ECOSYSTEMS & COMMUNITIES Chapter 4

ECOSYSTEMS & COMMUNITIES Chapter 4

ECOSYSTEMS & COMMUNITIES CHAPTER 4 Mrs. Yanac Biology 1B WEATHER VS. CLIMATE

Weather DAY TO DAY condition of the atmosphere Climate average YEAR

TO YEAR situation of temperature and precipitation of an area GREENHOUSE EFFECT

Natural trapping of heat around the earth due to gases in the atmosphere LATITUDE Due to the tilt of the planet, sunlight hits the planet at different angles, resulting in different climates.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Biotic all of the living parts of the ecosystem Plants Animals

Fungi Microorganisms Abiotic all of the nonliving parts of the ecosystem Land Water

Soil Light HABITAT The area where an organism lives Includes both biotic & abiotic factors

NICHE All the ABOITIC &

BIOTIC factors in a habitat AND the way an organism uses those things The ROLE a species plays in an ECOSYSTEM No 2 species can occupy the same niche, at the same place, at the same

time (competition exclusion principle) COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS Symbiosis a relationship where 2 organisms live closely together

1. Mutualism Both benefit 2. Commensalism One benefits, one is unaffected

3. Parasitism One benefits, one is harmed ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION Predictable changes to an ecosystem over time

PRIMARY SUCCESSION Occurs where no soil exists (on bare rock) SECONDARY SUCCESSION Occurs in an area previously disturbed by natural

disaster or human disturbance BIOMES (TERRESTRIAL) Group of ecosystems that have Certain climate (temperature & rainfall) Soil conditions Plants (flora) Animals (fauna) Examples:

Tundra, Rainforest, Desert, Grasslands AQUATIC BIOMES Freshwater Standing water Lakes & ponds Flowing water Rivers & streams Marine (salt water) Oceans

Littoral zone inshore, shallow, high

light levels Limnetic zone offshore, high light levels, upper regions of water column Profundal zone aphotic Benthic zone bottom substrate; often rich in detritus

ESTUARIES Where saltwater & freshwater mix EX: Where a river runs into the ocean Unique ecosystem Brackish water CORAL REEFS

Highly diverse (both flora & fauna) Found in photic zone THE END :0)

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