Epidemiology of Diversity in Epidemiology

Epidemiology of Diversity in Epidemiology

The Epidemiology of Diversity in Epidemiology History of the Minority Affairs Committee and possible future directions Victor J. Schoenbach, Ph.D. Department of Epidemiology and Minority Health Project UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health Presented at the American College of Epidemiology Minority Affairs Committee workshop, September 11, 2010

Real quotes from real bosses What I need is a list of specific unknown problems we will encounter. E-mail is not to be used to pass on information or data. It should be used only for company business. Teamwork is a lot of people doing what I say. We know that communication is a problem, but the company is not going discuss it with the employees. Real quotes from real bosses sent to WorkingWounded.com

(Bob Rosner) Outline History of the Minority Affairs Committee Diversity in the epidemiology profession Challenges in definition and measurement A few thoughts

Secretarys Task Force on Black & Minority Health, 1985 Useful landmark Heckler Report Minorities experience 60,000 excess deaths Eight main recommendations calling for outreach, cultural awareness, coordination, health care access, data,

research Report of the Secretarys Task Force "Despite the unprecedented explosion in scientific knowledge and the phenomenal capacity of medicine to diagnose, treat, and cure disease, Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and those of Asian/Pacific Islander heritage have not benefited fully or equitably from the fruits of science or

from those systems responsible for translating and using health sciences technology. (Introduction and Overview) ACE 10th Annual Scientific Meeting, 1991 in Atlanta, GA Morbidity/Mortality Gap Is it Race or Racism? A consciousness-raising experience

Morbidity/Mortality Gap: Is it Race or Racism? Program Committee: Gladys Reynolds (chair) Bill Jenkins (co-chair) James Ferguson Terry Fontham Eugene Gangarosa Clark Heath Sherman James

Manuel Torres-Anjel. Presidents remarks "By initiating this forum, the American College of Epidemiology hopes to move the agenda forward and to reaffirm our commitment to the improvement of health for all people." Raymond S. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D. (Annals of Epidemiology 1993;3:125)

ACE President forms ad hoc Committee on Minority Affairs As President of the American College of Epidemiology, I have hoped that this organization could take a more active role in minority affairs. Raymond S.

Greenberg, MD, PhD Charge of the Committee 1. Assess current status of minorities in the profession of epidemiology; 2. Recommend specific actions to increase minority representation; 3. Assess the role of the College in promoting increased representation; 4. Recommend actions to increase research on minority health;

5. Recommend strategies for increasing minority epidemiologists in ACE. Early members (as of 8/1993) Lucile AdamsCampbell James A. Ferguson Sherman A. James Bill Jenkins Shiriki Kumanyika Vickie M. Mays

John T. Nwangwu Gladys H. Reynolds Victor J. Schoenbach Grethe S. Tell Glenn Solomon (joined Oct 1995) Liaison members

C. Perry Brown (APHA) Lucina Suarez (SER #1) Camara P. Jones (SER #2) Shiriki Kumanyika (AHA EPID Council) John T. Nwangwu (ATPM) Gladys Reynolds (ASA Epid Section)

1992 survey of race and ethnicity in US epidemiology 56/66 epidemiology degree programs in US schools of public health, medicine, veterinary medicine 1 pg questionnaire Full-time faculty, students as of 4/92

Results - faculty 711 total faculty 14 Black (non-Hispanic) (2%) 14 Hispanic (incl. 6 at one instit.) (2%) 0 American Indians / Native Americans

Results - students 2,142 students 102 Black (non-Hispanic) (5%) 91 Hispanic (incl. 41 at one instit.) (4%)

4 American Indians / Native Americans Recommendations 1. Epidemiologys mission should include advancement of minority health / minority epidemiologists. 2. Study minority health problems and solutions; study racism. 3. Conduct vigorous outreach to make epidemiology careers and financial aid opportunities more visible to minorities.

Recommendations 4. Provide ample, stable funding for minority training and supportive educational environments, plus networks of minority epidemiologists. 5. Federal programs (e.g., MARC, MBRS, HCOP) should expand their coverage of epidemiology research and training; more programs should be created like the CDC's Project IMOTEP.

Recommendations 6. Professional development opportunities should include diversity training related to the review of applications for admission, applications for grants, submitted manuscripts, etc. 7. A body analogous to the AAMC Division of Minority Health, Education, and Prevention should be provided a mandate and resources to monitor progress in increasing the role of underrepresented minorities in epidemiology.

Recognize/support/reward epidemiologists who make exceptional contributions. Annals of Epidemiology editorial by Ray Greenberg These proposals would make our profession more accessible to a wider range of people, and as a result, would

build a broader and stronger foundation for the future of epidemiology. Recommendations* to the ACE Board of Directors, March 1994 1. The Board of Directors should publish a statement of principles recognizing (a) the importance of minority health and (b) the need for diversity. The

statement should commit the Board to reporting annually on progress. * The recommendations were presented to the Board at their March 6, 1994 meeting and modified to the ones presented here. The text has been abbreviated for the slides. See the speaker notes for the full text. Recommendations to the ACE Board of Directors, March 1994 2. Organizers, speakers, and participants in the Annual Meeting

should reflect greater diversity; the program should regularly cover minority health. Recommendations to the ACE Board of Directors, March 1994 3. The application fee should be discontinued for all applicants as it appears to be a disincentive for applying, particularly for persons who are ambivalent about joining or

uncertain about their prospects for acceptance. Recommendations to the ACE Board of Directors, March 1994 4. The dearth of minorities at all levels of the College should be rectified. The College should work actively to sensitize the membership to the issues of racism, sexism, homophobia, xenophobia, and classism.

Recommendations to the ACE Board of Directors, March 1994 5. The Committee on Minority Affairs should become a standing committee of the College, to contribute to the realization of the statement of principles and the Committees original charge. Recommendations to the ACE

Board of Directors, March 1994 6. The Committee on Minority Affairs should establish and maintain liaisons with SER, the epidemiology sections of APHA and ASA, the AHA Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, other committees of the College, and other agencies. Draft Statement of Principles, proposed to Board, Sept 1994

Board accepts the recommendations. President G. Marie Swanson invites the Committee on Minority Affairs to draft the Statement of Principles. Draft Statement of Principles, proposed to Board, Sept 1994 . . . Competitive meritocracy presupposes adequate access to the means to compete, reinforces past advantages, and tends to preserve

historic inequity. Draft Statement of Principles, Declarations The American College of Epidemiology declares that: 1. The health of all, especially the disadvantaged, is of critical importance for public health. 2. The epidemiology profession must achieve true diversity at all levels in

order to contribute effectively. Draft Statement of Principles, Declarations 3. Universities have a special responsibility to recruit students from disadvantaged backgrounds, to diversity their faculties, to teach their students about minority health. 4. Funders should support students from disadvantaged backgrounds and also

programs for undergraduate and precollege levels. Draft Statement of Principles, Declarations 5. Organizations should sensitize their constituencies on issues of racism, fairness, diversity; all actions should be evaluated in respect to diversity. 6. The College is committed to diversity in its membership, all committees,

and the Board. The President will report annually. The Annual Meeting will incorporate greater diversity. Approval history September 1994 approved in principle January 1995 endorsed, pending editorial comment March 1995 final version adopted with publication in the Colleges

pages in the Annals of Epidemiology. Declarations Final version - five declarations, followed by background and rationale, and actions to be taken by the College: Declarations: 1.The health of all racial and ethnic groups, is of critical importance. 2.The profession of epidemiology needs racial, ethnic and cultural diversity.

Declarations 3. [Educational organizations] . . . have a special responsibility to seek out and support, diversity, inform. 4. Sponsors of public health should ensure that funding is available. 5. Organizations should work actively to sensitize their constituencies to the issues of racism, sexism, religious favoritism, homophobia,

Actions by the College The President of the College will report annually to the Board of Directors and to the membership on progress in diversifying the College and will recommend measures to accelerate progress where it is inadequate. More actions by the College 1. Annual Scientific Meeting will reflect

diversity and regularly include topics concerning health of minorities. 2. Dearth of minorities at all levels of the College will be rectified. 3. College has created Committee on Minority Affairs to contribute to the realization of the Statement and to establish and maintain liaisons. Signed by 7 ACE presidents

Endorsements www.acepidemiology.org/policystmts/SoPrinEndorse.asp

American College of Preventive Medicine American Heart Association - Council on Epidemiology and Prevention American Public Health Association American Statistical Association - Section on Statistics in Epidemiology Association of Schools of Public Health - Epidemiology Council Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine Black Caucus of Health Workers North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harvard University Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, UNC at Chapel Hill Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford University School of Medicine Epidemiology Discipline, School of Public Health, University of Texas at Houston

Content analysis of recruitment materials Christiaan Morssink Shiriki Kumanyika Grethe Tell Victor Schoenbach Published in same issue of the Annals as the Statement of Principles (November 1995)

Content analysis of recruitment materials The question posed in this analysis was whether the mainstream recruitment materials distributed by institutions where epidemiology degrees are offered include text or illustrations to either stimulate or reinforce an interest among prospective minority applicants in studying epidemiology. In general, these materials did not address minority-related issues, especially not on the epidemiology department level.

Committee on Minority Affairs Plans, November 1995 1. Use the Statement of Principles to build commitment. 2. Recruit minority epidemiologists to the College. 3. Develop a statement on community participation in research 4. Recommend and facilitate ways to improve:

Committee on Minority Affairs Plans - continued a. Information, communic., networking b. Outreach to colleges, medicine and veterinary medicine with large minority enrollments c. Financial aid for minority students, fellows, and researchers d. Education for the profession about minority health and diversity e. Research related to minority health and minority

advancement. Survey of recruitment activities, 1993-1994 Diane-Marie M. St. George Victor J. Schoenbach Gladys H. Reynolds John Nwangwu Lucile Adams-Campbell Annals of Epidemiology, 1997 About 2/3 of schools did outreach and

about 1/6 departments Committee chairs Victor Schoenbach, 1991-1997 Bill Jenkins, 1997-1999 Vickie Mays, 1999-2006

Jorge Ibarra, 2006-2010 Annual Minority Affairs Committee workshops [Under Vickie Mays] 2002 Albuqurque 2003 Chicago 2004 Boston 2005 (New Orleans) 2006 Seattle

[Under Jorge Ibarra] 2007 Ft Lauderdale 2008 Tucson 2009 Silver Spring 2010 San Francisco [Under Charles Oke] 2011 (Congress) 2012 Chicago 2013 Louisville

Annals of Epidemiology article by Camargo and Clark 859 active members of ACE as of 12/31/2000 compared to 300 new ACE members during 1/1/2001-12/31/2004: Black: 4 + 11 Hispanic: 2 + 2 American Indian: 0+1 Asian: 6 + 16

2006 Congress of Epidemiology survey of participants Annals of Epidemiology, April 2009 Olivia D. Carter-Pokras Robert Spirtas Lisa Bethune Vickie Mays Vincent L. Freeman Yvette C. Cozier 7.4%, 7%, and 1.3% of attendees were

Black, Latino, or AI/AN ASPH data reports, graduates 2000-2001 vs 2008-2009 American Indian / Alaska Native Biostatistics 1 > 0 Epidemiology 2 > 3 Environmental sciences 4 > 1 Black/African American Biostatistics 12 > 17 Epidemiology 53 > 105

Environmental sciences 35 > 41 Hispanic / Latino Biostatistics 10 > 9 Epidemiology 43 > 78 Environmental sciences 33 > 44 Measurement challenges Underrepresentation how to define and measure? What denominator to use total population? Age-matched

population? High-school graduates? College graduates? What about factors that have constrained the denominators? Contextual influences "In conclusion, Americans are exposed, via television, to nonverbal race bias, and such exposure can influence perceivers' race associations and self-reported racial attitudes. Nonverbal behavior that communicates favoritism of one race over another can be so subtle that

even across a large number of exposures, perceivers are unable to consciously identify the nonverbal pattern. Yet despite (or perhaps because of) this subtlety, exposure to nonverbal race bias may transmit race bias to perceivers." 1714 Max Weisbuch, Kristin Pauker, Nalini Ambady. The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior. Science 18 Dec 2009;326:1711-1714. Research on increasing fairness and generosity

Examples: Fairness and the development of inequality acceptance. Ingvild Almas, Alms et al. Science 28 May 2010;328:1176-1178 Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers. Aljaz Ule et al. Science 18 Dec 2009;326:1703Jonathan Cole interview with Academe Collective action problems We call attention, however, to the

behavioral features of collective action and their implications for solving public health policy problems. Gil Siegal, Naomi Siegal, Richard J. Bonnie. An account of collective actions in public health. AJPH 2009;99:1583-1587. Are we losing our smarts? The results of this study show that long working hours may be one of the risk factors that have a negative effect on

cognitive performance in middle age. 604 Long working hours and cognitive function: The Whitehall II Study. Marianna Virtanen et al. Am J Epidemiol 2009;169:596-605 Some people are getting it Innovative new foundation effort to tackle structural racism and expand opportunities for vulnerable children. The Kellogg Foundations new America Healing program is motivated by

the knowledge that children of color are overrepresented among the 29 million low-income children and families in this country, particularly among families living in concentrated poverty. America Healing: W.K. Kellogg Foundation announces $75 million effort Poverty & Race July/Aug 2010;19(4):14. A broader perspective Exploding stars flash new bulletins from distant universe Science 15 May 1998;280;1008

The dinner that cost Bill Gates, Warren Buffett and other celebrities billions Warren Buffett and Bill Gates. Photo: Getty it all started with a dinner it all started with a dinner a secret one envisaged by Warren Buffett, organised by Bill and Melinda Gates, and

hosted by David Rockefeller at the elegant and discreet President's House at Rockefeller University in New York on May 5 last year. By Tom Leonard www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/ 7929657/The-dinner-that-cost-Bill-Gates-Warren-Buffett-andother-celebrities-billions.html It could happen? This week 40 billionaires worth a combined $230 billion (145 billion) signed a "giving pledge" to donate at least 50 per

cent of their wealth to good causes. It is a remarkable act of noblesse oblige, even in a country whose tradition of philanthropy is the strongest in the industrialised world. www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/7929657/ The-dinner-that-cost-Bill-Gates-Warren-Buffett-and-othercelebrities-billions.html

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