenile delinquency The Space Program Chapter 22, Section 1 The Soviet Unions launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 inspired the United States to work toward placing a manned spacecraft in orbit. In April 1961, Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin became the first
human to travel in space. Americans worried that their technology was falling behind that of the Soviet Union. Funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was increased. In 1961 and 1962, American astronauts made initial space flights. On July 20, 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon. Kennedy Is Assassinated Chapter 22, Section 1 On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was shot while riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas. He had traveled to Texas to mobilize support for his upcoming reelection campaign. Shots fired from the sixth-floor window of the empty Texas School Book Depository mortally wounded Kennedy, making Vice President Lyndon Johnson the new President. The prime suspect in Kennedys murder, Lee Harvey Oswald, was murdered by a man named Jack Ruby two days later, while being transferred from one jail to another.
To investigate Kennedys murder, President Johnson appointed The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, better known as the Warren Commission, after its chairman, Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren. The Warren Commission determined that Oswald had acted alone. However, theories that Oswald and Ruby had belonged to a conspiracy persisted. The New FrontierAssessment Chapter 22, Section 1 What was the New Frontier? (A) A campaign slogan used in the 1960 election (B) Kennedys proposal for a tax cut (C) NASAs program to put a manned spacecraft in orbit (D) A collective term for many of Kennedys proposals Which of these statements best describes the conclusion reached by the Warren Commission? (A) Oswald and Ruby had acted together to assassinate Kennedy. (B) Oswald had acted alone when assassinating Kennedy. (C) Oswald and Ruby had participated in a conspiracy. (D) Oswald had been framed, and Ruby had been the true assassin. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! The New FrontierAssessment Chapter 22, Section 1 What was the New Frontier? (A) A campaign slogan used in the 1960 election
(B) Kennedys proposal for a tax cut (C) NASAs program to put a manned spacecraft in orbit (D) A collective term for many of Kennedys proposals Which of these statements best describes the conclusion reached by the Warren Commission? (A) Oswald and Ruby had acted together to assassinate Kennedy. (B) Oswald had acted alone when assassinating Kennedy. (C) Oswald and Ruby had participated in a conspiracy. (D) Oswald had been framed, and Ruby had been the true assassin. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! The Great Society Chapter 22, Section 2 What was Lyndon Johnsons path to the presidency? What were some of the goals and programs of the Great Society? What were some of the cases that made the Warren Court both important and controversial? LBJs Path to the White House Chapter 22, Section 2 Lyndon Johnson became President unexpectedly following Kennedys assassination. However, his political career had been leading up to this position for many years. While serving in the House and Senate, Johnson had established a reputation for both his political talent and his ambition. In 1954, he became Senate Majority Leader.
Kennedy had named Johnson his running mate in 1960 after Johnsons own bid for the Democratic nomination had failed. Johnson became President immediately after Kennedys death, taking the oath of office an hour and a half later. The Great Society and the Election of 1964 Chapter 22, Section 2 The Election Great Society of 1964 Johnson used his talent in working with Congress to initiateover many In the 1964 election, Johnson won a landslide victory reforms on domestic issues. Republican
opponent Barry Goldwater. Johnsons programs included major poverty relief, education aid, A controversial TV advertisement known as the daisy healthcare, voting rights, conservation and beautification projects, commercial took advantage of Americans fear of nuclear urban renewal, and economic development in depressed areas. war to support Johnsons campaign. These programs became collectively known as the Great Society. Great Society Programs Chapter 22, Section 2 Great Society Reforms The Tax Cut Like Kennedy, Johnson believed that a budget deficit could be used to improve the economy. A tax cut caused the deficit to shrink, since renewed prosperity generated new tax revenues. The War on Poverty Johnson initiated new programs such as Head Start, a preschool program for low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services and social services, and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), which sent volunteers to help people in poor communities. Aid to Education The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, also initiated by Johnson, provided billions of dollars in aid to public and private schools. Medicare and Medicaid Johnson helped Congress pass two new programs, Medicare and Medicaid. Medicare provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most Americans over age 65, while Medicaid provides similar services to poor Americans of any age who cannot afford their own private health insurance.
Immigration Reform The Immigration Act of 1965 replaced immigration quotas with overall limits from various parts of the world. Immigration rose during the 1960s and 1970s. The Warren Court Chapter 22, Section 2 During the Kennedy-Johnson years, the Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, handed down many controversial landmark verdicts. The Court ruled on social issues including in: 1957 Roth v. United States, ruling that obscene material were utterly without redeeming social importance. 1962 Engel v. Vitale, ruling that religious prayer in public schools was unconstitutional according to the First Amendment principle of separation of church and state. And in 1965 the Supreme Court struck down a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of birth. (Griswold v. Connecticut) The Warren Court was also interested in safeguarding the rights of persons accused of committing crimes. The Miranda rule, a result of the 1966 case Miranda v. Arizona, required police to inform accused persons of their rights. A series of Warren Court decisions changed the nature of apportionment,
or the distribution of the seats in a legislature among electoral districts. Effects of the Great Society Chapter 22, Section 2 The Endon Effects ofPoverty the Great Society Johnson During the received 1960s and both early 1970s, the number of Americans living in poverty in the Unitedfor States was cut in half. praise and criticism However, some Americans complained that too many of their tax dollars Great Society reforms. beinginspent on poor people. Others
criticized the way Great Society were A conflict Southeast Asia, later to become the Vietnam War, began to antipoverty programs encouraged poor people to become dependent consume the resources Johnson needed for his domestic programs. on aid and created successive generation of families on welfare government The Great Society came to an end when Johnson failed to contain the instead of in jobs. Southeast Asia conflict. The Great SocietyAssessment
Chapter 22, Section 2 Which of following was a result of Johnsons Great Society? (A) The beginnings of a conflict in Southeast Asia (B) The creation of the Head Start program (C) The elimination of the Miranda rule (D) An increase in the number of Americans living in poverty Why did some Americans oppose Great Society antipoverty legislation? (A) They felt it took funding away from international conflicts. (B) They complained that too much of their taxes were spent on the poor. (C) They felt it ran counter to the decisions of the Warren Court. (D) They wanted more money for education instead. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! The Great SocietyAssessment Chapter 22, Section 2 Which of following was a result of Johnsons Great Society? (A) The beginnings of a conflict in Southeast Asia (B) The creation of the Head Start program (C) The elimination of the Miranda rule (D) An increase in the number of Americans living in poverty Why did some Americans oppose Great Society antipoverty legislation? (A) They felt it took funding away from international conflicts. (B) They complained that too much of their taxes were spent on the poor. (C) They felt it ran counter to the decisions of the Warren Court. (D) They wanted more money for education instead. Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!
Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s Chapter 22, Section 3 What were the goals of the Bay of Pigs invasion, and what was the outcome? What events led to the Berlin crisis and the Cuban Missile Crisis? What were the goals of the Alliance for Progress and the Peace Corps? Which Cold War conflicts did Johnson become involved in? The Bay of Pigs Invasion Chapter 22, Section 3 Outcome Goals of the of the BayInvasion of Pigs Invasion The Bay United of Pigs States invasion government proved was
to disturbed be both a military when Fidel andCastro diplomatic took over Cuba in 1959 and developed ties to the Soviet Union. disaster. Airstrikes To overthrow failed Castro, to destroy the Central CubasIntelligence air force, and Agency Cuban (CIA) troops trained werea more group of Cubans than a match to invade for the invaders. Cuba and overthrow Castro. The
President UnitedKennedy States lost approved credibility the for resulting its clumsy Bay of invasion Pigs invasion, tactics as which well as took its violation place on ofApril agreements 17, 1961.not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere. The Berlin Crisis Chapter 22, Section 3 Effects of Causes of the the Berlin Berlin Crisis
Crisis In Asresponse part of the topostWorld Soviet demands, War II Kennedy division of increased Germany,funding the citytoofthe Berlin military in Communist and expanded East theGermany size of the had armed been forces. divided into Communist and nonzones. Communist To avoid a confrontation, the Soviets built a wall to separate the Communist The divisionand of Berlin
non-Communist was planned sections as a temporary of Berlinmeasure. in August However, 1961. the Union demanded that division of the be made Soviet The Berlin Wall came to be a the somber symbol of city the Cold War.permanent. Tensions of Their goal was to cut off the large flow of East Germans escaping into the Cold
War continued. West Germany. The Cuban Missile Crisis Chapter 22, Section 3 On October 16, 1962, photographs taken from an American spy plane showed construction of Soviet missile bases in Cuba, about 90 miles from the coast of Florida. The American response to this construction, and the resulting Soviet response, became known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the superpowers to the brink of nuclear war. After much consultation with his advisors, President Kennedy decided to authorize a naval quarantine around Cuba. He demanded that Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev cease construction of the missile bases. On October 25, Soviet ships headed for Cuba suddenly reversed direction, called back by Khrushchev. This action led to tremendous relief since confrontation, and the threat of nuclear war, had been avoided.
Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis Chapter 22, Section 3 The Cuban Missile Crisis did not end when Soviet ships reversed their course, however. The end of the crisis came several days later, when Kennedy responded to letters sent from Khrushchev, agreeing to some terms publicly and others in secret. In the end, the Soviet Union agreed to remove its missiles from Cuba. In return, the United States agreed to end the quarantine, stay out of Cuba, and remove missiles of its own from Turkey. As a result of the crisis, Kennedy and Khrushchev established a hot line with which they could communicate quickly in case of further crises. In addition, the United States and the Soviet Union, together with Great Britain, signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963. This treaty banned nuclear testing above the ground. The Alliance for Progress Chapter 22, Section 3
Kennedy feared that Communist movements would attract support in poor nations by promising people a better future. To counter these movements, Kennedy encouraged people in the Western Hemisphere to join an Alliance for Progress. The Alliance would help build Western-allied stable governments that met the needs of their people. The United States pledged billions of dollars toward this goal. However, many people in Latin America began to view the Alliance as only a tool of the United States to stop the spread of communism. Because of these doubts, the Alliance for Progress was not as much of a success as Kennedy had hoped. The Peace Corps Chapter 22, Section 3 In 1961, Kennedy established the Peace Corps to further his goal of a world in which people worked together peacefully to solve problems. Peace Corps volunteers were Americans who agreed to work side by side with local citizens in poorer nations, teaching skills and improving living conditions. Today, Peace Corps volunteers continue to serve in nations around the world.
Chapter 22, Section 3 Johnsons Foreign Policy Chapter 22, Section 3 Vietnam The Dominican Republic Like In 1965, Kennedy, rebels Johnson attacked was the military-backed committed to preventing government theof spread the Dominican of Republic. communism. The Johnson ongoing believed conflict thatinthe Southeast
rebels had Asia been between backed Communist by Communist North Vietnam supporters. and non-Communist He sent thousands South Vietnam of marines continued to the during Dominican Johnsons Republic, term. theJohnson balanceat against the rebels and installing a new provisional tipping Although
first opposed further United States action in Vietnam, government. American involvement in the conflict deepened as more and more troops and It turned money outwere that sent the rebels to prop had upnot thereceived government. Communist support after all. Chapter 22, Section 3 Foreign Policy in the Early 1960sAssessment Chapter 22, Section 3 Which of these events began the Cuban Missile Crisis? (A) The CIA trained Cubans for an invasion to overthrow Castro.
(B) The United States learned of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. (C) Fidel Castro took over Cuba and developed Soviet ties. (D) American airstrikes attempted to destroy Cubas air force. What was the Alliance for Progress? (A) A treaty which banned nuclear testing above the ground (B) A program which sent American volunteers overseas (C) A coalition to build stable Latin American governments (D) An international plan to overthrow the government of the Dominican Republic Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 22, Section 3 Foreign Policy in the Early 1960sAssessment Chapter 22, Section 3 Which of these events began the Cuban Missile Crisis? (A) The CIA trained Cubans for an invasion to overthrow Castro. (B) The United States learned of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. (C) Fidel Castro took over Cuba and developed Soviet ties. (D) American airstrikes attempted to destroy Cubas air force. What was the Alliance for Progress? (A) A treaty which banned nuclear testing above the ground (B) A program which sent American volunteers overseas (C) A coalition to build stable Latin American governments (D) An international plan to overthrow the government of the Dominican
Republic Want to link to the Pathways Internet activity for this chapter? Click here! Chapter 22, Section 3
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