# Electron Configurations

Electron Configurations Electron Arrangement in an Atom The arrangement of electrons in an atom is its electron configuration. It is impossible to know where an electron is or how fast it is traveling at any given time (Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle? Walter White?).

Models of the atom, such as the Bohr model are very inaccurate (oops!) according to modern atomic theory. Atoms and electrons are more complicated than planets orbiting the Sun. Energy Levels There are shells or energy levels around an

atom. The farther away an energy level is from the nucleus, the more energy the sublevel has. Electron Orbitals Orbitals are clouds of probability within an energy level, so an actual orbital is a region of space, where an electron might be found. Two orbital clouds are pictured below. There

are more dots near the center of the picture, because an electron is most likely to be near the nucleus (center) of the atom (the electron which is negative is attracted to the positive protons). Types of Orbitals Within the energy shells are different shaped orbitals (represented by the letters s, p, d, and f) that can contain different total numbers of

electrons. A number can be placed in front of the orbital letter to represent the energy level that an orbital belongs to. For example: 1s is an s shaped orbital on the 1st energy level, which is closest to the nucleus Orbitals, contd Different shaped orbitals can hold different numbers of electrons: s orbital can hold up to 2 electrons (1 pair)

p orbital can hold up to 6 electrons (3 pairs) d orbitals can hold up to 10 electrons (5 pairs) f orbitals can hold up to 14 electrons (7 pairs) If a vehicle were an orbital.. Match the orbital to the vehicle that most represents it! So how do the orbitals REALLY look?

Putting the s and p orbitals together.. So what number represents the highest energy level as well as the outermost level in this atom of Neon? Another way to look at it. The boxes represent the different orbitals. As the number of the level increases, the energy increases. Each individual box can hold 2 electrons at a time.

How are electrons in their orbitals like an apartment house? Different floors in the apartment represent different energy levels or shells. Each room on each floor of the apartment house corresponds to an orbital, or one box from the previous diagram. How are electrons in their orbitals like an

apartment house? Different floors in the apartment represent different energy levels or shells. Each room on each floor of the apartment house corresponds to an orbital, or one box from the previous diagram. Each room on each floor can hold up to 2 people (the electrons), and each room is filled with one person first before the rooms become double occupancy. Only a man and a woman can live together in a room

in the apartment house. (this represents the spin of the electrons one has an up-spin, the other has a down-spin) Who figured this out and how does it relate to the apartment analogy?!? Apartment House Rules Electron Rules

From the Bottom Up: Rooms must be filled from the ground floor up. Fill the one room on the first floor before starting to put new tenants on the second floor. Then fill the s room before the p rooms. At higher floors the order might change a bit. Aufbau Principle: the electrons fill the Singles First: the owner of the building wants

to have the tenants spread out as much as possible. For that reason singles are placed in rooms before couples. If couples must be placed into a room then all of the other rooms on that floor must already have a single in them. Hunds Rule: The electrons must be placed Opposite Gender Only: When two people

are placed in a room they must be of opposite genders. No men may room together and no women may room together. This is an arbitrary rule on the part of the owners: in a just world we wouldnt have to follow it. But quantum mechanics has nothing to do with justice. Pauli Exclusion Principle: Electrons available orbitals from lowest energy to

highest energy. In the ground state all the electrons are in the lowest possible energy level. into the orbitals in such a way that no pairs are put together unless absolutely necessary. That is, single electrons must be placed into boxes first and then paired up if necessary. come in two varieties based on the direction

they are spinning. There is an Up spin and a Down spin. Up and Down spins are always paired together and Up-Up or Down-Down combinations are not allowed. No two electrons can ever be in the same place at the same time. The Periodic Table A Cheat Sheet for Knowing the Order of Filling Electron Orbitals 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 Practice! Fill in the electron orbitals corresponding to He, then write out the complete electron

configuration. More Practice Fill in the electron orbitals for Si, then write out the complete electron configuration. 1s22s22p63s23p2 Electron Configs with Elements in the d Block

Notice that when you get to the 3d orbital, it is higher in energy than the 4s orbital. The rule is that electrons fill lower energy orbitals first, so electrons will actually fill the 4s orbital after 3p, then electrons will begin to fill the 3d orbital. Practice with the d Block Write the electron configuration for Titanium

(Ti). 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2 Noble Gas Notation This is much shorter and more convenient than writing out the entire electron configuration. Use the symbol for the noble gas that is just before the element you are configuring. (The noble gas and the element will have the same configuration, or inner electron structure, up to that point)

Then complete the configuration that comes after the noble gas for the element in question. Example: The complete configuration for Na is 1s22s22p63s1. Neon is the noble gas that comes before Na on the periodic table. So the noble gas notation for Na would be: [Ne]3s1 Practice! Write the noble gas notation for the following elements:

Chlorine [Ne]3s23p5 Beryllium [He]2s2 More Practice Which element has the following

configuration: [Xe]6s2? Barium Electron Configurations and Valence Electrons The outermost shell of electrons in an atom is the valence shell and it contains the valence electrons. The outermost shell contains the electrons that

can interact most with the rest of the world. A full valence shell contains 8 electrons (2 from an s orbital and 6 from a p orbital), unless youre hydrogen or helium (only want 2 to fill their outermost s shell to become stable). Ro m a n N u m e ra l s A b o ve Ea c h C o l u m n ( G ro u p A ) How many valence electrons in.

Oxygen - 1s2 2s2 2p4 Sulfur - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 The outermost shell contains the valence electrons, so find the highest number in the electron configuration and count the number of electrons in it. Valence Electrons and Lewis Dot Structures Remember valence electrons determine the

chemical properties of an element because they are the outermost electrons that interact with the outside world. We can use Lewis dot structures to help represent these important valence electrons for each element. Practice! Step 1: Use the periodic table to determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a certain

element. Step 2: Write the element symbol and place the dots (valence electrons) on each of the four sides of the symbol; singles first and then pair them if necessary. Check Your Work Ions and Electron Configuration Remember that CATIONS are positively charged atoms and ANIONS are negatively charged atoms.

These form because of the need for an atom to achieve stability that the noble gases have. Understanding electron arrangement in an atom, especially the electrons in the outermost shell (valence), can help you determine why the elements form the ions that they do.

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