Enzymes - Weebly

Enzymes - Weebly

Enzymes 18.11- Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity. Enzymes Objective: Analyze the role of enzymes in organisms and Interpret a graph of the effect of an enzyme on the activation energy in a chemical reaction. EQ: Why are the actions of an enzymes important to

us? Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction changes the original substances (chemicals) into new, different substances includes: j Reactants: the compounds that you begin with; substances that are changed by the reaction On the LEFT side of a reaction equation Products: the compounds that you end with (what the reaction

produces) On the RIGHT side of a reaction equation Remember sugar. What do they all end with? Fructose Sucrose Galactose Lactose -OSE

What if I told you that there was a protein.. pause for dramatic effect . that helped break down the sugars in your body dramatic effect #2 .. and they all end in ase!!!

Activation Energy the energy required for a reaction to begin Catalysts A catalyst makes it easier for reactions to begin by: decreasing activation energy increasing the rate of reaction Predict: how would the graph of this reaction change if a catalyst

was added? Adding a Catalyst What are Enzymes? Enzymes: Proteins that increase reaction rate and decrease activation energy Enzymes are catalysts in living things Needed for almost all processes of life to occur Digestion, building proteins, the immune system

Allow chemical reactions to occur faster Enzymes are not altered during reactions so-can be reused Stop and Think: Since enzymes are proteins, what determines their function? How Enzymes work The structure of an enzyme allows only certain compounds to interact (bind) with it

substrates (reactants) Substrates= The compound that bind to the enzymes (reactants) Active site = where the Substrates binds to the enzyme, where the reaction Active site occurs Product = what is created by the reaction

enzyme How Enzymes work: Lock-and-Key Model Lockand-key: Substrates fit the activation site on the enzyme the way a key fits into a lock Substrates bind to an enzyme at certain places called active sites.

The enzyme brings substrates together and weakens their bonds. The catalyzed reaction forms a product that is released from the enzyme. In other words Youre

PERFECT!! Enzymes are like you and your one true love: no one else fits quite like the two of you ;) How do enzymes work? Enzymes often only work within a narrow range of conditions weaken the bonds of the substrate and create new products

enzyme Since enzymes are Proteins, they depend on the correct shape. If conditions change, it will denature the enzymes Denature= unfold or change the shape of the enzyme enzyme

Since enzymes are protein, if you change the shape what will also change? The function! What factors affect the rate at which an enzyme works?

1.Temperature 2.pH 3. Concentration Temperature and Enzymes Rate of reactions is affected by temperature At low temperatures enzyme controlled reactions go slowly because the molecules have low kinetic energy.

Temperature and Enzymes Rate of reaction increases as temperature increases because molecules have more energy Optimal Temperature is the temperature at which the reaction is the fastest Temperature and Enzymes Temperatures higher than the optimal temperature will denature the enzyme The enzyme changes shape and the active site no longer matches the shape of the substrate molecule Temperature and Enzymes

Draw graph in notes Optimum temperature Rate Of Reaction Enzyme is denaturing

Enzymes gain energy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature/oC Girl, your so hot you denature my

proteins pH and Enzymes Draw graph in notes Enzymes prefer to work at an optimum Outside of its pH range the enzyme is denatured. Optimum pH

pepsin amylase Rate Of Reaction 1 2

3 4 5 6 7 pH

8 9 10 11 12

pH. Enzyme concentration The concentration of enzymes increases the rate of reaction increases. Enzymes become saturated when the substrate concentration

is high Draw graph in notes Check for Understanding As food travels through the digestive system, it is exposed to a variety of pH levels. The stomach has a pH of 2 due to the presence of hydrochloride acid (HCl), and the small intestine has a pH ranging from 7 to 9. HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin, an enzyme that digests proteins in the stomach. Which of the following most likely happens to pepsin as it enters the small intestine? A. It begins to replicate

B. It becomes inactive. C. It's shape changes to engulf large proteins. D. It's activity increases to digest more proteins. Check for understanding In living cells, enzymes act as catalysts, which may reduce the amount of activation energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. In the graphs below, pathway x is a solid line representing the uncatalyzed reaction.

The dotted line shows the catalyzed reaction. Which graph best illustrates the changes in a reaction when the catalyst reduces the amount of energy required? Enzyme Graphing Using your data form the lab, graph the effects of Temp, pH, and concentration C reading, level 0; graphing, level 2 H- Ask 3 before me, raise silent hand to get me A- Complete enzyme graphing activity

M- remain in assigned table seat P- work with your group mates, not everyone in the room, and glue to left side of notebook SUCCESS! EXIT TICKET! Clear your desk!

Recently Viewed Presentations



    FORMATION. Formationis a helping verb + past participle. Helping verb could be in the form of avoir or être. All reflexive verbs take être.
  • 1.1 Silicon Crystal Structure - University of California ...

    1.1 Silicon Crystal Structure - University of California ...

    This is smaller than the rectangular depletion region underneath the gate, by the factor This is the factor by which the depletion charge Qdep is reduced from the ideal One can deduce from simple geometric analysis that VT Roll-Off: First-Order...
  • Module 8 Alexandre Neill - CRIFPE

    Module 8 Alexandre Neill - CRIFPE

    Neill se sépare de l'Ere nouvelle. Conflit entre une vision spiritualiste théosophiste (idéaliste, naturaliste) de l'enfance (ex. ni fumer, ni boire, ni danse, ni cinéma mais qui veut changer le monde industriel; sorte de retour à la terre, folklorisme.) et...
  • Trees Law for Non-Lawyers

    Trees Law for Non-Lawyers

    Only remedy afforded to the injured homeowner was self-help in the form of cutting back the offending roots or branches. ... Lulu is driving along and the bumps cause her to lose control of her car and to crash, of...
  • Use of Vasopressors and Ionotropes - School of Medicine

    Use of Vasopressors and Ionotropes - School of Medicine

    Use of Vasopressors and Ionotropes. UCI Internal Medicine. Mini Lecture Series. June 2014. ... Levophed is first line for cardiogenic shock and since he may need another agent and dobutamine is the best agent because it is indicated in cardiogenic...
  • スライド 1 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

    スライド 1 - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

    Here is a diagram of our activities. As you can see by the key at the upper right, our activities have evolved over time. The Outlook and data collection were some of the earliest activity; security work and the LNG...
  • Issuers - Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar

    Issuers - Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar

    The rate of interest on a floater will move directly with changes in the benchmark. Thus if LIBOR rises, the rate will increase, whereas if LIBOR falls, the rate will decrease. Inverse Floaters In the case of an inverse floater...


    SRT and MRT Gas Valves. Issue Description: Gas valves failing "stuck open" or "stuck closed" Root Cause: appears to be moisture infiltration causing "shorting" of the circuit board located under the cap of the gas valve. Preliminary findings show that...