Electrostatics (Static Electricity) - The Hole in the Wall - Home
Electrostatics (Static Electricity) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Atom review
Charged Objects Laws of electric charges Electrostatic Series Sparks and Lightning Electricity What is it made of? Where does it come from?
Electric Fun! You walk across the rug, reach for the doorknob and..........ZAP!!! You get a shock. Or, you come inside from the cold, pull off your hat and......BOING!!! All your hair stands on end. What is going on here? What is it that is moving around? And why does it happen more in the winter?
REVIEW: PARTS OF AN ATOM In the middle of each atom is a nucleus. The nucleus contains two kinds of tiny particles, called protons and neutrons. Orbiting around the nucleus are even smaller particles called electrons. ELECTRICAL CHARGES
Particle Proton Neutron Electron CHARGE +1
MASS HUGE n (neutral) HUGE -1 tiny Neutral Objects
Atoms: When the number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons, the atom itself has no overall charge, it is neutral. Charged Objects Static electricity is the imbalance of positive and negative charges.
Atoms that lose electrons have more +ve charges (protons) than ve charges (electrons). It is positively charged. An atom that gains electrons has more ve than +ve particles. It has a negative charge. Stealing or Giving Away Electrons Friction: One very common way is to rub two objects
together. Electrons may be transferred (or moved) from one to the other. The more rubbing, the more electrons move Friction and Charge Build-up View the simulation below and observe what occurs when friction increases
Law of Electric Charges Demonstration or Activity Electric Field Hockey Simulation Click Picture Observe what happens when different charges are brought close together 1. The puck is positive, what charge do we place behind it to
move it forward? 2. What charge can be placed in front to move it forward? Try to score on all three difficulty levels Law of Electric Charges Law 1: Opposites attract: Two things with opposite, or different charges (a positive and a negative) will
attract, or pull towards each other. Law 2: Things with the same charge (two positives or two negatives) will repel, or push away from each other. Law 3 Positive attracts Neutral objects, AND Negative attracts Neutral objects WEIRD!.... But Why?
Law of Charges Review from last day Negatively charged electrons orbit the nucleus When the number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons, the atom itself has no overall charge, it is neutral. Static electricity is the imbalance of positive and
negative charges. Friction causes electrons to move from one substance to another Opposite charges (a positive and a negative) will attract. Things with the same charge (two positives or two negatives) will repel, or push away from each other. Positive attracts Neutral objects and Negative attracts Neutral objects
A Neutral Wall Attracts a Balloon If you charge a balloon by rubbing it on your hair, it picks up extra electrons and has a negative charge. Holding it near a neutral wall will make the negative charges in the wall move away. Why?
Balloon Example Like charges repel!! The result is that there are more positive charges closer to the negative balloon and therefore, attraction.
Balloon Example Click the image below BAD HAIR in the WINTER So what does all this have to do with shocks? Or hair full of static? When you take off your wool hat, it rubs against your hair. Electrons move from your hair to the
hat. Now each of the hairs have the same positive charge. BAD HAIR in the WINTER Things with the same charge repel each other. So the hairs try to get as far from each other as possible. Static Electricity
Which substance will take and which will give their electrons? Electrostatic Series: An electrostatic series is arranged in terms of the relative hold that different materials have on their electrons. If you go down the list the items have a tendency
to gain electrons and up the list the tendency to lose electrons. Electrostatic Series If you rub human hair and wool together, which will lose and which will
gain electrons? Lucite and Silk? Rubber and Cotton? Glass and Foam? Sparks If there are enough positive (+) charges on one object and enough negative () charges on the surface of the other object
the electrons might jump the air gap between causing a spark (Lightning!!) Lightning Videos Lightning Becomes very negative
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