Ergonomics Slide Presentation

Ergonomics Slide Presentation

Introduction to Ergonomics 10-hour General Industry Outreach Training PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 1 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction Lesson objectives: 1. Identify common work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). 2. Recognize risk factors associated with work-related MSDs. 3. Identify ergonomic control methods for eliminating/reducing work-related

MSDs. PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 2 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction This chart shows how MSDs compare to other hazards based on percentage of injuries and illnesses using statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, FY2014. PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 3 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction

This chart shows the incident rates of musculoskeletal disorders for selected private sector industries. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 4 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction Ergonomics The scientific discipline concerned with understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, methods and data to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 5 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction Ergonomics means fitting the job to the worker, including: Work stations Tools Equipment Ergo = Work Nomos = Law PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 6

Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Introduction Why is ergonomics important? Overexertion leading cause of injuries Most costly Recurring/Persistent pain may develop in future Bodily reaction is another leading cause of injuries in workplace Repetitive motion also within top 10 most common workplace injuries PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 7

Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Common Work-Related MSDs (MSDs) Musculoskeletal Disorders Affect the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments, and tendons Symptoms Discomfort Pain Numbness Loss of motion/flexibility Spasticity Stiff joints PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

Burning Swelling Tingling Inflammation Throbbing Paralysis 8 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Common Work-Related MSDs Common MSD disorders: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Tennis Elbow Bursitis Ischemia De Quervains Sciatica Herniated Discs Neck strain/disability Tendinitis PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics Rotator Cuff Neuritis Reynauds Syndrome Trigger Finger Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Epicondylitis

Back strain/disability 9 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Common Work-Related MSDs Most commonly affected areas: Back Arms, Elbows, and Shoulders Neck Hands, Wrists, and Fingers Knees, Ankles, and Feet PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

This chart shows a distribution of injuries and illnesses to body parts due to MSDs using statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, FY2014. 10 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Common Work-Related MSDs Highest incident rate Highest rate of missed days Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

11 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Risk Factors Associated with MSDs Risk factors of MSD injuries: Dependent upon: Work positions and postures How often task is performed Level of required effort and duration of task PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 12 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Risk Factors Associated with MSDs

Examples of risk factors include: Exerting excessive force Lifting heavy objects/people Pushing or pulling heavy loads Manual pouring materials Maintaining control of equipment or tools Performing same/similar tasks repetitively PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

Source: OSHA 13 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Risk Factors Associated with MSDs Working in awkward postures or same postures for long periods Prolonged/repetitive reaching above shoulder height Kneeling Squatting Leaning over a counter/bending Using a knife with wrists bent Twisting the torso while lifting

Localized pressure into the body part Source: OSHA Pressing the body/part of the body against hard or sharp edges Using the hand as a hammer PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 14 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Risk Factors Associated with MSDs Cold temperatures (in combination with other risk

factors) Vibration Whole body Hand-arm Combined exposure to several risk factors Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 15 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Methods of protecting against MSDs:

Establish ergonomics program Training Feedback from all levels Conduct job hazard analysis (JHAs) Early recognition and reporting of potential MSDs PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 16 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Job Hazard Analysis Tasks Hazards Controls

This table provides an example of a tool that can be used when conducting a job hazard analysis. The first column provides a list of tasks performed by a job; the middle column is provided for listing identified hazards; and, the third column provides a list of controls that can be used to mitigate the hazards. PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 17 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Examples of engineering controls Work station design and setup Ergonomically designed tools

Ergonomically designed equipment Load weight reduction Source: OSHA (International Labor Organization) PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 18 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Examples of proper work practices:

Proper lifting techniques (NIOSH) Team lift heavy/bulky/awkward loads Stretch Work rotation Task variety Increase rest breaks Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 19 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Examples of PPE:

Gripping gloves Knee pads Vibration gloves Thermal gloves Lifting straps Shoulder harness Lifting braces Source of graphics: OSHA

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 20 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Physical ergonomic hazards and solutions: Reaching above the head/shoulders hazards Working with the hands above head for more than 2 hours per day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 21

Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Working with the elbows above shoulders for more than 2 hours per day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 22 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Reaching above the head/shoulders solutions Keep items within close reach Elevate work areas

Source: NIOSH PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics Source: NIOSH Source: OSHA 23 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Reaching above the head/shoulders solutions Remove obstacles Utilize equipment to raise and lower items or move items closer to worker

Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics Source: OSHA Source: NIOSH 24 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward body postures - hazards Working with the neck or back bent forward more than 30 for more than 2 hours per day

Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 25 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Squatting for more than 2 hours per day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 26 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

Ergonomic Control Methods Kneeling for more than 2 hours per day Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 27 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward body postures - solutions Raise and/or tilt the work for better access Use a stool for ground-level work Source: OSHA Source: NIOSH

Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 28 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward body postures - solutions Use tools with longer handles Alternate between bending, kneeling, sitting, and squatting Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics Source: NIOSH

Source: OSHA 29 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward grips - hazards Gripping 10 or more pounds or force for 2 or more hours per day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 30 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward grips - hazards Pinching 2 or more pounds of weight or 4 or more pounds of force for 2 or more hours per day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 31 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Awkward grips - solutions Design work layout to reduce handcarrying

Reduce amount of items carried at one time Use non-pinch grip postures Use ergonomically designed tools/aids Use job/task rotation C shaped posture Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 32 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Repetitive motions - hazards Repeating same motion for more than

two hours per day with hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, or neck Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 33 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Repetitive motions - hazards Intense keying for more than 4 hours per day Source: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

34 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Repetitive motions - solutions Arrange work to avoid unnecessary motions Let power tools and machinery do the work Spread repetitive work out during the day Take stretch pauses Rotate task with co-workers if possible Change hands or motions frequently

Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 35 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Localized pressure on bodyMethods part hazards Pressing the body/part of the body against hard or sharp edges Standing/kneeling for prolonged periods on hard surfaces Using tools with hard handle surfaces or

short handles Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 36 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Localized pressure on body part - hazards Using hands/knees as a hammer more than 10 times in 1 hour or more than 2 times per day (long-term) Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

37 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Localized pressure on body Methods part solutions Use tools with longer handles Use tools with padded grips Alternate between bending, kneeling, sitting, and squatting; use sit/stand stools or tables Source of graphics: OSHA

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 38 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Localized pressure on body part solutions Pad table edges or use tables/desktops with rounded edges Use wrist rests, anti-fatigue mats, knee pads, shoe inserts or other items that reduce stress on body parts Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 39

Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting objects - hazards Lifting more than 75 lbs. once/day 55 lbs. ten times/day 10 lbs. more than twice/minute or for more than 2 hours/day 25 lbs. above shoulders, below knees, or at arms length more than 25 times/day Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 40

Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting objects - hazards Heavy, frequent, and awkward lifting Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 41 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting - solutions Managing for safer lifting

Plan lifts Minimize lifting distances Position materials to power zone levels Avoid manually lifting/lowering loads to/from floor Identify/reduce unstable or heavy loads Reduce frequency of lifting and duration of lifting tasks Provide clear access Source of graphics: NIOSH PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 42 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting - solutions Employee guidelines for safer lifting Stretch before lifting Check for tags on loads Test load for stability and weight Plan the lift Use proper lifting techniques grip; two hands; smooth, even motions; load close to body; legs to

push up and lift load; avoid twisting; alternate with less physically demanding tasks; rest breaks Get assistance when necessary Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 43 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting - solutions Use proper lifting techniques Caution: This technique may be effective

only if loads are small, lightweight, and can easily fit between the knees. Keep the load close to your body and lift by pushing up with your legs. Source: NIOSH PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 44 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Lifting - solutions Use proper lifting techniques

Lean the sack onto your kneeling leg. Slide the sack up onto your kneeling leg. Slide the sack onto the other leg while keeping the sack close to your body. As you stand up, keep the sack close to your body. Source: NIOSH

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 45 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Vibration hazards Moderate more than 2 hours per day High more than 30 minutes per day Prolonged Source of graphics: OSHA PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 46 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

Ergonomic Control Methods Vibration solutions Use low-vibration tools and devices that may reduce vibration (tool balancers, extension handles, vibration isolators, damping techniques) Adequate rest periods Rotate jobs Maintenance PPE Source of graphics: OSHA

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 47 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Ergonomic Control Methods Environmental ergonomic hazards: Amplify/increase risk of MSDs Examples Hot weather Cold weather affects worker coordination and dexterity High-temperature indoor (steam rooms, attics) Cold-temperature indoor (walk-in freezers, cold process rooms) Low visibility

PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 48 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Employer/Employee Requirements General Duty Clause Each Employer: 1. Shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees; 2. Shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.

Each Employee: 1. Shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct. PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 49 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Employee/Employer Requirements Report signs or symptoms if: Pain is persistent, severe or worsening Pain radiates Symptoms include numbness or tingling

Symptoms keep you from sleeping at night Fingers blanch or turning white PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 50 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Employee/Employer Requirements Getting involved:

Look at jobs Come up with solutions Work with solutions Take part in training Take responsibility for changing the way you do your job Help to make sure efforts are successful PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 51 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Five Key Points to Remember Ergonomics can help you on your job WMSDs can happen in jobs with risk

factors Risk factors can be reduced and WMSDs prevented Reporting signs and symptoms early is important You can help your company put ergonomics changes into place PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 52 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Knowledge Check 1. Ergonomics is the science of ___. a. b. c.

d. designing the job to fit the worker fitting the worker to the job lifting injuries safety and health Answer: a. designing the job to fit the worker PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 53 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Knowledge Check 2. MSDs account for approximately ___ of all injuries and illnesses.

a. b. c. d. 1% 10% 33% 54% Answer: c. 33% PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 54 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Knowledge Check

3. Which of the following is an example of an ergonomic risk factor? a. Neutral postures b. Rest c. Repetition d. Personal protective equipment Answer: c. Repetition PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 55 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup Knowledge Check 4. Ergonomic hazards can be prevented or reduced by which of the following

control methods? a. Engineering controls b. Proper work practices/administrative controls c. Personal protective equipment d. All of the above Answer: d. All of the above PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics 56 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup What questions do you have? Thank You PPT 10-hr. General Industry Ergonomics

57 Created by OTIEC Outreach Resources Workgroup

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