Emergent Literacy in the Kindergarten Classroom By Cori Sweeney EDRD 630 The purpose of this professional development is to take a closer look at Reading Readiness and Emergent Literacy. You will be learning about the benefits of Emergent Literacy for your ESL students and activities to use with all of your Kindergarteners! Reading Readiness
From this perspective, it was believed that the mental processes necessary for reading would unfold automatically at a certain period of time in development. Researchers argued that good practice would provide an environment that did not interfere with the predetermined process of development in the child. Readiness is a function of ripening usually around are 7. Teacher directed Heavy focus on decoding. During the late 1950s and 1960s, the dominant theory shifted from reading readiness as maturation toward readiness as the product of experience. Proponents of this viewpoint argued that if children had the appropriate experiences, their reading readiness could be accelerated. In response to this shift in thinking, educators and parents were encouraged to use more direct instruction and structured curriculum in early childhood and kindergarten programs in order to prepare children for reading. In reading readiness programs children were considered ready to
read when they had met certain social, physical, and cognitive competencies. Teale and Sulzby (1986), Mason and Sinha (1993), Morrow (2009) Emergent Literacy Marie Clay (1966) first introduced the term emergent literacy to describe the behaviors used by young children with books and when reading and writing, even though the children could not actually read and write in the conventional sense. Literacy emerges before children are formally taught to read. Literacy occurs in a social setting. Child centered. Reading and writing develop at the same time and interrelatedly in young children, rather than sequentially. Children have been found to learn about written language as they actively engage with adults
in reading and writing situations; as they explore print on their own; and as they observe others around them engaged in literacy activities. Child is an active participant. Literacy is defined to encompass the whole act of reading, not merely decoding. Clay (1966), Teale and Sulzby (1986), Mason and Sinha (1993) Time for discussion! Think about the literacy practices and activities you are currently using with your students in your classroom Pair up with a partner
Share your thoughts and ideas with your partner! Now We will learn about important practices and strategies to help support the implementation of emergent literacy in the classroom. Activities and Strategies that Promote Emergent Literacy in the Kindergarten Classroom Where do I start? First, and foremost, Kindergarten teachers need to estimate where each child is developmentally and build on that base. Instruction will need to be adapted to account for childrens differences. For children with lots of print experiences, instruction will extend their knowledge as
they learn more about the formal features of letters and their sound correspondence. For other children with fewer prior experiences, initiating them to the alphabetic principle, that a limited set of letters comprises the alphabet and that they letters stand for the sounds that make up spoken words, will require more focused and direct instruction. In all cases, however, children need to interact with a rich variety of print. NAEYC (1998) Phonemic Awareness Kindergarten students should be taught word rhyming, syllable segmentation, beginning sound substitution, sound isolation, and phonemic segmentation. Provide many opportunities for
children to explore and identify sound-symbol relationships in meaningful contexts. Concepts of Print Kindergarten students should be taught what a book is, why we have books, the directional movement of print ( left-to-right, top-to-bottom), the orientation of letters, sequences of letters in words, and sequence of words in a sentence, front cover including the title and author, printed words are different from pictures, words have meaning, and we hold a book and turn the pages in a certain way. This can be done through small group instruction (ex: reading groups). Read Alouds - Frequently read interesting and conceptually rich stories to children. Shared Reading Shared Writing Morning Message
Poetry Chants, and Songs Literacy Games Create a literacy-rich environment for children to engage independently in reading and writing. NAEYC (1998) Environmental Print Have everything in your classroom labeled to help students become familiar with everyday objects. You can have a center in your classroom with many different objects such as newspapers, books, journals, labels, menus, flyers, coupons, and greeting cards for kids to explore. Try to have them in different languages for your ESL students.
Morrow (2009) Vocabulary Development Listening to stories. Variety of genres including information texts as well as narratives. Explanation of vocabulary words prior to listening to a story is related significantly to childrens learning new words. This is especially important for ELLs. Asking predictive and analytic questions before and after readings produces positive effects on vocabulary and comprehension. Children should listen to stories through read alouds by the teacher, on the computer, and listening stations. NAEYC (1998)
Comprehension Reading comprehension is the level of understanding of a text. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the text. Comprehension can be focused on during Read Alouds Morning Meeting and Morning Message Guided Reading Writing Activities students should participate in writing activities as much as possible. A great way would be to have a writing station in you classroom for the students to visit throughout the day with a variety of materials provided. Students share their thoughts about the text, including questions and connections they may have had during the reading. The teachers job is to ask open-ended questions to enhance comprehension and generate dialogue. The teacher listens to student retell the story.
It is highly recommended that reading, writing, listening and speaking be integrated as much as possible throughout the curriculum for ELLs. Avalos, Plasencia, Chavez, Rascon (2007) Books and Materials in Different Languages Have books and other materials available in your classroom for students who speak different languages. This will show the students that you value their language as well as your own. It will also make them feel more comfortable in their environment. Morrow (2009) Guided Reading for ELLs 1.Set the scene or introduce the text: The introduction sets a successful reading experience by
mediating access to the text. 2. Shared Reading: An excellent way to engage learning with texts, particularly learners from diverse backgrounds. The teacher can model fluency, discuss the story and vocabulary as the text is read aloud. 3. Reading the Text: After the teacher has set the scene, introduced the text, and conducted shared reading the students read the book to themselves. This is an opportunity for the teacher to listen to individual students and take anecdotal notes and running records. 4. Returning to the Text: When the students have completed their independent reading of the text, the teacher engages the students in a conversation similar to the introduction. 5. Responding to the Text: Many books lend themselves to the extension of learning activities through art, writing, or drama in response to the reading, this expanding the meaning of the text. 6. Word Work: ELLs learn more when new concepts are context embedded. Guided reading lessons provide optimal opportunities for students to apply and learn word-solving skills
throughout the lesson. Avalos, Plasencia, Chavez, Rascon (2007) ESL Students Assess Needs. Foster a sense of belonging. Assign a buddy. Teach key words. Read and reread books. Provide opportunities for success. Keep track of language progress. Value bilingualism. Encourage the familys involvement. Foster an appreciation of cultural diversity.
What are the Theories Behind our Practices? Why are we doing these things in our classrooms? Behaviorist: Conditioned Learning 1960s Linguistics: Natural Learning 1970s Psycholinguistics: Natural Learning 1960 s 1970s Information Processing: Cognitive Psychologists 1970s Sociolinguistics: Sociocultural Learning 1980s mid 1990s Engaged Learning: Present Alexander and Fox (2004) Time for discussion!
Think about what you have learned in this professional development today. What would you like to start using in your classroom? Pair up with a partner Share your thoughts and ideas with your partner. Plan some new activities together that you can use in your classroom! References Alexander, & Fox. (2004). Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading: A Historical Perspective on Reading Research and Practice. (pp. 33-68). Newark, DE: International Reading.
Avalos, Plasencia, Chavez, & Rascon. (2007) Modified Guided Reading: Gateway to English as a Second Language and Literacy Learning. (pp. 318-329). International Reading Association. Clay, Marie. (1966). Emergent reading behavior. University of Auckland, New Zealand. International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (1998). Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children. Mason & Sinha. (1993). Emerging Literacy in the Early Childhood Years: Applying a Vygotskian Model of Learning and Development. (pp. 137-150). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Morrow, Lesley Mandel. (2009). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Teale, William, & Sulzby, Elizabeth. (1986). Emergent literacy: Writing and reading. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
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