Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Electric Charge and Static Electricity

10.1 Static Charges Review All matter is made up of ________ Atoms contain __________(+) __________(0) __________(-)

1. 2. 3. What Is Electricity? A form of ________ that results from the

_____________ of charged Law of Electric Charges The law of electric charges states that like charges ___________, and opposite charges ______________.

Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged, so they are _____________to each other. Law of Electric Charges Charged Objects Neutral atoms do not have a charge because the number of electrons and protons cancel each other out.

Ex. 3 protons (+) & 3 electrons (-) = 0 Charged Objects How do objects get charged? They either gain or lose electrons. Why not protons? Ex. 3 protons (+) & 5 electrons (-) = 7 protons (+) & 2 electrons (-) =

Static Charge (Static Electricity) Static charge is an electric charge that tends to stay on the ____________ of an object, rather than ______________ away quickly. Charging by Friction Charging by friction is a process in which objects made from different

materials ______ against each other, producing a ______ _______ charge on each. Causes of Electric Charges Most objects are electrically neutral because they contain equal numbers of ___________ and __________. When two ___________ objects made from

different materials rub against each other, ______________ from the atoms in one material can ____________ to atoms in the other material. It is only electrons that transfer, because they have a ________________ mass and are far from the _________________. But WHY do electrons flow from one material to another? Different materials hold on to their ___________ with different strengths!

Electrostatic Series An electrostatic series is a list of materials that have been arranged according to

their ability to hold on to electrons. Lets apply this (1) Neutral Rabbit Fur Neutral Amber What happened? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________ Lets apply this (2) Rubber Balloon Paper What happened? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Lets apply this (3)

Cat Fur Silk What happened? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Note

When an object is said to have a positive charge, it means that the object has a NET positive charge: more protons than electrons. This does NOT mean it does not contain ANY electrons. An object with a net negative charge has more ___________ than _______________. Anti-static Sheets

Clothes are made of different materials, such as cotton, wool, and nylon. What happens whey they tumble dry together? _________________________________________________ _________________________ An anti-static sheet contains a waxy compound. Hot air from the dryer vaporizes the waxy

compound, which then coats the clothes. This causes the clothes to behave as if they were made from the same material, so no static charges build up. Conductors and Insulators An electrical insulator is a material in which charges cannot move easily.

All the materials listed in the electrostatic series is a non-metal and an insulator. Insulators do not conduct charges very well because their electrons cannot flow freely.

The insulating material in a lamp cord stops charges from leaving the wire and protects you from electric shock. Plastic, rubber, glass, wood, and air are good insulators. Conductors and Insulators

An electrical conductor is a material in which charges can move easily. Most metals are good conductors because some of their electrons are free to move. Conductors are used to make wires. For example, a lamp cord has metal wire and metal prongs.

There are some non-metals, such as silicon, in which electrons can move fairly well. These are called semiconductors.

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