The Magic is in the Instruction 1 Anita Archer, PhD Teacher, Author, Consultant Portland, Oregon [email protected] www.explicitinstruction.org 2
Outcome Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning 3 Explicit Instruction Explicit teaching is not just the episode within a
lesson when information is presented; it involves chunking content into small components, guiding students initial attempts at working with that content and gradually releasing control into more open activities as students gain mastery. It is a teaching model that progresses from I do to we do to you do. Adam Boxer, Editor 2019 Explicit & Direct Instruction 4 Explicit Instruction
Every day, in every class, in every lesson, we will: 1. Focus on critical content to promote LEARNING. 2. Break down complex strategies into obtainable pieces to ensure LEARNING. 3. Provide quality explicit instruction lessons that yield LEARNING. 4. Actively involve all students in responding throughout the lesson, making LEARNING visible. 5. Carefully monitor students responses, adjusting the lesson as necessary to ensure LEARNING. 6. Provide affirmative feedback (praise) and informative feedback (corrections) to support LEARNING. 7. Provide deliberate practice, spaced practice and retrieval practice to ensure mastery, retention, and LEARNING.
8. Utilize management procedures that support students and teachers, thus facilitating LEARNING. 9. Intentionally establish positive teacher-student relationships that support LEARNING in the classroom. 5 Explicit Instruction 1. Focus on critical content to promote LEARNING. 6
Simple View of Reading Language Comprehens ion Decoding Print Concepts Understand the organization and basic features of print Phonological
Awareness Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes) Decoding Skills Phonics and Word Recognition Know and apply grade-level
phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words Fluency (accuracy, rate, expression) Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension Word
Knowledge (sight vocabulary) Instant and effortless access to all, or almost all, words read Simple View of Reading Language Comprehen sion
Decoding Inferential Language Skills Ability to infer information that is not provided in the text Literal Comprehensi on Skills Ability to answer literal, text- dependent questions
(See IES Practice Guide) Academic Language Skills Formal communication structure and words common in books and school Narrative Language Skills
Ability to clearly relate a series of events Background Knowledge Possesses general and topic-specific background knowledge Academic Vocabulary Ability to comprehend and
use words in formal writing Focus LEARNING on critical content. 9 Explicit Instruction Motto: Teach the stuff and cut the fluff. 10
Explicit Instruction 2. Break down complex strategies into obtainable pieces to ensure LEARNING. 11 Phonological Awareness Phonological Awareness Skills Early o o
o o rhyming alliteration segment words into syllables identify initial sound in word Basic o blending sounds into words o segmenting words into sounds
Advanced o manipulating phonemes o deleting, adding, substituting 12 Phoneme Grapheme Associations Sequence Example Sequence of Phoneme - Grapheme Associations (IES Practice Guide Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade, 2016) Single consonant and vowel letters
amtsifdroglhucbnkvewjpyxqz (Carnine, Silbert, and Kameenui, 1997) Consonant blends bl cl fl gl pl sl cr dr gr pr tr br fr sm sp st sw sc Consonant digraphs th sh ch ph ng tch dge
Long vowels with silent e a-e i-e o-e u-e e-e Two-letter vowel teams (combination of letters standing for single vowel sound) ai ay ea ee ey oa ie igh 13
Decoding Single Syllable Words What Syllable Patterns Syllable Pattern Single Syllable Words Multi-Syllable Words
Closed Syllables VC CVC CCVC CVCC A syllable with a short vowel, spelled with a single vowel letter ending in one or more consonants. am, sat, brat, math rab bit, in sect, nap kin, top ic,
pun ish, kit ten Open Syllables CV CCV A syllable that ends with a long vowel sound, spelled with a single vowel letter. me, he, she, hi no, go, ho pro test, tor na
do, si lent, hu man, ro bot, re lax Silent e CVCe CCVCe A syllable with a long vowel, spelled with one vowel + one mine, cave, ripe, tape, shape, whale,
shine in vite, ex cite, pan cake, man hole, in side, nick name 14 2009, Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling (LETRS), Sopris/Voyager) Syllable Pattern
Single Syllable Words Multi-Syllable Words Vowel Team CVVC CCVVC CVVCC Syllables with long or short vowel spellings that use two to
four letters to spell the vowel. Diphthongs ou/ow and oi/oy are included in this category. rain, mail, deal, clean, speed, scream, least train er, spoil age, mail man, rain bow,
ex haust, pro ceed Vowel-r A syllable with er, ir, or, ar, or ur. Vowel pronunciation often changes before /r/. barn, fern, bird, torn, yard per form, yard
stick, sports man, sur plus, morn ing, dis turb Consonant le An unaccented final syllable that contains a consonant mid dle, pud dle, ma ple, can dle, fid dle, ea 15
18 Explicit Instruction Utilizing explicit instruction procedures. oDemonstration I do it. oGuided Practice We do it. oChecking understanding You do it. 19 Letter Sound Associations Example Introducing the phoneme grapheme
association in isolation a 1. (Point to letter.) This is the letter a. This sound is /aaaa/. 2. Say the sound with me. /aaaa/ 3. What sound? /aaaa/ 20 Example - Continuous Blending Sounding Out VC, CVC, CVCC, CCVC words
sip fit lip tip rim 1. When I touch a letter, Ill say its sound. Ill keep saying the sound until I touch the next letter. I wont stop between sounds. 2. My turn to sound out this word. (Touch under each letter and say the sound. Hold continuous sounds. Say stop sounds quickly. Dont stop between sounds.) 3. Sound out this word with me. (Touch under each letter.) 4. Your turn. Sound out this word by yourselves. (Touch under each letter.)
5. What word? (Glide your finger under the word.) 21 Explicit Instruction I do. We do. You do. I do it. We do it. You do it with partner. You do it.
Motto: How well I teach = How well they learn 22 Explicit Instruction 4. Actively involve all students in responding throughout the lesson, making LEARNING visible. 23
Action Response Procedures Technology Responses Acting out/Simulations Computers, ipads Gestures Clickers, Plickers Facial Expressions Hand Signals Benefits: Rehearse Retrieve Retain - Leaning 24 Explicit Instruction Motto: Learning is not a spectator sport.
25 Explicit Instruction 5. Carefully monitor students responses, adjusting the lesson as necessary to ensure LEARNING. 26 Explicit Instruction Structured
Listen to all Choral Responses Hone in on responses of lower performing students Structured Partner Responses Circulate Look at responses Listen to responses Random Individual
Responses Listen carefully Response Slates Response Cards Hand Signals Look carefully at slates, cards, or hand signals when held up Written
Responses Circulate Look at responses Action Responses Look at responses 27 Explicit Instruction Big Idea 5: Carefully monitor students responses, adjusting the lesson as necessary to ensure LEARNING. Look carefully
Listen carefully Motto: Circulate and monitor Walk around Look around Talk around 28 Explicit Instruction 6.
Provide affirmative feedback (praise) and informative feedback (corrections) to support LEARNING. 29 Explicit Instruction Provide affirmative feedback (praise) and informative feedback (corrections) to support LEARNING Hattie Effect
Size Feedbac .70 k 30 Explicit Instruction 6. Provide affirmative feedback (praise) and informative feedback (corrections) to support LEARNING. Feedback to Individual Students During Lesson
P = Praise - Affirm E = Encourage C = Correct - Inform Tell the answer Guide Student in Application of Strategy or 31 Procedure
Explicit Instruction Big Idea 6. Provide affirmative feedback (praise) and informative feedback (corrections) to support LEARNING. Motto: Affirm and Inform Motto: Feedback feeds back. 32 Explicit Instruction 7. Provide deliberate practice, spaced practice, and retrieval practice to ensure retention and LEARNING.
33 Explicit Instruction 7. Provide deliberate practice, retrieval practice, and spaced practice to ensure retention and LEARNING. Deliberate practice is goal-oriented practice consciously devoted to improvement of a skill. Spaced practice (also known as distributed practice) is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time. Retrieval practice is a learning strategy in which students must retrieve
information from memory. 34 Explicit Instruction 7. Provide deliberate practice, retrieval practice, and spaced practice. Practice Deliberate Practice Retrieval Practice Spaced Practice
Hattie Effect Size 0.79 0.74 0.60 35 Explicit Instruction Big Idea 7: Provide deliberate practice, spaced practice, and retrieval practice to ensure retention and LEARNING. Motto: Perfected practice over time makes perfect and permanent.
36 Explicit Instruction 8. Utilize management procedures that support students and teachers, thus facilitating LEARNING. Create a well-organized safe environment. Teach predictable routines. Predictability predicts ability. Provide clear expectations. What we expect = What we get Provide pre-corrections. If you expect it, pre-correct it. Provide acknowledgement. Catch them being good. Maintain a perky pace. Avoid the void for they will fill it.
37 Explicit Instruction 8. Utilize management procedures that support students and teachers, thus facilitating LEARNING. Behavioral intervention programs Behavioral organizers
Hatties Effect Sizes 0.62 0.42 38 Explicit Instruction 9. Intentionally establish positive teacher-student relationships that support LEARNING in the classroom.
39 Explicit Instruction 9. Intentionally establish positive teacher-student relationships that support LEARNING in the classroom. Teacher-Student Relationship Hatties Effect Sizes 0.52
40 Explicit Instruction Big Idea 9. Intentionally establish positive teacherstudent relationships that support LEARNING in the classroom. Motto: Connect. Connect. Connect. Be kind. Be kind. Be kind. Be kind.
41 Poster 42 How well you teach = How well they learn How well you manage = How well they behave Teach with passion. Manage with compassion. 43
Recommende d Reading Book List Created by Anita Archer for Explicit Instruction Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching Anita L. Archer and Charles A. Hughes Visible Learning A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement
John Hattie Visible Learning and the Science of How We Learn John Hattie Gregory Yates 10 Mindframes for Visible Learning Teaching for Success John Hattie and Klaus Zierer Visible Learning for Science: What Works Best to Optimize Student Learning
John Almarode, Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, John Hattie Clarity for Learning The Essential Practices That Empower Students and Teachers John Almarode Kara Vandas Visible Learning Feedback John Hattie Shirley Clarke
Rosenshines Principles in Action Tom Sherrington Powerful Teaching Unleash the Science of Learning Pooja K. Agarwal Patrice M. Bain Understanding How We Learn: A Visual Guide Yana Weinstein and Megan Sumeracki Embedded Formative Assessment
Dylan Wiliam Creating the Schools Our Children Need Dylan Wiliam Make it Stick The Science of Successful Learning Peter C. Brown Henry L. Roediger III Mark A. McDaniel Why Dont Students Like School?
Daniel T. Willingham Teach Like a Champion 2.0: 62 Techniques that Put Students on the Path to College Doug Lemov Mindset The New Psychology of Success Carol S. Dweck The Hidden Lives of Learners Graham Nuthall
Tackling Attendance Challenges Additional Summaries of Best Practices and Research Practice Guides https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuides Practice Guides. A practice guide is a publication that presents recommendations for educators to address challenges in their classrooms and schools. They are based on reviews of research, the experiences of practitioners, and the expert
opinions of a panel of nationally recognized experts. Additional Summaries of Best Practices and Research Educational Practices Series http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/resources/educational-practices A highly successful series assists practitioners to improve practice through the provision of short publications which present the results of well established bodies of research in easytoread booklets. Titled the Educational Practices Series,
it is coordinated by Stella Vosniadou and is published and distributed through a cooperative arrangement with the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in Switzerland. The booklets may be freely reproduced Thank you May YOU thrive as educators. May your students thrive as learners. May our schools be peaceful, productive
havens for all. May we be kind to ourselves, to our fellow educators, and to the children that we have the gift to teach. 65
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