ESD ESD BASICS BASICS Basic Concepts in ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) Copyright 2005 DESCO INDUSTRIES INC. 9/05 Introduction ESD Control Training Per ANSI/ESD S20.20 Training
Plan Requirement, "Initial and recurrent ESD awareness and prevention training shall be provided to all personnel ProtektivePak.com Safety Safety First - Concern WHEN Working Around High Voltage As important as ESD control is, it is of secondary importance compared to employee safety When working with voltages over 250 VAC, ESD personnel grounding should not be used including Wrist Straps, ESD Footwear & Garments
Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and other safety protection should be considered wherever personnel might come into contact with electrical sources. ProtektivePak.com Introduction The written ESD Control Plan should be in accordance with ANSI/ESD S20.20 100 volt Human Body Model limit as a large majority of the ESD products greater than 100 volt sensitivity ESD Association wrote commercial version of MIL-STD1686 for US Department of Defense which has adopted it ESD training should be repeated as specified in the companys written ESD Control Plan
Quizzes in Awareness Guide could be objective evaluation technique to ensure trainee comprehension and training adequacy. ProtektivePak.com Static Electricity OR Electrostatic Charge Defined as Electric charge at rest All Materials Tribocharge ElectroStatic Charge Generation or Tribocharging When 2 Surfaces in Contact then Separate Some Atom Electrons Move Causing Imbalance
ProtektivePak.com All Materials Tribocharge ElectroStatic Charge Generation: One Surface Has Positive Charge & One Surface Has Negative Charge Radio static Build up charge walking on carpet, sliding across car seat When weather is cold and dry Problem when moves ProtektivePak.com
Charge Generation or Tribocharging When two materials make contact and are then separated, a transfer of electrons from one material to the other may take place. The amount of static electricity generated depends upon the materials subjected to contact or separation, friction, the area of contact or separation, and the relative humidity of the environment. At lower relative humidity, as the environment is drier, charge generation will increase significantly. Common plastics generally will create the greatest static charges. ProtektivePak.com
ESD ESD or or ElectroStatic ElectroStatic Discharge Discharge Charges Seek Balance Discharge is Rapid Creating Heat If two items are at different electrostatic charge levels, as they
approach one another, a spark or Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can occur. This rapid, spontaneous transfer of electrostatic charge can generate heat and melt circuitry in electronic components. ProtektivePak.com Examples Of Electrostatic Discharge or ESD Lightning
Zap from a door There are innumerable ESD events occurring which you do not see or feel. ESD is the hidden enemy in a high tech manufacturing environment. ProtektivePak.com Photo of ESD arcing from finger to component This is not a computer simulation. Technician was connected to a small magneto. Photos courtesy of Hi-Rel Laboratories,
Inc., Spokane, WA ProtektivePak.com Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of the ESD damage after removal of the capacitor metallization. Note the characteristic eruption thru the oxide. Magnification is 10,500 times. Photos courtesy of of Hi-Rel Laboratories, Inc., Spokane, WA ProtektivePak.com
Two Two Types Types of of Materials Materials Conductors Conductors Electrical Current Flows Easily So Can be Grounded Examples: metals, carbon and people (due to impurities the human body's sweat layer) Materials that are called dissipative are
conductors, able to remove electrostatic charges to ground. The resistance of dissipative materials is the higher portion of the conductive range. ProtektivePak.com Two Two Types Types of of Materials Materials Insulators Insulators Insulators or Non-Conductors
Electrical Current Does Not Flow Easily So Cannot be Grounded Example: Plastics, glass, and dry air Insulators like this plastic cup will hold the charge and cannot be grounded and "conduct" the charge away. ProtektivePak.com Typical Typical ElectroStatic
ElectroStatic Voltages Voltages Walking across a carpet: 1,500 - 35,000 volts Walking over untreated vinyl floor: 250 - 12,000 volts Vinyl envelope used for work instructions: 600 - 7,000 volts Worker at a bench: 700 - 6,000 volts Unwinding regular tape:
9,000 - 15,000 volts Higher number is generated at low humidity ProtektivePak.com Costly Costly Effects Effects Of Of ESD ESD People Discharge Frequently But to Feel a Discharge it must be about 2,000 volts
ProtektivePak.com ESD ESD That That aa Person Person Cant Cant Feel Feel Can Can Easily Easily Damage Damage Electronic Electronic Components
Components Even less than100 volts might damage a component! ProtektivePak.com ESD is The Hidden Enemy Consider all electronic components ESD sensitive Program may identify classification of sensitivity to ESD damage Newer electronic components can have reduced width
of circuits and microscopic spacing of insulators within them, increasing their sensitivity to ESD ESD damage cannot be seen by the naked eye ProtektivePak.com Optical photo of a large Integrated Circuit which has experienced ESD damage to the pin noted by the arrow. Photos courtesy of of Hi-Rel Laboratories, Inc., Spokane, WA ProtektivePak.com
Higher magnification photo of pin noted by the arrow in the prior slide This taken at 400 times magnification on a 4" X 5" photo. The damage is noted as the "fuzz" at the end of the arrow. Photos courtesy of of Hi-Rel Laboratories, Inc., Spokane, WA ProtektivePak.com Now you see it!! Overlying glassivation has been removed and the surface decorated to show the ESD damage at 5,000 times magnification in this scanning electron micrograph.
Photos courtesy of of Hi-Rel Laboratories, Inc., Spokane, WA ProtektivePak.com Types Types Of Of ESD ESD Device Device Damage Damage
Catastrophic Failures Inspection is able to detect failure Latent Defect Component wounded but Inspection passes as good ProtektivePak.com
Latent Defects More Costly Sub Assembly passes inspection Assembly passes inspection Product passes inspection Works a while for customer Then Upsets & Mysterious Problems More Returns More Warranty Costs Lower Customer Satisfaction ProtektivePak.com
Repair Costs Increase if Failure Detected Later One study indicated the repair cost to be: $10 Device $10 Device in board - $100 $10 Device in board and in system - $1,000 $10 Device and system fails - $10,000 Catastrophic failures are detected during inspection but components with latent defects pass as good ProtektivePak.com Latent Defects
Most Frustrating Pass inspection as good May fail later Cause equipment down time Costly field repair work Adversely impacting customer satisfaction Hidden Enemy ESD damage may occur Cannot be felt Cannot be seen Not detected through normal inspection procedures ProtektivePak.com
Like Germs, ESD Is The Hidden Enemy erilization in medicine Control Germs Control ESD You would never consider having surgery in a contaminated operating room, you should never handle electronic assemblies without taking adequate protective measures against ESD
ProtektivePak.com The Prerequisites of ESD Control Identify ESD Protected Area Identify ESD sensitive items Provide ESD control training ProtektivePak.com The Basics Of ESD Control Ground Conductors Remove or Neutralize
Insulators with Ionizers Shield ESDS when Stored or Transported outside EPA ProtektivePak.com Ground Conductors Including People Personnel Grounding Devices Wrist Straps Snug on skin
Clean Cord connected to ground Foot Grounders Grounding tab under foot Worn on both feet Contact to ESD floor ProtektivePak.com Daily Test Personnel Grounding Devices Wrist Straps Must work, so test wrist strap daily
(or use continuous monitors) Foot Grounders Must work, so test foot grounder daily ProtektivePak.com Workstation Grounding Devices Dissipative Worksurfaces Ground ESD worksurface via ground cord to common point ground to equipment ground Conductive Floor Mats
Ground ESD floor mats via ground cord to equipment ground ProtektivePak.com Clean Using Only ESD Cleaners Dissipative WorkSurfaces You should be aware of the type of work surfaces
and flooring materials used by your company Be sure to keep your work surface clean, and follow the maintenance procedures recommended by the manufacturer Regular cleaners contain silicone, an insulator ProtektivePak.com Neutralize Insulators Via Ionization Insulators Cannot be grounded Ionizer air flow floods area with Ions - Neutralizing Charge
ProtektivePak.com Direct Ionizer Air Flow to ESD Sensitive Items Ionizers produce positively and negatively charged ions Fans airflow to cover the work area Ionization can reduce static charges on an insulator or isolated conductors ProtektivePak.com Types of Ionizers Bench Top Ionizers Neutralizing Air Nozzles / Hand Gun
Overhead Ionizers Neutralize charges on insulators and isolated conductors Ionizers require periodic cleaning of emitter pins If out of balance (or voltage offset) they can charge items ProtektivePak.com Shield ESD Sensitive Items Outside Protected Area Faraday Cage effect charges to be conducted on surface of the conductor.
Since like charges repel, charges will rest on the exterior. Charges Kept on Outside of Package: Closed Metallized Shielding Bag Covered In-plant Handler ProtektivePak.com ESD Packaging Electrostatic discharge shield "A barrier or enclosure that limits the passage of current and attenuates an electromagnetic field resulting from an
electrostatic discharge." ESD bags should be closed and containers have lids in place ESD packaging only be opened at an ESD protective workstation by properly grounded personnel. ProtektivePak.com ESD Protected Workstations An ESD protective workstation is an area that has been established to effectively control electrostatic charges. Grounding all conductors (including people)
Removing all insulators Or neutralizing process essential insulators with an ionizer ProtektivePak.com ESD Protected Products Best Practice Remove Insulator or Change to ESD Version
ESD Garments and Gloves Conductive Foam & Shunt Bars Dissipative Binders & Document Protectors Conductive & Dissipative Flooring ESD Packaging, bags, boxes, etc. Antistatic or Low Charging Tape ESD Carpeting, Tiles, etc. Dissipative Floor Finishes Material Handling Containers
ProtektivePak.com You Are On The Front Lines Fighting The Hidden Enemy Only allow trained or escorted people in EPA Ground all conductors including people at ESD
workstation Test wrist straps at least daily, or use continuous monitors Test ESD footwear at least daily, if used ProtektivePak.com You Are On The Front Lines Fighting The Hidden Enemy Visually check all grounding
cords to make sure they are connected Handle unpacked ESDS items only when grounded Keep wristband snug, foot grounder grounding tab in shoe, and ESD smocks buttoned up ProtektivePak.com You Are On The Front Lines Fighting The Hidden Enemy Make sure Ionizers are maintained and air flow directed at ESDS
items Use shielded packaging for shipping or storing ESD sensitive items outside the ESD Protected Area ProtektivePak.com
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