Effect of Seed Distribution and Population on Maize Grain Yield

Effect of Seed Distribution and Population on Maize Grain Yield

EFFECT OF SEED DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION ON MAIZE GRAIN YIELD BEE KHIM CHIM GRADUATE STUDENT DEPARTMENT OF CROP, SOIL & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES EMAIL: [email protected] INTRODUCTION Production of maize in World, U.S.A and Sub Saharan Africa. World United States of America Sub Saharan Africa 7, 045, 483, 640* 314, 572, 078* 874, 841, 049 Production (Mt) 840, 308, 214 327, 879, 500 63, 580, 236 Area Harvested (Ha)

161, 765, 388 34, 163, 300 30, 910, 018 Yield (Mt/Ha) 5.20 9.60 2.06 Population * From United States Census, 2012 From World Bank, 2011 From www.faostat.org , 2010 INTRODUCTION (CONTD) Developed Countries, maize planting Developing Countries, maize planting http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/JensenPhotos.ht ml http://nue.okstate.edu/Hand_Planter/img21.jpg INTRODUCTION (CONTD) Maize area, ha (FAOSTAT, 2010) Total 161, 765, 388 ha Sub Saharan Africa 30, 910, 018 ha Planted by hand (60%) *

18, 546, 011 ha Potential yield increase (25%)* (single seeds 14-17 cm apart) 15, 895, 059 Mg Yield increase of 25% for 60% hand planted maize worth more than 4.6 billion dollars/ year (corn price at $ 0.295/kg) *From(http://nue.okstate.edu/Hand_Planter/summary_AGCO1.pdf ) LITERATURE REVIEW Plant Spacing Narrow: tall and weak steam plants, decreased yield due to lodging (Rowland, 1993; Futuless et. al, 2010) Wider: Encourage weed and pests infestation, influences maize yield (Whiteman, 1981) Increased row spacing from 0.35 to 1m will decrease grain yield (Riahinia and Dehdashti, 2008) Light Interception Development of crop growth related to light interception (Gardner et al., 1985) Optimization of light interception increased grain yield (Stewart et al.,

2003) Light interception can be increased by reduced row spacing (Andrade et al., 2002) OBJECTIVE To determine the value of equadistant plant spacing when compared to hills, placing 2-3 seeds per hill MATERIALS AND METHODS Locations: Lake Carl Blackwell research station and Efaw research station Cropping year: Summer 2011 and Summer 2012 10 treatments with 3 replications arranged in RCBD, middle two rows planted by hand Preplant N rate: 395.2 kg N ha-1 applied in the form of urea (46-0-0) Light Interception, LI-COR MATERIALS AND METHODS (CONTD) Treatment structure Treatment

Seeds Hill-1 Distance Between Hills Estimated Plant Population m Plants ha-1 1 1 0.16 81,984 2 2 0.16 163,968 3 3 0.16 245,952 4

1 0.32 40,992 5 2 0.32 81,984 6 3 0.32 122,976 7 1 0.48 27,328 8 2 0.48

54,656 9 3 0.48 81,984 10 (Twin row) 0.32 81,984 MATERIALS AND METHODS (CONTD) Grain Yield, 2011 RESULTS SED EFAW=638 3500 3000 Grain Yield, kg ha-1 Grain yield versus seeds/hill in Lake Carl Blackwell and Efaw research station, Oklahoma, 2011-2012. 2500 0.16m EFAW

0.32m EFAW 0.48m EFAW 0.16m LCB 0.32m LCB 0.48m LCB 2000 SEDLCB=248 1500 1000 500 0 Grain Yield, 2012 14000 1 2 Seeds per hill-1 SEDEFAW=1327 Grain Yield, kg ha-1 12000 10000 0.16m EFAW 0.32m EFAW 0.48m EFAW 0.16m LCB 0.32m LCB 0.48m LCB

8000 6000 SEDLCB =1023 4000 2000 0 1 2 Seeds per hill-1 3 3 IPAR, 2011 RESULTS SEDEFAW=8 SEDLCB=7 100.0 90.0 80.0 Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) between treatments in Lake Carl Blackwell and Efaw research station, Oklahoma, 2011-2012. IPAR, % 70.0

60.0 IPAR LCB IPAR EFAW 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 Treatments IPAR, 2012 SEDLCB=5 80.0 SEDEFAW=6 70.0 60.0 IPAR, % 50.0

IPAR LCB IPAR EFAW 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Treatments 7 8 9 10 6 7 8

9 10 2011 3500 RESULTS Grain Yield, kg ha-1 3000 Intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) between treatments in Lake Carl Blackwell and Efaw research station, Oklahoma, 2011-2012. 2500 f(x) = 36.53 x + 4384.67 R = 0.28 2000 1500 1000 500 0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 IPAR, % 2012

14000 Grain Yield, kg ha-1 12000 f(x) = 222.44 x 2090.8 R = 0.76 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 IPAR, % 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 80.0 90.0 100.0

POSSIBLE FACTORS????? Arghh!!!!! WEATHER Total monthly rainfalls (mm), surface air temperature (C) in Lake Carl Blackwell and Efaw research station, Oklahoma, 2011-2012. 14 35 12 30 10 25 8 20 6 15 4 10 2 5 0

30 25 20 15 10 5 May June July August 0 Month LCB (Rainfall) Stillwater (Temp) Stillwater (Rainfall) LCB (Temp) Temperature, C Rainfall, mm LCB (Rainfall) Stillwater (Temp) 35 April May

June July August 0 Month Year 2012 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 April Stillwater (Rainfall) LCB (Temp) Temperature, C Rainfall, mm Year 2011 CONCLUSION Trend for decreasing yields with increasing number of

seeds per hill (same population) range (200 to 1000 kg/ha) except Efaw research station, 2012. Trend for decreasing IPAR with increasing number of seeds per hill (same population) range ( 6 to 17%) except Efaw research station, 2012 IPAR was correlated with final grain yield. Excessive heat lowered yield levels and decreased the ability to decipher treatment differences CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH http://nue.okstate.edu/Hand_Planter.htm ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Advisor at OSU: Dr. Bill Raun Advisor at VT: Dr. Wade Thomason Soil fertility Graduate students at Oklahoma State University( Jeremiah Mullock, Emily Rutto, Guilherme Torres, Jacob Bushong, Sulochana Dhital, Natasha Macnack, Candibyani Fnu, Alex Cumbie, Michael Reinert, etc. ) Thank you so much for your attention~!!!

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