# Electricity! Electricity Its electrifying! Chapter 5 What is Electricity? Definition: it is the phenomena caused by positive and negative charges. There are two types of electricity: Static electricity deals with the imbalance of electrical charges at rest within or on the surface of materials. Dynamic electricity deals with the motion of negative charges carried by electrons through an

electrical circuit. Before we discuss Static and Dynamic Atom Review! The atom is composed of three fundamental particles Protons which carry a positive charge Electrons which carry a negative charge Neutrons which carry no charge In electricity, we care about protons and electrons due to their charges.

Its the electrons that can leave the atom. (this is important!) Charges, charges, charges A positively charged body is something that has fewer electrons than protons, so it has an overall positive net charge A negatively charged body is something that has more electrons than protons, so it has an overall negative net charge A proton and electron has a elementary charge of 1.602 x 10-19 C

A proton would be + 1.602 x 10-19 C An electron would be - 1.602 x 10-19 C Static Electricity Deals with the electrical phenomena with nonmoving charges, where electrically charged object have an imbalance of charges. This imbalance can be an imbalance of positive charges or an imbalance of negative charges The key thing with static electricity, is that charged objects dont stay permanently charged! Objects can lose the charge very quickly, or gradually.

Static Electricity - Losing Charge There are two ways charged objects lose there charge. Naturally (i.e. nothing prompted it to loose it, just wore off) Electrostatic discharge a negatively charged object touches/comes in close contact with a positively charged object When you shock someone, this is what is happening! Electrons from the negatively charged object pass through the air to the positively charged object, causing both objects

to have a net neutral charge. When the objects lose their charge, they are neutral Static Electricity Charging an Object There are three ways to charge an object Friction rubbing two neutral objects together. When doing so, electrons from one transfer to the other. One object becomes negatively charged, and the other is positively charged. Conduction putting a neutral object in direct contact with a charged object. The two objects then share the charge between them.

Induction putting a charged object near a neutral object without physically touching it. Friction Rubbing of two neutral bodies together. The atoms in one of the objects will pull electrons away from the other. As a result, you will have one body that will become negatively charged (one that take electrons) and another which will become positively charged. Which object will become positively and negatively charged depends on the materials that

the object is made of. Friction tendency chart Tendency Substance High affinity to capture Plastic Sulphur electrons, (take on negative charge). Gold Nickel, copper

Hard rubber Wood, yellow amber, resin Cotton Strong tendency to Paper give electrons, (take on Silk positive charge). Lead Wool Glass Friction

Plastic rod rubbed with wool: Plastic pulls some electrons from wool, so plastic becomes negative and wool become positive. Glass rod rubbed with wool: Wool pulls some electrons from glass, so wool becomes negative and glass becomes positive. Plastic rod rubbed with silk: Plastic pulls some electrons from silk, so plastic becomes negative and silk becomes positive. Glass rod rubbed with silk:

Silk pulls some electrons from glass, so silk becomes negative and glass becomes positive. Key: The charge of each material depends on what has a higher tendency to give up electrons. Friction Conduction Physical touch of one charged body with a neutral body. The charges from the charged body flow to the neutral body, thus sharing the charges between

them. As a result, there are two objects with the same charge. Conduction Induction Charging a neutral body without physically touching it! When you bring a charged object towards a neutral object, the opposite charges of your charged object will begin to accumulate (remember, opposites attract ).

Example: Bringing a negatively charged comb towards neutral pieces of tissue paper. Positive charges will build up on the side of the tissue paper closest to the comb, and negative charges will build up on the other side. Induction Metho d Friction Conducti

on Before Two neutral objects After Friction pulls electrons away from one of the objects and transfers them to the other.

Two objects with opposite charges. One charged object and one neutral object. The charge of one object is shared between two objects when they come into contact.

Two objects with a like charge. One charged object and one neutral + object. The proximity of the charged object causes the charges in the

neutral object to separate. One charged object and one object carrying a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other -+ side. --

Induction During + + - + -

+ - -+ Attraction and Repulsion between charged bodies Just like in magnetism, statically charged bodies have attractive and repulsive forces between each other. Like charges repel each other. Opposite charges attract each other.

Attraction between two statically charged bodies + - Repulsion between two statically charged bodies +

+ - - Dynamic Electricity Definition: electricity caused by the flow of electric charges So, dynamic electricity is the electricity you get in wires. (Powering everything you can think of: cell phones, computers, etc.)

Conductors vs. Insulators Conductors: Substances that allow electricity to flow through them easily. These substances contain free electrons (electrons that are weakly attracted to nucleus) that move from atom to atom generating electricity. In other words, electricity is easily transferred in a conductor. Insulators: Substances that do not allow electricity to flow through them easily. Insulators impede the flow of electricity. When an insulator is charged, the charge does not

run freely throughout it. Conductors and Insulators Substan Conduct Insulator ce or Air Rubber Copper Aluminum Porcelain Glass Wood

Iron Current Intensity Definition: The rate of the flow of electrons

through a medium. In other words, the number of electrons in a circuit going by a particular point every second. Intensity is symbolized with the letter I and measured in amperes, (amps). How fast the electrons are moving, (speed). Unit: Amperes (A) A circuit with a current intensity of 9A has electrons moving faster than a circuit with a current intensity of 4A. An ammeter is an instrument for measuring current intensity. It acts like a checkpoint in a circuit, counting the number of charges that pass in a second.

4 Factors Affecting Conductance (current intensity) 1. Thickness of a conductor, (diameter of wire). The thicker the wire, the higher the conductance. 2. Length of the conductor. The longer the wire, the lower the conductance.

3. Type/what material wire is made from. Best in order of conductance: Silver, Copper, Aluminum, Bronze and Steel 4. Temperature. The higher the temperature, the lower the conductance. Fat, short, silver and cold! Best combo for conductance

Potential Difference Definition: The amount of energy transferred between two points in an electrical circuit. Its the work needed to move a charge (electron) from point A to point B in a circuit Its the energy the electrons have, or how quickly they move. The greater the potential difference, between two points, the larger the amount of energy transferred. Unit: Voltage (V)

Attach the voltmeter on either side of an element in an electrical circuit. Resistance Definition: The ability of a material to hinder or slow the flow of electric current. How much something is slowing down the speed of electrons A force that slows down the flow of current Occurs when electrical energy is being transferred into another type of energy, (heat, sound, thermal, etc)

Think of a hurdle race; the hurdles slow down the speed of the runners so that they arent running at their top speed Unit: Ohms () R= V/I (resistance = volts/intensity) Is the exact opposite of conductance! Examples of resistors: toasters, ceiling fan, lights When a resistor is in a circuit, there is a drop in the amount of energy being transferred that energy is needed to power the lightbulb, the

toaster filament, etc. You can improve a resistor by: Changing material, lengthening, reducing diameter, increasing heat. So, the opposite characteristics of conductance. Ohms Law A Very Important Rule V = I x R R = V/ I I = V/ R Where

V= potential difference (in V) I= current intensity (in A) R= resistance (in )) Ohms Law triangle Recall on how to read a the triangles You cover the letter that you are trying to solve. The position of where the remaining letters is the equation If you are solving for potential difference, you cover

the V. I and R are both on the same level, so you multiply them If you are solving for resistance, you cover the R. V is on top of I, so you divide V by I Convert mA to A (Divide by 1000) 50mA/1000 = 0.05A Current (I) 1A 2A

3A 4A Potential Difference (V) 2V 4V 6V

8V Resistance Graph 9 Potential Difference 8 f(x) = 2 x + 0 7 6

5 4 3 2 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

2.5 Current Intensity 3 3.5 4 4.5

Circuit Diagrams An electric circuit is a path for the flow of electricity. Made up of: Power supply: provides the electric current (I) Connecting wires

Elements: provides resistance Fuses/breakers: provides protection Switches: provides control (to turn on/off system) Instruments using and/or measuring electricity Circuit Diagram symbols Power Supply Fuse Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit Series vs Parallel Series Components are connected end to end. Currents flows in only one path. One defective component stops the charges from flowing. More resistance = less current = less power = less energy Series vs Parallel Parallel

Contains at least one branch and contains nodes. Place where current splits to different paths and merges back. Defective components only affect current flow on the pathway it is on, not the entire circuit Resistance is shared by all paths Less resistance = more current = more power = more energy How to measure Potential

Difference and Current Intensity Potential difference and current intensity machines are attached to your circuit. An ammeter measures current intensity, (in AMPS) An voltmeter measures potential difference, (in VOLTS) Unit: A (ampere) Unit: V (volts) How to connect these

things! An ammeter needs to be connected in series. Meaning it is on the main line. How to connect these things! An voltmeter needs to be connected in parallel. Meaning it is on its own circuit. Power Definition: The amount of work an electrical device can perform per unit time.

The more powerful the device, the faster it works! Unit : Watts (W)* P=VxI formula for calculating power. P= Power (W) V=Potential Difference (V) I= Current Intensity (I) Power Triangle Energy Simply, energy is power multiplied by the period

of time. i.e. the energy that your iPod consumes is the power multiplied by how long its on E=Pt There are three possible units for energy: Joules (J) Kilowatt hours (kWh) Watt hours (Wh) Energy If your energy is in joules (J), your power must be in watts (W) and your time in seconds (s).

If your energy is in kilowatt hours (kWh), your power must be in kilowatts (KW) and your time in hours (h). If your energy is in watt hours (Wh), your power must be in watts (W) and your time in hours (h). NOTE!!!! 1 KW is 1000 W. 1 hour is 3600 seconds. Multiply by 3600 (60*60) Multiply by 60

Hours Minute s Divide by 60 Divide by 3600 (60*60) Multiply by 60 Secon ds

Divide by 60 Multiply by 1000 Kilowat ts Divide by 1000 Watts Multiply by 1000

Kilojoul es Divide by 1000 Joules Multiply by 1000 (to convert KW to W) then multiply by 3600 (to convert h to s) Kilowatt hours

Joules Divide by 1000 (to convert W to KW) then divide by 3600 (to convert s to h) X 1000 Kilo X 1000

Unit / 1000 Milli / 1000