IEP Development & Implementation Road Map to Improved Outcomes for Students with ASD http:// www.gvsu.edu/autismcenter/iep-development-and-implement ation-for-students-with-asd-94.htm IEP Module AGENDA Understanding Special Education History of Special Education Vocabulary Lesson Purpose of the IEP Ed Benefit Review Developing the IEP
The PLAAFP Supplementary Aids / Services / Personnel Supports Goals and Objectives S. E. Programs/Services and Ancillary/Related Services IEP Implementation Implementation Fidelity Measuring Progress OUR DECISIONS HAVE TO ALIGN WITH: THE LAW THE RESEARCH THE DATA Errors in the IEP Process PLAAFP Goals and Objectives not related to ASD Laundry list of SAS Standard Time for Service
Placement decisions predetermined Lack of LRE in the Process g n i t a g Navi the s m y n Acro LRE E P FA MET RE ED
IDEA BIP FBA ASD WARNING I heard that. I was told. PRACTICE IS NOT NECESSARILY LAW, POLICY, or RULE IDEA Regulations Two fundamental requirements: That the child will receive FAPE In the least restrictive environment (LRE). What is FAPE? IDEA 2004 An educational program that is individualized to a specific child, designed to meet that child's unique needs, provides access to the general curriculum, meets the grade-level standards established by the state, and from which the child receives educational
benefit. (extrapolated from case law and 20 U.S.C. 1401(14) and 34 CFR 300.320 through 300.324 re IEP, and 300.17 re FAPE definition as special education and related services per IEP) Ed Benefit = progress over time (IEP goals, curriculum, social, communication, behavior, etc.) To provide FAPE, schools must provide students with an education that prepares the child for further education, employment, and independent living. 20 U.S.C. 1400(c) (5)(A)(i) The Test for LRE To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities. are educated in the general education classroom with children who are not disabled .and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from regular education environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aides and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. 34 C.F.R. 300.114
Continuum of Services MI CIMS Thresholds for Restriction SPP Indicator 5: Educational Environments 2016-17 Targets General Education Classroom 80%+ Target 64% General Education Classroom 40-79% General Education Classroom <40% Target 11.5% << Less Restrictive Separate Facility Target 5.5%
More >> https://osep.grads360.org/services/PDCService.svc/GetPDCDocumentFile?fileId=20476 IDEA, 504, and ADA Case Law 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Adopted amicus position of US Department of Justice and US Department of Education Office for Civil Rights IDEA does not limit rights that students with disabilities may have under other laws, including Section 504 and the ADA Courts are beginning to hear student cases alleging disability discrimination violations under Title II of the ADA The Dynamic Relationship Between Content, Curriculum and Student Learning: Three Primary Findings The amount, type, and quality of interactions between students with extensive support needs and their typical peers were better in general
education contexts. Services in general education contexts could be superior to those in selfcontained settings with respect to: The quality of student Individualized Education Programs, the aspects of instruction and the overall program provided The amount of time that teachers provided instruction The amount of time students were engaged in instruction and social interactions with general education classmates When these student received services in inclusive general education contexts, their learning outcomes could be better across skills areas and activities including: Social competence Language Development and Use Literacy General education content areas The Dynamic Relationship Between Context, Curriculum, and Student Learning: A Case for Inclusive Education as a Research-based Practice. Jackson, Ryndak, & Wehmeyer, (2010). Rationale for Segregated Programming Simply Not Supported
Study: 7 years; 6 self-contained; 5 districts; 3 states Rationale: Community (i.e. more protective environment) Not purposefully created or given much attention Evidence that it, in fact, was the opposite Less Distractions: SC more frequent; more severe Curriculum and Instruction: (structure; individualized) Less structure than gen ed Context-Free / Meaningless Curriculum (i.e. little inquire-based / cooperative learning; often seat work; no connection to gen ed) No Specially Trained Instructor mostly parapros Behavior Supports: Confrontational staff; Few attempts to understand Self-Contained Special Education Deliver on Its Promises? A Critical Inquiry Into or respond to function; Does Contingent removal; Theoharis, Use of time Research and Practice. Causton-Theoharis, Orsati,
Cosier,out (2011) / restraint LRE=General Education There is STRONG Evidence that Student with Extensive Support Needs Acquire skills and content knowledge (including literacy) in general education with rigorous instruction and UDL-based adaptations (e.g. differentiated instruction; universal supports, literacy supports (Kluth)) Are BEST served by educational teams that approach their education with the intent of finding solutions to access and learning barriers rather than alternative placements. Involvement and Progress in the General Education Curriculum for Students With Extensive Support Needs: K-12 Inclusive-Education Research and Implications for the Future. Ryndak, Lewis & White, (2013). Kurth & Mastergeorge, 2010
15 Ss w/ ASD (not AS) 12 males 7-9th grade; 12-15 years old 7 >80% day in gen ed 8 self-contained >50% Measures: Cognitive GE mean 64.9; SC mean 60.0 Adaptive GE mean 44.4; SC mean 42.3 Academic Reading GE mean 67.6; SC mean 13.1 Writing GE mean 83.6; SC mean 14.1 Math GE mean 77.4; SC mean 8.5 Using Meeting Mechanics Visual Support (white / chart board) Facilitator Note-Taker (IEP Form / Computer)
Process (Logical IEP Progression) Brainstorming Principles Democratic All ideas are considered / recognized Professional Role Elimination OTHERS (FRONTLOAD) Decision-Making Rules No opinion unless informed by: Law; Research; Data IEP Progress and White Board Template Parent Input PLAAFP Area of Need Data Impact Supplementary Aids /
Services Goals & Objectives / Benchmarks Special Education Program and Related Services It is important for family member to offer input without judgement or reaction from staff. When gathering parent input, do not question, disagree, or give explanation to anything they list as issues, concerns, or wishes. Simply write them all on a white board as they
are expressed, and then use the list to guide throughout the meeting (whether or not it is a formal IEP) to be sure their input is addressed. To develop a PLAAFP statement, you must identify areas of need related to the students ASD and the impact of the ASD on access to and progress in the general education curriculum and environments. The following skill areas should be considered for students with ASD. Ability to Participate in Instruction (engagement) Socialization Skills / Competence
Communication Independent Skills Transition Issues Ability to Manage Stress / Anxiety Behaviors PLAAFP statements must also include assessment and observational data for each area of need compared to peers. Data can be derived from any/all of the following (not an inclusive list) Standardized measures Rating Scales State/Local Assessments Classroom Output Grades / Progress Notes GLCEs --aids, services and other supports that are provided in regular education
classes to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate. Needs that cannot be met through supplementary aids and services and needs that require specialized instruction must be addressed in goals / objectives and/or benchmarks (or transition plans for transition age students). For every goal, there must be a special education program / service to address it, including, but not limited to: Of the need areas identified in the PLAAFP, which ones can be
addressed through the use of supplementary aids and services? Universal supports for students with ASD should always be considered first: Visual Supports & Strategies Functional Communication System Peer to Peer Support Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Accommodations / Modifications Appropriate Adult Support Goals & Objectives / Benchmarks must be measurable.
Measurable goals & objectives/ benchmarks must be designed to meet the needs of the student that result from the disability to enable the child to be involved and make progress in the general education curriculum. Goals & objectives / should NOT be a restatement of the general education curriculum or a list of everything the student is expected to learn. They should be the prioritized needs from the PLAAFT. Its often helpful to ask, What skills does the student need in order to access / master the content? rather than What content the student needs to learn? Services: SLP, SSW, OT/PT:
Determine amount of time needed to assis the student in making adequate progress on goals / objectives. Consider push-in services FIRST. Placement / Program: The question to ask to ensure LRE is considered in the planning for placement is: With the identified supplementary aids / services and push in itinerant / related services, can the student make adequate progress on the goals and objectives? If yes, no placement outside of the general education is needed. If not, what amount of time would the student need to be pulled from the general education environment to work specifically on the goal(s) to ensure adequate progress? What placement is most
conducive to working on the goals / objectives? Data to Support Impact and Need ENGAGEMENT, INDEPENDENCE, SOCIAL http:// www.gvsu.edu/autismcenter/individual-student-data-col lection-forms-217.htm Elicit Parent Input AVOID Guiding Principles Enhance PLAAFP Statement Framework AREAS of the students DISABILITY that impact access to and participation & progress in: The general education CURRICULUM General education
ENVIRONMENTS (including social skill development, independent skills, etc.)? Ability to Participate in Instruction Socialization Skills / Competence Communication Independent Skills Transition Issues Ability to Manage Stress / Anxiety Behaviors How do these needs IMPACT Data for access to, EACH area involvement & participation in, COMPARED success in general TO PEERS education CURRICULUM and ENVIRONMENTS?
What about ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT? ED did not define academic achievement 2006 IDEA Regulations: Academic achievement generally refers to a childs performance in academic areas (e.g. reading, math, science..). We believe the definition could vary depending on a childs circumstance or situation, and therefore, we do not believe a definition of academic achievement should be included in these regulations. ASD Eligibility Requirements. OPTIONS for DATA
Standardized Measures Rating Scales State / Local Assessments Behavior Plans / Logs Classroom Output Grades / Progress on Current IEP Goals Direct Observation GLCEs MDE Quick Reference Guide: Section 2 PLAAFP Just because there is a NEED does not mean you need a GOAL However, you MUST address each need identified in the PLAAFP in another appropriate section of the IEP. Secondary Transition Considerations Supplementary Aids and Services Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks
What ARE Supplementary Aids / Services? 300.42 Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with 300.114 through 300.116. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(33)) MDE Interpretation of the Purpose of Supplementary Aids and Services Provided to enable the student to: Advance appropriately toward attaining the annual IEP goals. Be involved and progress in the general education curriculum and to participate in extra-curricular and other nonacademic activities. Be educated and participate in activities with other students with disabilities and nondisabled students. MDE OSE-EIS Quick Reference Guide: Section 5
Supplementary Aids / Services Universal Supports (the Non-Negotiables) Visual / Organizational Supports Functional Communication System Accommodations / Differentation Peer to Peer Support Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Appropriate Adult Support (INDEPENDENCE FACILITATORS) Translating PROCESS to PAPER Documenting Intensive Individualized Plans VARIABLES: Nature of the support varies significantly (day to day, content to content, etc.) Support is intensive in nature Support includes a lot of details Targeting Goal AREAS 1. Needs that CANNOT be met through supplementary aids and services (or
secondary transition) AND / OR 2. Needs and/or Supports from Supplementary Aids and Services that require specialized instruction Writing Goals (Objectives / Benchmarks) UTILIZING. Student Will. Under what conditions? At what level / degree (criteria)? The IEP Form: ADD: by what date; on what assessment? Does not have line for: Utilizing Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success UTILIZINGUsing WHAT tool, support, system, etc. will the student learn to perform the skill?
Utilizing a visual schedule Using peers / peer to peer support Using a picture choice board When provided a visual prompt Using a visual functional communication system Utilizing a routine checklist When given a check schedule card Using a choice differentiation Using a self-management checklist Resources for EBPs NPDC (http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/) National Standards Project (
http://www.nationalautismcenter.org/national-standards -project/phase-2/ ) AIM (Autism Internet Modules) by OCALI ( http://www.autisminternetmodules.org) AFIRM (NPDC) http://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/afirm-modules Association for Science in Autism Treatment (http ://www.asatonline.org/treatment/treatments_desc.htm ) Writing Measurable Goals Formula for Success UTILIZINGUsing WHAT tool, support, system, etc. will the student learn to perform the skill? BehaviorGet some VERBS in your sentence What competency / skill should change? OBSERVABLE Conditions / Criteria Under what conditions and how MUCH / WELL will be considered mastery for the time frame of the
IEP (use peers)? CRITERIA / Mastery 9 out of 10 trials / opportunities 6 items / assignments 75% accuracy Increase by 10% 3 times a day On 9 consecutive attempts For 15 minutes at a time Within 5 minutes
4 times weekly 3 out of 5 days 4 class periods GOALS & OBJECTIVES / BENCHMARKS Guided Practice Chris will raise his hand when he needs assistance or wants to share important information. (90% of time) GOALS & OBJECTIVES / BENCHMARKS Guided Practice Utilizing a self-management checklist (STRATEGY) Chris will raise his hand and share a key idea (BEHAVIOR) during science and social studies (CONDITION) 4 of 5 opportunities (CRITERIA). Section 4: Option 1 Goals and Objectives / Benchmarks Instructional Area list the appropriate content area (e.g., strand / domain): Michigan Content Expectations Upon Which Goal Will Be Based List the appropriate GLCE, EGLCE, HSCE, EHSCE, or Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Pre-kindergarten:
Baseline Data: The student is currently ____(data)______ on the _______________(assessment)______________________________. Annual Goal By __(date)__, the student will ___(demonstrate skill)___when/at__(conditions criteria)__on _(assessment/evaluation )__. Short-Term Objective / Benchmark: ____________________________________________________________________ Performance Criteria:________________________________________________________________________________ Evaluation Procedure:_______________________________________________________________________________ Evaluation Schedule:________________________________________________________________________________ Benchmark Level of Attainment Goal Area : Engagement 0 Chris does not participate in discussions in his science and social
studies classes despite having a lot of knowledge about the topics. He does ask questions, but only about the specifics of assignments (e.g. when they are due, how many references he needs, etc.). +1 Utilizing a self-management checklist and no more than 3 visual prompts, Chris will raise his hand and share a key idea during science 2 of 5 opportunities. +2 Utilizing a self-management checklist, Chris will independently raise his hand and share a key idea during science 2 of 5 opportunities. +3 Utilizing a self-management checklist, Chris will independently raise his hand and share a key idea during science and social studies 2 of 5 opportunities. . +4
Utilizing a self-management checklist, Chris will raise his hand and share a key idea during science and social studies 4 of 5 opportunities. Benchmarks Building team: Harmon Student: Phillip Coker Date: Updated 1-12 DOB: May 8, 2002 Level Of Attainment Goal 1: Goal 2: Goal 3: 0
Phillip struggles to maintain attention and focus during academic activities. He requires adult prompting to complete work. Phillip requires adult prompting to follow the classroom routine. He requires adult prompting to complete classroom procedures. Phillip struggles with participating during group activities. He will go to the back of the room and look at books even when prompted to participate. Using a visual routine checklist, Phillip will complete 4 of 8 classroom routines with no more than 3 prompts. Utilizing peer to peer support, Phillip will participate and remain in
a group activity for 5 minutes 2 of 5 group activities. Using a visual routine checklist, Phillip will independently complete 4 of 8 classroom routines. Utilizing peer to peer support, Phillip will participate and remain in a group activity for 5 minutes 4 of 5 activities. Using a visual routine checklist, Phillip will independently complete 7 of 8 classroom routines 2 of 5 days. Utilizing peer to peer support, Phillip will participate and remain in a group activity for 10 minutes 4 of 5 activities. Using a visual routine checklist,
Phillip will independently complete all classroom routines for 4 of 5 days. Utilizing peer to peer support, Phillip will participate and remain in a group activity for 15 minutes 4 of 5 activities. Visuals / Self-Management Peer Mediated Instruction / Peer to Peer Support +1 +2 +3 +4 EBP
Using visual supports (accommodations, modifications, white board), Phillip will complete an academic assignment in science with no more than 3 prompts for 2 of 5 assignments. Using visual supports (accommodations, modifications, white board), Phillip will independently complete an academic assignment in science for 2 of 5 assignments. Using visual supports (accommodations, modifications, white board), Phillip will independently complete academic assignments in science and social studies for 4 of 5 assignments. Using visual supports (accommodations, modifications, white board), Phillip will independently complete academic
assignments in core academic areas for 4 of 5 assignments. Visual Supports (accommodations, modifications, white board) The LRE Question With supplementary aids / services AND / OR Push in ancillary / itinerant / related services can the student make adequate progress on the IEP goals and objectives? If yes, no pull out program / services is needed. NO RESTRICTION GEN ED PLACEMENT. If no, what level of restriction is needed and for what program / related services in order to assure adequate progress on the IEP goals and objective / benchmarks AND more than minimal progress in the general education curriculum. Making LRE Placement Decisions (SPP 5: Educational Environments) General Education 80% or more Special Education pull out <20%
This should be the FIRST consideration for placement. In addition to supplementary aids and services, the IEP team should consider push-in special education services FIRST. Should the student not be able to make adequate progress on IEP goals and objectives WITH supplementary aids and services AND push-in special education services, the IEP team will need consider what amount of time the student must be pulled out in order to make adequate progress. This will determine the LRE.
General Education 40-79% When determining which program is best suited for placement (irrespective of the amount of time the student will spend in the program), the following steps may be helpful: o Develop a list of needs, from the PLAAFP, supplementary aids & services, and goals & objectives; o Develop a list of available programs (e.g. resource room, Emotionally Impaired, Autism, etc.)
o Identif y for each program what needs and supplementary aids & services can or cannot be provided. o Of the programs, which ones are best suited to allow the student to make adequate progress on goals and objectives. o This comparison may assist the IEP team in determining which program is best for placement. o
Consideration should be given to programs near the students home school if the program can meet the students needs. General Education <40% This is the most restrictive placement in a building that also educates students without disabilities. Evidence must exist that WITH supplementary aids and services the student cannot make adequate progress on IEP goals and objectives in a less restrictive setti ng prior to
considering this placement. Programs near the students home school should be considered first if the program can meet the students needs. Separate Facility This is the most restrictive placement and should be considered last. Evidence must exist that WITH supplementary aids and services the student cannot make adequate progress on IEP goals and objectives in a less
restrictive setti ng prior to considering this placement. Programs near the students home school should be considered first if the program can meet the students needs. Implementing the IEP Fidelity Tools Measuring / Probing Progress IEP Implementation Fidelity Plan Student Name:___________________ District / Building:______________________________ IEP Date:_______________ This tool is intended to assist IEP teams in implementing identified universal supports and the IEP with fidelity. It can be used as a guide for staff to know where and when the IEP goals and supplementary aids and services are to be implemented and can be used as an observation tool for conducting implementation fidelity checks. If a Schedule Matrix was completed as a part of the IEP process, it can be used as the foundation for the IEP implementation plan by simply adding the IEP information columns to the already completed Schedule Matrix. Considerations for strong implementation also include developing staff competencies in EPB, providing ongoing training and coaching needed for implementation staff, identifying needed resources, and developing communication
feedback systems for the team. Additionally, specific fidelity checklists for each identified intervention can be developed and used to ensure each intervention or strategy is implemented as it was designed. This tool is intended to be reviewed monthly. Student Schedule Expectations & Instructional Outcomes IEP Goals / Objectives Targeted / Addressed Supports, Strategies, EBPs & Services Implementation Fidelity and Progress Data In this column, list the students daily schedule including all primary
activities, courses/classe s and/or transitions In this column, identify the students expectations & instructional outcomes during this part of the schedule. Expectations and instructional outcomes include: Independence Skills Social Interaction Skills Communication Skills Behavioral Skills Academic Skills including task initiation, engagement, &
output For example, during arrival, the instructional outcomes may include independently taking off outerwear, getting materials ready, taking a seat, and completing morning work. Identify in this column where the IEP goals and/or objectives and benchmarks from the IEP are addressed or targeted within the students schedule. List in the column, all the supplementary aides and services (including universal supports) required to support the student in
making progress on goals and objectives, meeting instructional outcomes, and navigating the environment and participating in instruction as independently as possible. These include but are not limited to: Visual supports / strategies Peer to Peer supports Functional Communication Systems Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Evidence-Based Practices Accommodations / Modifications Behavior Response / Crisis Plan Adult Support (include ONLY if previous supports require teaching or additional adult intervention)-If adult support is required, attach the
Paraprofessional Planning Tool It is critical for IEP teams to do regular checks for evidence of implementation of the IEP and progress toward goals. This column is reserved for implementation fidelity and progress data and should be tailored to the type of data needed to demonstrate progress toward IEP goals and objectives or benchmarks and data needed to demonstrate implementation fidelity. Progress data may include: Frequency / Duration Interval / Scatterplot Records Academic (e.g. CBM) START Engagement, Independence, and Social Interaction Tools Behavior Logs Prompt-Level Data Implementation Fidelity Plans and Data may include:
Fidelity Checklists Staff Training and Coaching Implementation process questions (e.g. is strategy implemented where/when expected? Is staff implementing as described? Is student using the system independently? Is the student making progress using the system?) Each IEP goal and objective or benchmark may be listed more than once in this column as most goals and objectives or benchmarks can be targeted during more than one part of the schedule. SUMMARY and IMPLEMENTATION QUESTIONS / CLARIFICATIONS
Brian Marick Software testing specialist. Marick is an author of the Agile Manifesto that launched the Agile software development movement Early proponent of the Context-Driven school of testing, and author of three books.
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