EOC Quick Study Guide - Biology, Earth Science, Environmental ...

EOC Quick Study Guide - Biology, Earth Science, Environmental ...

EOC Quick Study Guide STERNGRR Homeostasis maintaining STABLE internal balance Ex. Body temperature, blood sugar, blood pH CHEMISTRY Organic contains C, H and O 4 Types Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Use QUICK energy Building Blocks Simple sugars-GLUCOSEC6H12O6 Indicator Test

Simple Sugars Benedicts solution turns from aqua blue to green yellow orange red if sugar is present Starches Iodine turns from orange/brown to BLACK if starch is present Cellulose how PLANTS store starch Humans & other animals store starch as GLYCOGEN Structure recognize it by its RING structure carb O hydrate Cellulose

(phosphoLIPID bilayer) Lipids Use STORED energy, insulation, cell membranes Building Blocks glycerol backbone & three fatty acids Indicator Test Brown paper bag leaves a greasy stain if lipids are present Structure recognize it as long letter E at too much youll get fat! Carries oxygen to cells Controls blood

sugar Protein Use Body structures, enzymes, hemoglobin, insulin Building blocks amino acids Indicator Test Biurets turns from sapphire blue to lilac if protein is present Structure recognize it by the letter N proteiN Nucleic Acids Use Store & Transmit hereditary information Building blocks Nucleotides (made up of a sugar, a

phosphate & a nitrogen base) Structure remember it as 3 separate shapes DNA/RNA has 3 letters pH scale 06.9 7 7.1 14 The closer you get to the sides, the

STRONGER the acid or base is What an enzyme works on Enzymes ~are PROTEINS ~are SPECIFIC (only work on 1 substrate) ~are REUSABLE (if not DENATURED) ~speed up chemical reactions by LOWERING the ACTIVATION ENERGY ~usually end in ASE Enzymes can be DENATURED by temp or pH. Denatured ACTIVE SITE shape is changed & enzyme will no longer work SUBSTRATE

ENZYME Maltose Maltase Sucrose Sucrase Lactose Lactase Substrat

e Active Site Enzyme Product s Dont be fooled into thinking that the enzyme is always the one on the bottomeven though most pictures show it that way. The enzyme is the one that DOESNT change from beginning to end Which one is the enzyme? Y

A CELLS Prokaryotic no NUCLEUS or membrane-bound ORGANELLES ~they do have ribosomes because ribosomes are NOT membrane bound Ex. Bacteria Eukaryotic have a NUCLEUS and ORGANELLES ~PLANT and ANIMAL cells are the two types Ex. Plants, animals, fungi & protists (everything thats not bacteria) Plant cell Animal cell

vacuole ribosome chloroplas Cell t membrane Cell wall mitochondri a ribosome nucleu s

Cell membrane mitochondri a nucleu s centriole s How to know if a cell is plant or animal? If it has chloroplasts, a cell wall or a large vacuole its a PLANT cell Organelle

Nucleus Ribosomes Mitochondr ia Chloroplast Cell Membrane Function contains the DNA, control center makes protein makes ATP photosynthesis controls what

enters & leaves cell protection & Found in plant, animal or BOTH cells? BOTH BOTH BOTH PLANT only BOTH TRANSPORT Cell Membrane controls what enters & leaves the cell

~selectively permeable can CHOOSE what enters/leaves NO control over water! 2 Phospholipid bilayer layers of phospholipids Passive Transport movement of material from HIGH to LOW concentration NO ENERGY required ~Diffusion moves PARTICLES from HIGH to LOW no energy ~Osmosis moves WATER from HIGH to LOW no energy Active Transport moves materials from LOW to HIGH concentration requires energy (ATP)

Diffusio n How do we Flow? LOW From LOW to HIGH From HIGH to You must TRY! Use energy!! (particles) Osmosi

s Active Transpo rt PASSIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT HIGH HIGH Like rolling down a hill No energy

Like rolling up a hill Needs energy LOW LOW ~If you add SALTthe cell will SHRINK and SHRIVEL ~If you add WATERthe cell will swell and possibly burst!! PHOTOSYNTHESIS & CELLULAR RESPIRATION General Reactions REACTANTS what goes comes in to a reaction

PRODUCTS what out of a reaction Photosynthesis CO2 H2O sunligh t C6H12 O6 glucose O2

Cell Respiration C6H12 O6 glucose ATP energy CO2 H2O O2 Why are mitochondria & chloroplasts shaped with folded inner membranes (mitochondria) and/or stacks of membranes (chloroplasts)?

Increased SURFACE AREA for reactions to occur They are the REVERSE of each other! The PRODUCTS of one are the REACTANTS of the other! AEROBIC & ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration requires OXYGEN air 36 ATP per glucose Anaerobic Respiration NO oxygen

2 ATP per glucose Alcoholic Fermentation ~Done by bacteria/yeast ~Produces alcohol & CO2 ~Makes yogurt, bread, etc. 2 types Lactic Acid Fermentation ~Done by humans/animals ~Produces lactic acid & CO2 Feel the

PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXPERIMENT PICTURE CLUES 1. Light 2. Plant 3. Bubbles What is the plant doing? PHOTOSYNTHESI S What are the bubbles made of? OXYGEN

Besides oxygen, what else is the plant making? GLUCOSE ANAEROIC RESPIRATION EXPERIMENT PICTURE What is the balloon filling up with? CO2 This is what causes bread to rise yeast

Sugar water or juice Yeast is eating sugar & doing ANAEROBIC respiration MITOSIS Interphase DNA replicates & cell grows LONGEST phase ~G1 Growth 1 cell grows in size ~S Synthesis DNA is doubled (duplicated, replicated, etc.) ~G2 Growth 2 cell makes extra organelles for new cell Prophase P stands for PREPARE Metaphase M stands for MIDDLE

Anaphase A stands for AWAY/APART Telophase T stands for TWO Cytokinesis C stands for CELL MEMBRANE MITOSIS How to remember the order? ca ke e t a l o

c se o h C Pick som you eth sta love t ing rts hat w

lett ith er C the ple an d d ge alle y our gia nce to i t

ee C s r a Ch I Pledge My Allegiance To

Chocolate Co ok i e s Plant Cell vs Animal Cell Cytokinesis Cell plate forms between the two new cells Cell membrane pinches off in between the two new cells

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