EOC Released Test 2012 - 2013 Detailed Explanations

EOC Released Test 2012 - 2013 Detailed Explanations

EOC Released Test 2012 2013 Detailed Explanations Sample Question 1 Answer: C Observing, which means using the senses to make note of what is happening in an experiment or with an organism. Controlling variables - means to ensure that things dont affect the experiment other than the variable being tested. Experimenting is manipulating things to see what effect they have in an experiment

Hypothesizing is making a predication about what is going to happen in the experiment. Sample Question 2 Answer:B Genetics is the study of the transmission of traits from generation to generation. Anatomy is the study of the human body. Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Forensics is the investigation of evidence in criminal investigation for a court of law.

Question 1 Answer: A Mitochondria break down glucose and form ATP (energy for the cell ) through Cellular respiration Osmosis is the movement of water through a membrane from high to low concentration. Ribosomes make proteins. Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis.

Question 2 Answer: A Differentiation, means that cells can turn on certain genes and turn off others so that they can make cells and structures that are very different from each other in the same organism. Natural Selection means that nature chooses which characteristics are the best and organisms with those traits survive and reproduce. Selective breeding (also known as artificial selection) means that a person chooses traits they want in an organisms and they breed organisms together with those characteristics. Genetic Engineering is the manipulation of the DNA of an

organism. Question 3 Answer: C Homeostasis, is an attempt to maintain consistent internal conditions like body temperatures (by sweating, shivering, etc,) Excretion is the removal of waste from the body (urine and feces) Metabolism is the chemical processes by which cells produce the substances and energy needed to sustain life. Synthesis to make, usually refers to making

protein in protein synthesis. Question 4 Answer: B the DNA replicates prior to the nucleus dividing, because if it did not the two cells would not have enough DNA for each cell causing problems. Cytokinesis is pulling apart the cytoplasm and dividing into two distinct cells. This happens at the end of the cell cycle. Sister chromatids separate from each other in anaphase (near the missle of cell division).

Homologous chromosomes cross over in meiosis (formation of gametes/sperm/egg) not in mitosis. Question 5 Answer: C - the function of autotrophs in the carbon cycle is to use carbon dioxide to produce glucose In photosynthesis plants make their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make glucose and they produce oxygen as waste as well as glucose. Glucose is the main product which can be consumed by living things like herbivores (which

eat plants) and omnivores (which eat plants as well as animals) to make ATP in the process of cellular respiration. Question 6 Answer: A Competition, which means that two organisms are both trying to use the same resources at the same time Mutualism is a type of symbiosis (living together) where two organisms live together and both gain something from their cooperative existence Parasitism is a type of symbiosis where a parasite lives on

another organism the host. The host may be harmed or killed (-) and the parasite benefits (+) with food and shelter. Predator-prey relationship is when a predator hunts, kills, and eats a prey organism. Question 7 Answer: A - if the human population continues to grow at current rates there will be fewer natural resources available for future generations. Nitrogen levels in the atmosphere are mainly affected by denitrifying bacteria releasing it to the atmosphere during the

nitrogen cycle (the movement of nitrogen from soil into nitrogen fixing bacteria, then into plants, then decomposer bacteria, and finally denitrifying bacteria into the atmosphere). More people on the planet would increase water pollution because of increased use and human waste production. Hurricanes are natural disasters that occur due to uncontrollable weather conditions on the planet. An increase in human populations may indirectly affect hurricanes through global warming. Question 8 Answer: A the stranding of a sea turtle should be

reported immediately to local authorities because the information can be very useful to biologists and managers who are trying to protect the species. This information about a single turtle cannot necessarily help protect sea turtles from predators. This information about a single turtle cannot necessarily help local fishermen who try to catch fish that sea turtles eat. Tourists should not take a wild animal home as a pet! Question 9

Answer: B - A strand of DNA has these bases AGC CAT GTA TAC is complentary to TCG GTA CAT ATG To make a new strand of DNA (DNA replication) the rules for pairing bases are : A = T and C = G. The rules change if you are making RNA in the process of protein synthesis. A = U in this case and C still pairs with G. Question 10 Answer: D - Cells contain DNA, which

controls the production of proteins. The DNA code is used as a plan to make proteins in the process of protein synthesis. Proteins are made up of amino acids. DNA is composed of nucleotides (which are composed of 3 parts - a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base). Question 11 Answer: C Meiosis is important for sexual reproduction because it allows gametes to

have half the original number of chromosomes of the organism. In sexual reproduction you combine two gametes (sperm and egg) and when you combine the two ( the # of chromosomes from sperm and ( the # of chromosomes from mom) they have the full amount of chromosomes needed to make a baby (zygote). Question 12 Answer: B - sexual reproduction produces the most variation within a

species because there is a combination of traits/chromosomes from mboth parents. Asexual reproduction (also known as mitosis) is making clones that are identical to the parent cell. Question 13 Answer: C - Forensic Scientists use DNA fingerprinting to determine the identity of a criminal from DNA left at a crime scene or to determine the relatedness of two individuals.

Gene cloning means making an exact copy of a gene, and a researcher might use this method. Gene therapy means trying to treat or cure a disease by changing the genes in a patient. Karyotyping would be used by a geneticist or researcher studying how a genetic disorder might pass from generation to generation. Question 14 Answer: D - one reason scientists produce transgenic organisms is to treat certain types of diseases. A transgenic

organism is an organism whose DNA has been genetically altered or added to. They are used in research to understand how diseases work, how they can be treated, and to determine the safety of new drugs. Question 15 TEST QUESTION NOT AVAILABLE Question 16 Answer: B - The greatest effect of natural

selection through the use of pesticides on certain insect populations is that the rate of selection is increased because the pesticides do not kill the insects that are naturally resistant to it. Nature is quickly selecting for individuals based on pesticide resistance not favorable traits like leg length, speed, coloration etc. The question does not address predators, young insects, or mutations of DNA . Question 17 Answer: C - the difference between the full

classification and the scientific names is that the full classification of organisms will include more categories of organisms than their scientific names. Full classification includes Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species names. Scientific classification includes only the Genus and species name and it is the same everywhere. Question 18 Answer:D of the 4 types of organic

molecules (also known as biomolecules or macromolecules) that make up living things enzymes are classified as proteins. Sugars and starches are classified as carbohydrates. Cell Membrane coverings, fats, and waxes are classified as lipids. DNA and RNA are classified as Nucleic Acids Question 19 Answer: A - the subunits (smaller parts that make up)DNA are nucleotides, and their function is to store

genetic information. Monosaccharides are the subumits of carbohydrates and they provide energy. Fatty Acids and glycerol are the subunits of lipids and they store energy, insulate, and provide waterproof coverings. Amino acids are the smaller subunits that make up protein and they are the building materials of cell structures and they speed up chemical reactions (for example, in enzymaes). Question 20

Answer: B if you compare the amount of energy resulting from fermentation with aerobic respiration, Aerobic respiration results in more energy. In no oxygen environments (anaerobic situations such as in alcohol or lactic acid fermentation,) you can only produce 2 ATP. If oxygen is present (aerobic) you can produce 36 38 ATP!!! Everything works better with oxygen!!!! Question 21

Answer: D - In the plant cell shown, the structure that is found in a plant cell but not in an animal cell is #4 the chloroplast. #1 is the mitochondria (makes ATP in all plants and animals). #2 is the central vacuole (stores water in the plant, smaller ones are found in animals to store materials) #3 is the nucleus (holds the DNA in plants and animals) Question 22

Answer: B - Muscle cells are different from blood cells because different genes are activated (turned on) in muscle cells than in blood cells. After the egg is fertilized (its called a zygote) the cell begins to divide and differentiate (turn into) a hollow ball of cells (called a blastocyst). Then, it further differentiates into an embryo as it turns certain genes on to make certain structures (eyes, hands, heart, etc.). When it has all parts found in an adult is called a fetus. Question 23

Answer: C The cells of a freshwater plant placed in saltwater will most likely shrink because water will move out of them. The cells of the freshwater plant have very little salt in them (so there are lots of water molecules), and the ocean has a lot of salt (and less water molecules in an equal area). The salts cannot move through the cell membrane but water canso the water moves in an attempt to reach equal salt concentrations inside and outside the cell. The cells would eventually dry up and die because they could never reach equilibrium the ocean is too salty! Osmosis is a special type of diffusion (high to low) that involves the movement of water molecules from a highly concentrated

area (in the cells) to a lower concentration (in the ocean). Question 24 Answer: D Interphase, is a phase of the cell cycle where the cell is growing and preparing for cellular division. The order of the cell cycle is: IPMAT-C Interphase (growth and DNA replication) Prophase (chromosomes become visible and nucleus breaks down) Metaphase (chromosomes line up in the middle) Anaphase (sister chromatids are pulled apart) Telophase (new nucleus forms around the chromosomes)

Cytokinesis (the cytoplasm splits apart forming two nes cells) Question 25 Answer: D - Males of a bird species do a dance and sing a song each spring. to attract female birds. Courtship behavior. Is any behavior that attracts the opposite sex to allow reproduction. Imprint is associating something as mama Territoriality is scaring off competitors to

maintain your territory. Question 26 Answer: B When the yucca moth gathers pollen from a yucca plant then deposits her eggs and the pollen on another plant, cross-pollinated it (and ensuring food for the moth larvae) it best illustrates mutualism. Types of Symbiosis (living closely together/or in) Mutualism - When 2 things both get something positive from a relationship (++) Commensalism - When 1 thing gets something positive from a relationship and we are unsure if the other organism gets anything (+ ?) (+ 0)

Parasitism - When 1 thing gets something positive from a relationship and the other organism is harmed (+ -) Other Community Relationships Predation 1 organism hunting and killing another Competition 2 organisms competing for resources like food, shelter, etc. Question 27 Answer: A Global Climate Change (Global Warming) is the environmental concern most associated with burning fossil fuels. Burning fossil fuels increases the amount of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to an unnatural

increase in temperatures. The ozone layer is the protective filter in the atmosphere that protects us from UV rays and provides protection from skin cancer. The destruction of the ozone layer is caused by CFCs (chlorofleurocarbons chemicals in spray cans). Ocean waters are often polluted by inputs of chemicals, fertilizers, etc. into streams and rivers that lead to the ocean. Pollutants can enter the water from runoff (rain water that has washed over land, parking lots, farms, etc.). Question 28 Answer: B - A coal-burning power plant

would have the greatest impact on the production of acid rain. Power plants release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides when they burn fossil fuels (like coal or gas), to produce electricity. Vehicles also release these chemicals into the air. The chemicals change in the atmosphere forming acid rain. Question 29 Answer: C - UAU CGU GUA CAU is the mRNA sequence transcribed from as

egment of DNA with the sequence: ATA GCA CAT GTA. The rules for making RNA are: A = U and C =G If you were making more DNA (DNA replication) you would use the rules A = T, and C = G . Question 30 Answer: C - Glutamine and Valine are the amino acids coded for by the mRNA segment CAG GUG If the code is already in mRNA format you can directly

use the chart. Find the first letter of the codon (3 letter sequence) in the column labelled first base Then, find the second base on the top row and find the area where the two letters intersect on the chart. Finally, look to the far right and find the 3rd base and find the place in the square you are located that matches the 3rd letter and read the amino acid listed. If the code is in DNA format you must first convert it to RNA code and then use the chart. Question 31 TEST QUESTION NOT AVAILABLE

Question 32 Answer: B, The most likely result if a short-winged female is crossed with a long-winged male will be that all female (offspring) will be long-winged, and all males will be short-winged. (Given that short wings is an x-linked, recessive trait) If it is a x-linked trait you will cross the sex chromosomes XX (female) with XY (male) in the cross. A female must have two recessive x-linked traits in order for the trait to show up. A male must only have one x-linked recessive trait to show up because they only have one x-chromosome. If it is recessive then in order for the trait to show up it cannot be in the

presence of another more dominant trait. Question 33 Answer: D Couple X is the couple most likely the parents of the baby based on the DNA fingerprints. Look at the banding pattern of the lines in the first column labeled Baby and compare the banding pattern to each set of couple, you are looking for the most bands in common. Only count a band if it is the same thickness and only count it as one match even if both parents

have the band (W = 3, X = 6, Y = 2, Z = 1). Question 34 Answer: C, when a human gene is inserted into a bacterial plasmid it is a step in the process of producing transgenic bacteria. Transgenic means that a gene is taken from one organism (a human) and placed in another (bacteria), usually to create something made for treating disease (like human insulin to treat diabetes. Replacing a faulty gene is genetic engineering. Bacterial genes are not placed in humans, humans

need human materials so we put our information in bacteria to produce things humans need. Question 35 Answer: B - a gamete with an extra chromosome would most likely produce a mutation that is passed on to offspring. Gametes are used to make babies and must combine with the opposite sex to create a baby extra information in these cells will affect the information of all cells created from this gamete. Altering fully formed adult cells in skin, lungs,

and nerves will not affect offspring only the tissues and cells of the adult. Question 36 Answer:D A population of cockroaches was sprayed with an insecticide. A few survived and produced cockroaches resistant to this spray. From this, you can infer that individuals with favorable variations survive and reproduce. The question doesnt mention mutations, adapting, or the environment

so you can rule out those answers. Question 37 Answer: D V and VI are the two species that are the most closely related. The two are both on the same branch (they came from a common ancestor) and they are closer together than the other groups of numbers. Question 38 Answer: C, fat is the molecule used by

whales for energy storage and insulation. DNA is used to store hereditary information. Glucose is the chemical energy source used to make ATP (energy usable for cells). Starch is a the unit plants use to store excess sugar. Question 39 Answer: A - enzymes most directly controls the rate at which food is broken down to release energy.

Hormones are chemical messengers that that coordinate processes in the body like growth, metabolism, and fertility. Nucleic Acids Store and transmit genetic information (as in DNA and RNA) Vitamins boost the immune system, support normal growth and development, and help cells and organs do their jobs. Question 40 Answer: A - active transport is occurring if energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell.

Active transport = requires energy because you are moving materials from a low concentration (low place like the bottom of a mountain) to a high concentration (high place like the top of a mountain). Diffusion, Osmosis, and Passive transport are all moving things from high to low (which does not require energy). Osmosis only involves water molecules from high to low concentrations. Question 41 Answer: B - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are

similar in that they both contain ribosomes. They also both have a cell membrane, genetic material, and they both have cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells(which include all cells other than bacteria) have a nucleus that holds their genetic material and other membrane bound organelles (like mitochondria, rough ER, etc.) The only Prokaryotic cells are BACTERIA!!! They are small and simple and dont have organelles. They still have genetic material and ribosomes! Question 42

Answer: D, DNA codes for proteins in a cell by arranging certain nitrogen bases of the cell in a particular order. To create a protein DNA is copied onto mRNA by arranging nitrogenous bases according to the rules of base pairing. (When making RNA the bases pair up with A = U and C = G). This process is called transcription. Then, the mRNA goes out of the nucleus to hook up with a ribosome in the cytoplasm. This is where the mRNA code is translated into a protein as tRNA matches its code to the mRNA and it drops off amino acids to make a protein (a chain of amino acids.

Question 43 Answer:. A, when a single cell reproduces by mitosis it produces two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell. Mitosis is asexual reproduction, where one cell divides into two. The cells created are clones of the parent cell (they are exactly the same). Asexual reproduction could also be known as mitosis, binary fission, budding, cloning, regeneration, etc.

Question 44 Answer: C, the function of structure X and Y is movement. In single celled organisms a flagella (a whiplike structure like on a sperm); cilia (hairlike structures), and pseudopods (extensions of the cell membrane and cytoplasm as in amoeba) are used to move organisms to food, toward/away from light, etc. Question 45 Answer: C, when moths travel toward light at night it is an example of innate behavior. Innate behaviors are those that are

inborn and hard-wired into an organism. The behaviors do not have to be learned an animal knows how to do them from birth. Examples of innate behavior include a baby suckling or crying, blinking, migration, spider web building, etc. Question 46 Answer: D, to determine the interactions of various populations living in a field the best method to conduct a study would be to observe the behaviors of different types of

organisms several times during the year. The purpose of the study was to study the interactions so you must make observations, not just collect them, counting them, or talking to others about them. Question 47 Answer: D, acid rain, would cause the greatest decrease in the number of species of plants and animals living in lakes. Acid rain would go into a lake increasing the acidity of the water. Living things can only tolerate a narrow range of pH if it is too acidic (pH aprroaching 0 ) or too basic (pH approaching 14) organisms will

die. An increase in dissolved oxygen would not decrease the living things, it would actually be good, because organisms need it for respiration. Ozone destruction would not affect a lake, it occurs in the atmosphere and is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs - found in aerosol/spray bottles) Global warming probably wouldnt affect a lake as much initially. It is the unnatural heating of the earth due to the burning of fossil fuels by cars and factories. Question 48 Answer: B, If worldwide deforestation is not

regulated CO2 levels in the atmosphere could increase and contribute to global warming. Deforestation is the cutting, clearing, and removal of rainforest or related ecosystems into less diverse ecosystems .Removing the vegetation will increase the amount of CO2 because plants wont be there to take it in during photosynthesis. Question 49 TEST QUESTION NOT AVAILABLE

Question 50 Answer: B, Overexposure to X-rays would change the sequence of DNA nucleotides in most affected animal cells. X-rays damage cells and cause mutations. Mutations are essentially changes in the DNA code. They could be deletions (removing a base), substitutions (replacing one base with another), or additions (adding an extra base) of nitrogen bases (A,C,T,Gs). Question 51

Answer: B, Sexual and asexual reproduction differ in that asexual reproduction produces offspring identical to the parents, but sexual reproduction produces offspring with traits from both parents.. Asexual reproduction involves copying only the parent cells genetic info so new cells are clones. Sexual reproduction involves the gametes (sex cells) of a male and a female parent. Each contribute their genetic info to their offspring Question 52

Answer: D, offspring produced by sexual reproduction have an independent assortment of parent chromosomes, but offspring produced by asexual reproduction do not. Sexual reproductions always creates a mixture of the two parents traits. Asexual reproduction (also known as mitosis or cell replacement) always produces identical cells to the single parent cell. Meiosis (the process used to create gametes or sex cells) always creates 4 gametes or sex cells with the # of parent chromosomes.

Question 53 Answer: B, comparing DNA is the best technique to determine if two people are related. DNA is compared through gel/DNA electrophoresis. It compares the banding patterns of the samples of DNA the more bands in common = the more likely they are related. The test looks at areas of the DNA that vary from person to person unless they are related. Results are usuall 95 99% certain. Blood typing would not be the best method because there are many people in the world that could have the same blood type as you , but very few that have similar DNA . A karyotype is a picture of all the chromosomes all lined up. Many

peoples karyotype looks the same its just a picture of the chromosomes not and actual analysis. There there are many people in the world that could have the same genetic disorders, but very few that have similar DNA. Question 54 Answer:. B, mutation will most likely cause variations to occur within a species. The two main mechanisms (or causes) of variation (differences) in organisms comes from mutations and genetic shuffling

(referred to as crossing over which means they swap genes around in meiosis, during prophase I). Question 55 Answer: A, genetic drift ordinarily occurs in small populations. Genetic shuffling is the random change in the frequency (how often it occurs) of a gene in a population. Question 56

Answer: C, the best explanation for the continual changes in the classification system of organisms is that technological advances have allowed scientists to better compare organisms. We change the classification based on new discoveries about organisms showing that they are not related, when earlier we thought they were. Question 57 Answer: C, from the choices, the groups of

organisms with the most genetic differences are mollusks and arthropods. Mollusks and arthropods are further apart than the other choices provided and are therefore less similar and less related. The organisms closer to the bottom of the image (near the ancestor)are also more prehistoric (older) and those closest to the top are more recently evolved. Question 58 Answer: A, the factor that most affects

the order of amino acids in a protein is the DNA located in the nucleus of the cell. The nucleus provides the original DNA used in the transcription of mRNA, and the translation of the mRNA into a chain of amino acids (also called a protein). Question 59 Answer: A, the statement that less ATP is generated during anaerobic respiration than during aerobic respiration is the statement that best compares

aerobic and anaerobic respiration. In the absence of oxygen whis is called anaerobic respiration (also known as glycolysis, lactic acid fermentation, or fermentation) only 2 ATP (energy units in the cell) are created. If oxygen is present, Aerobic Cellular Respiration, allows for 34 additional ATP to be formed. With both process their yield is 34 + 2 = 36 ATP Question 60 Answer: B, The best evidence that a cell is using active transport to move a

substance across its cell membrane is that ATP is being rapidly consumed near the cellular membrane. Active transport is the movement of materials from a low concentration to a higher concentration. Its liking walking up a steep hill its hard work and requires energy. ATP is the energy source used to fuel things that happen in the cell. When it is used it recycles back to ADP a less energized molecule.

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